- Standard Model (cryptography)
In

cryptography the**standard model**is the model of computation in which the adversary is only limited by the amount of time and computational power available. Other names used are**bare model**and**plain model**.Cryptographic schemes are usually based on complexity assumptions, which state that some problem, e.g.

factorization , cannot be solved inpolynomial time . Schemes which can be proven secure using only complexity assumptions are said to be secure in the standard model. Security proofs are notoriously difficult to achieve in the standard model, so in many proofs, cryptographic primitives are replaced by idealized versions. The most usual example of this technique, known as therandom oracle model [*cite conference*] [

author =Mihir Bellare

coauthors =Phillip Rogaway

title = Random Oracles are Practical: A Paradigm for Designing Efficient Protocols

booktitle = ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security

pages = 62-73 | publisher = ACM

date = 1993

url = http://www.cs.ucsd.edu/users/mihir/papers/ro.html

accessdate = 2007-11-01*cite conference*] , involves replacing a cryptographic hash function with a genuinely random function. Another example is the

author =Ran Canetti

coauthors =Oded Goldreich andShai Halevi

title = The Random Oracle Methodology Revisited

booktitle = Proceedings of the thirtieth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing

pages = 209-218

publisher = ACM

date = 1998

url = http://eprint.iacr.org/1998/011

accessdate = 2007-11-01generic group model [*cite conference*] [

author =Victor Shoup

title = Lower bounds for discrete logarithms and related problems

conference = Advances in Cryptology – Eurocrypt ’97

booktitle = Lecture Notes in Computer Science

volume = 1233

pages = 256-266

publisher = Springer-Verlag

date = 1997

url = http://www.shoup.net/papers/evalbound.pdf

format = pdf

accessdate = 2007-11-01*cite conference*] , where the adversary is given access to a randomly chosen encoding of a group, instead of the

author =Ueli Maurer

title = Abstract models of computation in cryptography

conference = 10th IMA Conference On Cryptography and Coding

booktitle = Lecture Notes in Computer Science

volume = 2796

pages = 1-12

publisher = Springer-Verlag

date = 2005

url = ftp://ftp.inf.ethz.ch/pub/crypto/publications/Maurer05.pdf

format = pdf

accessdate = 2007-11-01finite field or elliptic curve groups used in practice.Other models used invoke trusted third parties to perform some task without cheating -- for example, the

public key infrastructure (PKI) model requires acertificate authority , which if it were dishonest, could produce fake certificates and use them to forge signatures, or mount aman in the middle attack to read encrypted messages. Other examples of this type are thecommon random string model and thecommon reference string model , where it is assumed that all parties have access to some string chosen uniformly at random or a string chosen according to some other probability distribution respectively. These models are often used forNon-interactive zero-knowledge proof s (NIZK). In some applications, such as the Dolev-Dwork-Naor encryption scheme [*cite conference*] , it makes sense for a particular party to generate the common reference string, while in other applications, the common reference string must be generated by a trusted third party. Collectively, these models are referred to as models with special setup assumptions.

author =Danny Dolev

coauthors =Cynthia Dwork andMoni Naor

title = Non-Malleable Cryptography

booktitle = Proceedings of the Twenty Third Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing

pages = 542-552

publisher = ACM

date = 1991**References****ee also***

Random oracle

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