Republic of Connaught


Republic of Connaught

Infobox Former Country
conventional_long_name = Provisional Government of the Province of Connaught
"Rialtas Sealadach Chúige Connachta"
common_name = Connaught
continent = Europe
region = British Isles
country = Ireland
era = Napoleonic Wars
status = Client state
status_text = French Directory Client state
empire = France
government_type = Republic
event_start = Establishment
year_start = 1798
date_start = August 27
event_end = Dissolution
year_end = 1798
date_end = September 8
p1 = Kingdom of Ireland
flag_p1 = Flag_President_of_Ireland.svg
s1 = Kingdom of Ireland
flag_s1 = Flag_President_of_Ireland.svg





flag_type = Flag of the Province of Connaught
capital = Castlebar, County Mayo
leader1 = John Moore

The Irish Republic more commonly referred to as the Republic of Connaught was a short-lived Irish breakaway puppet state established with French Directory military support for a few weeks during the Irish Rebellion of 1798.

Proclamation

Below is an excerpt from the proclamation of General Humbert, the French General who led the French and Irish armed forces in the short-lived Republic. The proclamation was made on 22 August 1798, the day the General first landed in County Mayo, Ireland: [ [http://www.iol.ie/~fagann/1798/conaught.htm 1798 Rebellion Website] ] quotation

LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY, UNION -

After several unsuccessful attempts, behold at last Frenchmen arrived amongst you...

Brave Irishmen, our cause is common. Like you we hold as indefeasible the right of all nations to liberty. Like you we are persuaded that the peace of the world shall ever be troubled as long as the British ministry is suffered to make with impunity a traffic of the industry and blood of the people . . .

Union, Liberty, the Irish Republic! Such is our shout. Let us march. Our hearts are devoted to you; our glory is in your happiness.

The above decree refers to an Irish Republic, not a Republic of Connaught. Hence, strictly speaking, it appears to be incorrect to refer to any formal establishment of a "Republic of Connaught". Instead, an "Irish Republic" had been proclaimed. On 31 August 1798, General Humbert proclaimed the establishment of a government for one of the provinces of the Irish Republic, Connaught. Humbert also selected John Moore as the President of the Government of the Province of Connaught. Nevertheless, as civil or political appointments were not made for any other province except Connaught, the "Republic of Connaught" is the name for the 1798 "Irish Republic" that has long been commonly used.

Events

There was little effective government, given the state's brief and troubled existence. Whether it was ever recognised by France is unknown: the French supported the United Irish who aimed to establish an island-wide republic. Some of the principle events in the short lived Republic were the following:
* the Battle of Castlebar on 27 August 1798 at which the French and Irish forces defeated the British forces in the town of Castlebar;
* the establishment of a Government of the Province of Connaught on 31 August 1798 with John Moore as its President;
* the Battle of Ballinamuck on 8 September 1798 at which the French and Irish were effectively defeated and the French forces surrendered; and
* the final defeat on 23 September 1798 when rebels in Cill Ala, having made a last stand against General Trench and the British forces, were defeated.

Overview

Although achieving a spectacular victory, the losses of the French and Irish were high, losing about 150 men, mostly to the cannonade at the start of the battle. The British suffered over 350 casualties of which about 80 were killed, the rest either wounded or captured, including perhaps 150 who joined the rebels. Following the victory, thousands of volunteers flocked to join the French who also sent a request to France for reinforcements.

Ultimately defeated by Cornwallis at the Battle of Ballinamuck the republic ceased to exist and the Kingdom of Ireland was later absorbed into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801.

Though seemingly an anecdotal episode in modern Irish and British history, it was remembered locally as a landmark event and part of the heritage of "The Year of the French". [Guy Beiner, "Remembering the Year of the French: Irish Folk History and Social Memory" (University of Wisconsin Press, 2007)]

See also

Wexford Rebellion

Notes

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