- Jonkonnu parades
Jonkonnu, Junkanoo Jonkanoo, Jankunu, John Canoe or Johnkankus is a musical street masquerade, believed to be of
West African origin, which occurs in many towns across the Caribbeanevery December 26and New Year's Day. The largest parade, Junkanoo, happens in Nassau, the capital of the Bahamas.
The etymology is disputed, but the celebration may have been named for a West African chieftain or shaman among the Papaws or Popos tribes of
West Africain the early 1700's. Recorded names have included "King John Conny", "Prince Jean Konnu" and "dzon'ku nu" (an African sorcerer persona plus "nu" meaning "man"). Brought to the Americas in the slave trade the tradition survived during the slave off days of Christmas night and New Years.The practice bears great resemblance to Pre-Christian European animistor " mumming" traditions that survived into the 19th century as Christmas traditions. A notable survivor being the Celtic Wren day. Both the Jonkonnu traditions and the Mummer's involved covering the face in soot or ash, dressing in fanciful animal like garments such as the Cow Head and the Hobby Horse, and parading the streets with music before dawn on December 26th. The soot or ash has since been interpreted by many as representing race and has also been frowned upon in some cultures.
Junkanoo in the Bahamas
The Junkanoo street
parade, occurs in many towns across The Bahamasevery December 26and New Year's Day. The largest Junkanoo parade happens in Nassau, the capital.
December 26th, Junkanoo groups "rush" from midnight until shortly after dawn, to the music of cowbells, in
costumes made from cardboard covered in tiny shreds of colourful crepe paper, competing for cash prizes.
Major musical groups involved in the Nassau Junkanoo have included The Saxons, The Valley Boys, The Roots,
One Familyand as of late the Prodigal Sons. Groups of the past included the Vikings and Music Makers.
A Junkanoo parade is featured in sequences of the
James Bondfilm "Thunderball" that occur in Nassau. The celebration was staged specifically for the movie since it was filmed at the wrong time of year, but local residents were enthusiastic, creating elaborate floats and costumes and involving hundreds of people. The parade was also featured in " After the Sunset" and " Jaws The Revenge".
Junkanoo is also a fruit-flavored soda produced by
PepsiCoand is only available in The Bahamas, and also a modernized style of music sung by Bahamian band Baha Men.
Wanaragua) in Belize
Belize, Jankunu is a satirical dance where individuals dress like colonial slave masters and dance off beat to a fast tempo drum 4/4 beat. Because of a thin mustache and black hair, the mask of what is most likely Spaniardis worn. The dance is associated with Garifunaculture, however Belizean kriol peoples, and East Indians participate in the practice.
Jonkonnu in Jamaica
Jonkonnu, or Jonkanoo (John Canoe) is parade that links music, dance, symbols andmime. It is a Jamaican
traditional danceform of African descent.Typically Jamaican’s would parade in the streets and enact mime-styleplays. This folk form has gone through many stages off development untiltoday when it is rarely performed on the island. In the early stages therewas the introduction and adaptation of the celebratory parade, then in the1770’s the European influence developed (set girls); after emancipationthe British influence was more obvious. Today, Jonkonnu is only seen atcultural fairs and in very rural parts of the island.
festivalis secular in nature and used to be performed atChristmas. It was the festive opportunity afforded to the slavesby the planterclass, Christmaswas one of the few times that slaves wererelieved of their duties.
The Characters :Core participants;Pitchy patchy,The cowhead,The horsehead,The devil,
The characters parade through the streets in very elaborate costumes; theyare attired costumed with head dresses, masks, pitch forks (devil), batons(police), fans (set girls) and any other paraphernalia that is necessaryto complete the character.
There basic jonkonnu steps that are done and each character has asignature movement. E.g
Pitchy Patchy – turns, cartwheels, large movements in circular patterns.
Belly woman - moves belly in time with the music
John Canoe in North Carolina
The practice was once common in coastal
North Carolina, where it was called John Canoe, John Koonah, or John Kooner.It may have influenced the Gulf Coast Mardis Gras.
Historian Stephen Nissenbaum describes the ritual as it was performed in 19th-century North Carolina:
Nissenbaum likened john canoe to the
wassailingtradition of medieval Britain, seeing in both a ritualized inversion of the established social hierarchythat provides, simultaneously, a temporary suspension and powerful reaffirmation of that hierarchy. Wassailing performed this inversion along the axis of social class, whereas the 19th-century American version of John Canoe performed it along the axis of race. Both John Canoe and Wassailing bear strong resemblance to the social inversion rituals that marked the ancient Roman celebration of Saturnalia.
"John Canoe" is also the name of a track recorded by the LeBeha drummers of
Belize, who perform traditional Garifuna music.
*1984 - "Caribbean Crucible". From "Repercussions: A Celebration of African-American Music" series, program 6. Directed by Dennis Marks and Geoffrey Haydon.
*1990 - "Before Reggae Hit the Town". Directed by Mark Gorney.
junkanoofestival of the Bahamas
jonkanoofestival of Jamaica
* Nissenbaum, Stephen. "The Battle for Christmas". New York: Vintage Books, 1997.
* [http://www.black-collegian.com/african/johnkankus1299.shtml Origins of jonkanoo]
* http://housser.ca/vr/junkanoo/?id=dawn 360-degree virtual reality panoramic photograph above the street during Nassau's Junkanoo on New Years Day, 2007]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Winter solstice — This article is about the astronomical and cultural event of winter solstice, also known as midwinter. For other uses, see Winter solstice (disambiguation), Midwinter (disambiguation) or also see Solstice. UTC Date and Time of Solstice year… … Wikipedia
Junkanoo — is a street parade with music, which occurs in many towns across The Bahamas every Boxing Day (December 26) and New Year s Day. The largest Junkanoo parade happens in Nassau, the capital.Junkanoo was celebrated in various parts of the Americas,… … Wikipedia
Mummers Parade — A group of comic mummers in the 2005 parade The Mummers Parade is held each New Year s Day in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Local clubs (usually called New Years Associations ) compete in one of four categories (Comics, Fancies, String Bands, and… … Wikipedia
Jonkanoo — (also spelled Jonkonnu or John Canoe) is a masquerade festival/parade from Jamaica, believed to be of West African origin. It is traditionally performed through the streets during the Christmas period, and involves participants dressed in a… … Wikipedia
Ямайка — У этого термина существуют и другие значения, см. Ямайка (значения). Ямайка Jamaica … Википедия
Wren Day — also known as Wren s day, Hunt the Wren Day or The Hunting of the Wrens ( ga. Lá an Dreoilín) is celebrated on December 26, St. Stephen s Day, on the Isle of Man, Ireland and Wales. The tradition consists of hunting a fake wren, and putting it on … Wikipedia
Parrandas — are a traditional carnival like street party with origins date back to the 18th century. They take place in northern cities of the Villa Clara province in Cuba. Most famous parrandas are celebrated in Remedios colonial city. Second by Camajuani… … Wikipedia
December 2009 — was the 12th month of that year. It began on a Tuesday and ended 31 days later on a Thursday. It was the last month of the 2000s decade. International holidays (See Holidays and observances, on sidebar at right, below) Portal:Current events This… … Wikipedia
Christmas — Day redirects here. For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation) and Christmas Day (disambiguation). Christmas … Wikipedia
Yule log — For other uses, see Yule log (disambiguation). An illustration of people collecting a yule log from Chambers Book of Days (1832) p. 736 A Yule log is a large and extremely hard log which is burned in the hearth as a part of traditional Yule or… … Wikipedia