1793


1793

Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar).

Events of 1793

January - June


* January 2 - Russia and Prussia partition Poland.
* January 9 - Jean-Pierre Blanchard becomes the first to fly in a gas balloon in the United States.
* January 21 - After being found guilty of treason by the French Convention, "Citizen Capet", (i.e., Louis XVI of France) is guillotined.
* February 1 - France declares war on Great Britain, the Netherlands and Spain (see French Revolutionary Wars).
* February 25 - George Washington holds the first Cabinet meeting as President of the United States.
* February 27 - The Giles resolutions are introduced to the United States House of Representatives, asking the House to condemn Alexander Hamilton's handling of loans.
* March 1 - John Langdon becomes President Pro Tempore of the United States Senate until March 3.
* March 4 - George Washington is sworn in as President of the United States in Philadelphia, for his second term.
* March 5 - French troops are defeated by Austrian forces and Liège is recaptured.
* March 7 - France declares war on Spain.
* March 18 - The first republican state in Germany, the Republic of Mainz, is declared by Andreas Joseph Hofmann.
* April 1 - The Unsen volcano erupts in Japan and causes an earthquake; about 53,000 are killed.
* April 6 - The Committee of Public Safety is established in France with Georges Danton as its head.
* April 22 - George Washington signs the Neutrality Proclamation.
* May 31 - Regular troops under François Hanriot demand that the Girondins be expelled from the national convention.
* June - George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney reaches Canton.
* June 2 - The Girondins are overthrown.
* June 10 - The Jardin des Plantes and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle are created by the National Convention. The museum opens in Paris the following year and also becomes the first public zoo.

July - December


* July 9 - The Act Against Slavery is passed in Upper Canada.
* July 13 - Charlotte Corday kills Jean-Paul Marat in his bath.
* July 17 - Charlotte Corday is executed.
* July 22 - Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Euro-American to complete a transcontinental crossing north of Mexico.
* July 29 - John Graves Simcoe decides to build a fort and settlement at Toronto, having sailed into the bay there.
* August 10 - French Revolution - Feast of Unity: Crowds in Paris burn monarchist emblems.
* August 23 - The following universal conscription decree is enacted in France: "The young men shall go to battle and the married men shall forge arms. The women shall make tents and clothes and shall serve in the hospitals; children shall tear rags into lint. The old men will be guided to the public places of the cities to kindle the courage of the young warriors and to preach the unity of the Republic and the hatred of kings."
* September 5 - In France, the French National Convention votes to implement terror measures to repress 'counter-revolutionary' activities. The ensuing "Reign of Terror" lasts until the spring of 1794 and causes the deaths of 35,000-40,000 people.
* October 12 - The cornerstone of Old East, the oldest state university building in the United States, is laid in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, on the campus of the University of North Carolina (the 12th of October is now celebrated at the University as University Day).
* October 14 - The trial of Marie Antoinette begins.
* October 15 - Marie Antoinette is condemned to death.
* October 16 - Marie Antoinette is executed.
* October 24 - The French Revolutionary Calendar begins.
* October 28 - Eli Whitney applies for a patent for his cotton gin (the patent is granted the following March).
* October 31 - Arrested Girondist leaders are executed in France, by guillotine.
* November 8 - In Paris, the French Revolutionary government opens the Louvre to the public as a museum.
* December 8 - Madame du Barry is executed.
* December 9 - New York City's first daily newspaper, the "American Minerva", is established by Noah Webster.
* December 18 - French forces under Dugommier capture Toulon from royalists and British forces under Vice Admiral Lord Hood. The British fire the dockyards and take 16 ships, one of which is "HMS Lutine", a famous treasure ship.

Undated

* The British admiralty begins supplying citrus juice to Navy ships to prevent scurvy.
* Claude Chappe presents his semaphore in France; 15 stations are built within a year.
* In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania more than 4,000 die from yellow fever.
* Roman Catholicism is banned in France.
* The First Coalition against France is formed.
* The Holy Roman Empire declares war on France.
* The first year of regular production begins for the United States Mint.
* Construction begins on the United States Capitol building.
* Niccolò Paganini debuts as a violin virtuoso at age 11.
* The French Republican Calendar is first used.
* The metric system is adopted in France.
* As part of their campaign against France, the British invade Haiti and take all of its coastal cities.

Ongoing events

* French Revolution (1789-1799)
* French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802)-First Coalition

Births


* January 3 - Lucretia Mott, American women's rights activist and abolitionist (d. 1880)
* January 14 - John C. Clark, American politician (d. 1852)
* March 2 - Sam Houston, President of the Republic of Texas (d. 1863)
* March 3 - William Charles Macready, English actor (d. 1873)
* March 4 - Karl Lachmann, German philologist (d. 1851)
* March 6 - William Dick, founder of Edinburgh Veterinary College (d. 1866)
* April 19 - Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria (d. 1875)
* June 1 - Augustus Earle, artist (d. 1838)
* June 6 - Edward C. Delevan, American temperance movement leader (d. 1871)
* September 25 - Felicia Hemans, British poet (d. 1835)
* November 3 - Stephen F. Austin, American pioneer (d. 1836)

: "See also ."

Deaths


* January 26 - Francesco Guardi, Italian painter (b. 1712)
* January 21 - King Louis XVI of France (executed) (b. 1754)
* February 1 - William Wildman Shute Barrington, British statesman (b. 1717)
* February 6 - Carlo Goldoni, Italian playwright (b. 1707)
* March 2 - Carl Gustaf Pilo, Swedish-born artist
* March 4 - Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, duc de Penthièvre, French admiral (b. 1725)
* March 20 - William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, Scottish judge and politician (b. 1705)
* March 26 - John Mudge, English physician and inventor (b. 1721)
* April 15 - Ignacije Szentmartony, Croatian Jesuit missionary and geographer (b. 1718)
* April 29
**Yechezkel Landau, Polish rabbi and Talmudist (b. 1713)
**John Michell, English scientist (b. 1724)
* May 3 - Martin Gerbert, German theologian and historian (b. 1720)
* May 7 - Pietro Nardini, Italian composer (b. 1722)
* May 20 - Charles Bonnet, Swiss naturalist (b. 1720)
* June 26 - Gilbert White, English ornithologist (b. 1720)
* July 13 - Jean-Paul Marat, Swiss-born French Revolutionary leader (assassinated) (b. 1743)
* July 17 - Charlotte Corday, French assassin of Jean-Paul Marat (executed) (b. 1768)
* July 23 - Roger Sherman, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1721)
* August 22 - Louis, 4th duc de Noailles, Marshal of France (b. 1713)
* August 28 - Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine, French general (executed) (b. 1740)
* October 7 - Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire, English politician (b. 1718)
* October 8 - John Hancock, American patriot and businessman (b. 1737)
* October 9 - Jean Joseph Marie Amiot, French Jesuit missionary (b. 1718)
* October 16 - Marie Antoinette, Queen of France (executed) (b. 1755)
* October 31
**Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud, French revolutionary leader (executed) (b. 1744)
**Claude Fauchet, French revolutionary leader (executed) (b. 1754)
**Armand Gensonné, French revolutionary leader (executed) (b. 1758)
**Jacques Pierre Brissot, French revolutionary leader (executed) (b. 1754)
* November 3 - Olympe de Gouges, French playwright (executed) (b. 1748)
* November 6 - Louis Philip II, Duke of Orléans, French noble and revolutionary leader (executed) (b. 1747)
* November 8 - Madame Roland, French Revolutionary hostess (executed) (b. 1754)
* November 10 - Jean Marie Roland, French revolutionary leader (suicide) (b. 1734
* November 24 - Clément Charles François de Laverdy, French statesman (b. 1723)
* November 29 - Antoine Barnave, French revolutionary leader (executed) (b. 1761)
* December 4 - Armand-Guy-Simon de Coetnempren, comte de Kersaint, French revolutionary leader (executed) (b. 1742)
* December 5 - Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Etienne French revolutionary leader (executed) (b. 1743)
* December 7 - Joseph Bara, French Revolution child-hero (b. 1780)
* December 8
**Étienne Clavière, French financier and politician (suicide) (b. 1735)
**Madame du Barry, French courtesan (executed) (b. 1743)
* December 23 - Johann Adolph Hasse, German composer (b. 1699)
* Timur Shah, King of Kabul, King of Herat, King of Kandahar, King of Peshawar (b. 1748)

: "See also ."


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