Chittagong


Chittagong
Chittagong
চট্টগ্রাম
—  Metropolis  —
Nickname(s): Chottala, Chantga, Chôţţogram
Chittagong is located in Bangladesh
Chittagong
Location of Chittagong in Bangladesh
Coordinates: 22°22′0″N 91°48′0″E / 22.366667°N 91.8°E / 22.366667; 91.8
Country  Bangladesh
Division Chittagong Division
District Chittagong District
Establishment 1340[1]
Granted city status 1863[2]
Government
 – City Mayor M Monzur Alom
Area[3]
 – Metropolis 168 km2 (64.9 sq mi)
Population (2008)[4]
 – Metropolis 2,579,107
 – Density 15,351/km2 (39,758.9/sq mi)
 – Metro 3,858,093
Time zone BST (UTC+6)
Postal code 4000
GDP (2010) $25.5 billion
Calling code 31
Website [1]

Chittagong (Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম, Chôţţogram)) is a city in southeastern Bangladesh and the capital of an eponymous district and division. Built on the banks of the Karnaphuli River, the city is home to Bangladesh's busiest seaport and has a population of over 4.5 million, making it the second largest city in the country.

A trading post since the 9th century, Chittagong has a multicultural heritage of Islamic, Hindu and Buddhist traditions. Modern Chittagong developed in the early 20th century under British colonial rule. But the city also became a focal point for revolutionary activities against the British, notably the armed uprising led by Surya Sen in 1930. It was also an important military base and supply point for Allied forces during the Burma Campaign in World War II. After the partition of India in 1947, Chittagong became a part of East Pakistan. In 1971, as East Pakistanis rebelled against Pakistan’s refusal to accept results of democratic elections, the declaration of Bangladesh’s independence was announced in Chittagong. The city went onto witness atrocities and naval blockades during the liberation war that followed.[5]

Today, Chittagong is one of the fastest growing cities in the world.[6] A major commercial and industrial centre, the city also has a globally competitive special economic zone.[7] With the Port of Chittagong being expanded and developed, regional neighbours of Bangladesh have eyed Chittagong as a future regional transit hub. The port city is seen as crucial to the economic development of landlocked southern Asia including Northeast India, Bhutan, Nepal and parts of Southern China and Burma.[8][9]

Contents

Etymology

A view of Chittagong

More than six hundred years ago an Islamic preacher Hazrat Badar Aawlia arrived in this city from the seas and chose Cheragi Pahar as his vantage point to spread the message of Islam among the locals. It was at the apex of this hill that the he lit a chati (lamp) and called out (ajaan) for people to join him in saying prayer to God. Chittagong's etymology can then be traced unmistakably back to "chati." And the hills are at the core of Chittagong's mythology.[10]

Another theory is that the first group of brahmins to have settled in this region (after it was incorporated into Bengal from the Arakanese) were 'chatt-upadhyays'. Hence this region came to be known as chatto-gan (gan is the prakrit/bengali term for village). A fact confirming this theory is that the majority of the kayastha of this region were of the kashyap gotra, which is also the gotra of the Chattopadhyays.

History

Ships moored off Chittagong in the late 1820s.

Chittagong has been a seaport since ancient times. Arabs traded with the port from the 9th Century AD. The Chittagong region was under the Vesali kingdom of Arakan during the Sixth to Eighth Centuries and under the Mrauk U kingdom of Arakan in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Chittagong had been under the control of the Arakanese or kings of Arakan for hundreds of years. An account by historian Lama Taranath has revealed a Buddhist king Gopichandra had his capital at Chittagong in the Tenth Century, and according to Tibetan tradition, Chittagong was the birthplace of the Buddhist Tantric Tilayogi, who lived and worked in the Tenth Century.[11] In the Fourteenth Century, explorer Ibn Battuta passed through Chittagong during his travels.

Sultan Fakruddin Mubarak Shah of Sonargaon conquered Chittagong in 1340. Sultan Giasuddin Mubarak Shah constructed a highway from Chittagong to Chandpur and ordered the construction of many lavish mosques and tombs. After the defeat of Mahmud Shah in the hands of Sher Shah in 1538, the Arakanese regained Chittagong. From this time onward, until its conquest by the Mughals, this region was under the control of the Portuguese and the Magh pirates (a notorious name for Arakanese) for 128 years.[11]

The Mughal Commandar Shayesta Khan and his son Buzurg Umed Khan expelled the Arakanese from the area in 1666 and established Mughal rule there. They renamed Chittagong as Islamabad. The city was occupied by Burmese troops shortly in First Anglo-Burmese War in 1824 and the British increasingly grew active in the region and it fell under the British Empire. The people of Chittagong made several attempts to gain independence from the British, notably on November 18, 1857 when the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th companies of the 34th Bengal Infantry Regiment stationed at Chittagong rose in rebellion and released all the prisoners from jail but were suppressed by the Kuki scouts and the Sylhet Light Infantry (10th Gurkha Rifles).[11]

US Navy sailors in Chittagong, 1944

Chittaong grew at the beginning of the twentieth century after the partition of Bengal and the creation of the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam. The construction of the Assam Bengal Railway to Chittagong facilitated further development of economic growth in the city. However, revolutionaries and opposition movements grew during this time. Many people in Chittagong supported Khilafat and Non-Cooperation movements.

The Great Chittagong Uprising of 1930 and the Aftermath

Revolution was never far from the surface and one group of Bengali youths under the leadership of Masterda Surya Sen formed the secret Republican Army. He set up camps for revolutionary youths to train in guerilla tactics against the British occupation of India. The members of the revolutionary groups believed in armed uprisings for Indian independence to liberate India from the oppressive and exploitative British colonial rule. The leader was Masterda Surya Sen. Apart from Surya Sen, the group included Ganesh Ghosh, Lokenath Bal, Nirmal Sen, Ambika Chakrobarty, Naresh Roy, Sasanka Datta, Ardhendu Guha, Harigopal Baul, Tarakeswar Dastidar, Ananta Singh, Jiban Ghoshal, Anand Gupta, Pritilata Waddedar, Kalpana Dutta and Suresh Dey. Also among them was 14-year-old Subodh Roy (d. August 27, 2006). He too was jailed in the Andaman Islands but released in 1940.

Surya Sen devised the strategy of capturing the two main armouries in Chittagong and then destroying the telegraph and telephone office, followed by capital punishment of the notorious members of the "European Club", the majority of whom were government or military officials involved in maintaining British Raj in India. Firearms retailers were also to be raided; and rail and communication lines were scheduled to be disrupted. The plan was put into action at 10 o'clock on April 18, 1930. As per plan, the armoury of the police was captured by a group of revolutionaries led by Ganesh Ghosh and another group of ten, led by Lokenath Baul took over the Auxiliary Force armoury. Unfortunately they could not locate the ammunition. The revolutionaries also succeeded in dislocating telephone and telegraph communications and disrupting the movement of the trains. Total sixtyfive revolutionaries took part in the raid, which was undertaken in the name of the Indian Republican Army, Chittagong branch. After the successful raids, all the revolutionary groups gathered outside the police armoury where Surya Sen took a military salute, hoisted the National Flag and proclaimed a Provisional Revolutionary Government. The revolutionaries left Chittagong town before dawn and marched towards the Chittagong hill ranges, looking for a safe place[12]

After a few days, the police traced some of the revolutionaries. They were surrounded by several thousand troops while taking shelter in the Jalalabad hills on the outskirts of Chittagong on the afternoon of April 22, 1930.

Over 80 British troops and 12 of the revolutionaries were killed in the ensuing gunfight. Surya Sen decided to disperse into neighbouring villages in small groups and the revolutionaries escaped accordingly. Very few revolutionaries fled to Calcutta (present Kolkata), while some revolutionaries were arrested in Chittagong.

Many of the revolutionaries managed to reorganize the broken group. On 24 September 1932, 8 young rebels led by Pritilata Waddedar attacked the European Club. During 1930-32 , 22 officials and 220 non- officials were killed by the revolutionarists in separate incidents.

The so-called "first armoury raid case" (i.e. The Great Chittagong Uprising) concluded in January 1932 and the judgement was delivered on March 1, 1932. The sentences were deportation for life for 12, three years' imprisonment for 2 and the rest of a total of 32 persons on trial were acquitted. The Chittagong revolutionaries suffered a fatal blow when Masterda Surya Sen was arrested on February 16, 1933 from Gairala village, because of a tip-off from a traitor in the group. He was tried and was hanged on January 12, 1934.[13]

World War II

During World War II, the British used Chittagong as an important military base. Frequent bombardment by the Japanese Air Force,[clarification needed] notably in April 1942 and again on 20 and 24 December 1942, resulted in military relocation to Comilla. Neverless the war had a major negative impact on the city, with the growth of refugees and uneveness in fortune, reflected in the Great Famine of 1943.[11]

The port was blocked during the liberation war

Post World War and Liberation of Bangladesh

After the war, rapid industrialisation and development saw the city grow beyond its previous municipal area, particularly in the southwest up to Patenga, where Chittagong International Airport is now located.[11] The former villages of Halishahar, Askarabad and Agrabad became integrated into the city. The Chittagong Development Authority (CDA) was established by the government of East Pakistan in 1959 to manage this growth and drew up a master plan to be reviewed every five years to plan its urban development. By 1961 the CDA had drawn up a regional plan covering an area of 212 square miles (550 km2) and a master plan covering an area of 100 square miles (260 km2).[11] Over the decades, especially after the losses of 1971, the master plan developed into several specific areas of management, including the Multi-Sectoral Investment Plan for drainage and flood-protection of Chittagong City and a plan for easing the traffic congestion and making the system more efficient.[11]

In 1971, during the Bangladesh Liberation War, Chittagong suffered massive losses in people and buildings given that they denied the occupation army access to the port. The first public announcement ever made over the radio declaring Independence and the start of the War of Liberation was also made in the city, from the Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra located at Kalurghat, Chittagong. Following the independence of Bangladesh, the city underwent a major rehabilitation and reconstruction programme and regained its status as an important port within a few years.[11]

Geography and climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Chittagong[14]has a tropical monsoon climate. Chittagong is located at 22°22′0″N 91°48′0″E / 22.366667°N 91.8°E / 22.366667; 91.8 on the banks of the Karnaphuli River. It has a total area of 157 square kilometres (61 sq mi). The city is known for its vast hilly terrain that stretches throughout the entire district and eventually into India. Chittagong does not contain any natural lakes, but it does have artificial lakes.

Climate data for Chittagong
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34
(93)
37
(99)
40
(104)
43
(109)
40
(104)
38
(100)
37
(99)
35
(95)
38
(100)
36
(97)
34
(93)
33
(91)
43
(109)
Average high °C (°F) 26
(79)
28
(82)
31
(88)
32
(90)
32
(90)
31
(88)
30
(86)
30
(86)
31
(88)
31
(88)
29
(84)
26
(79)
30
Average low °C (°F) 13
(55)
15
(59)
19
(66)
23
(73)
24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
18
(64)
14
(57)
21
Record low °C (°F) 7
(45)
8
(46)
11
(52)
15
(59)
18
(64)
20
(68)
19
(66)
22
(72)
22
(72)
17
(63)
11
(52)
8
(46)
7
(45)
Precipitation mm (inches) 5
(0.2)
28
(1.1)
64
(2.52)
150
(5.91)
264
(10.39)
533
(20.98)
597
(23.5)
518
(20.39)
320
(12.6)
180
(7.09)
56
(2.2)
15
(0.59)
2,730
(107.48)
Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT002030

Demographics

Chittagong city has a population of 4 million,[2] male 54.36% and female 45.64%. Population density per square km is 15276. Islam is the most common religion among the people. Muslims form 83.92% of the population. Other major religions are Hinduism (13.76%); Buddhism (2.01%), Christianity (0.11%) and others 0.2%.[11]

Civil administration

Court building

The Chittagong city areas are divided into several wards and mahallas, under the jurisdiction of the Chittagong City Corporation. Chittagong City Corporation is governed by the city mayor, who is an elected representative for a 5 years term along with 41 male general ward councilors and 14 female ward councilors. The 41 male ward councilors are elected from the 41 general wards in the city where the residents vote and elect their ward councilor as their elected representatives for a 5 year period. Moreover, 14 female ward councilors are also elected by only the female voters of the 14 female wards to represent the city's female dwellers.[2]

People and Culture

Being a port city from early times,[11] Chittagong attracted people from various regions of the world. These international contacts left a lasting impact on the language, religion and culture of the city.[11] The people of the city are diverse and multi-ethnic, and the native Bengali and Tibeto-Burman populations have had significant influence from Arab, Afghan, and Mughal traders and settlers, all of whom had traveled in the city after arriving on its shores many hundreds of years ago. There are many Tibeto-Burman tribes that have been influenced by Bengali culture also living there, such as the Chakma tribe. The descendants of Portuguese settlers, known as the Firingi, also continue to live in Chittagong, as Catholic Christians, in the old Portuguese enclave of Paterghatta. Chittagong is home to many of the historic Christians of Bangladesh. In 1927, the city was made the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Chittagong. With the influx of foreigners, Chittagong became a melting pot of races. Here, majority of the urban people are involved in the import-export, trade-commerce and various industrial and business activities along with many other private and government sector occupations like other port Cities of the globe. The people of Chittagong are very enterprising and have always been found ready to leave their hearth and home in search of better opportunities.[11] Chittagong is also home to several universities, Chittagong University (established in 1966), Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), and the Asian University for Women.

Lungi or dhoti is the most common costume for men and Saree for women. Rice and fish is the staple food of the people. Because of close affinity to the sea, seafood is quite popular. Vegetables commonly found in the market are gourds, pumpkins, various legumes, etc. Fruits include jack fruits, ice-apples, coconuts, bananas, custard apple, etc.Shutki mach/dried fish is a specialty. Chatgaiya song is the most popular local song. Dance is another famous cultural sector of Chitttagong.

Chittagong is the home town of Dr. Mohammad Yunus, founder of Grameen Bank, the pioneer of Microcredit, who won Nobel Prize in Peace in 2006.

Architecture

The architectural features of Chittagong can be found in mosques, shrines, dargah, buildings and other masonry. The buildings, mosques, and shrines bear witness to its history from the ancient times to the present. Most of the old and new buildings of the city are built on top of low hills and hillocks and also along the valleys and plains. The most revered place in Chittagong is the Dargah or Shrine of Bayazid Bostami, a celebrated saint born in Bostam, Iran. The dargah sharif of Hazrat Shah Sufi Amanat Khan is one of the most renowned dargahs of Chittagong. A historic fort known as the Andar Killa stood on top of a mound in the city centre. The Shahi Jama-e-Masjid and Qadam Mubarak Mosque are two of the most impressive buildings in the city. The mosques features unique mosque architecture. The Anderkilla Zame Mosque and Jamia Tul Falah Mosque, two largest mosques of Chittagong are conspicuous as the they represent beautiful mosque architecture with numerous arches. The Chittagong Circuit house was built by the British in 1913. Later it was turned into a palatial building and used as a temporary residential accommodation for visiting Government high officials. Many old Portuguese structures are seen in different parts of the city which reminds it's multi-cultural and multi-ethnic heritage. Under British rule, The eastern railway Headquarters was set up in Chittagong. Many Victorian style structures in the city still reminds of the British presence in this city. Zia memorial museum, situated in the port city of Chittagong and housed in the old circuit house building, represents beautiful architectural features of South East Asia. The building was constructed on a small hill in 1913. These structures show that the architectural history of Chittagong can be traced back to hundreds of years ago.

Media and communications

There are several newspapers, including daily newspapers, opposition newspaper, business newspapers based in Chittagong. Daily newspapers include Dainik Azadi,[15] Peoples View,[16] Purbokon, Life, Karnafuli, Jyoti, Rashtrobarta and Azan. Furthermore, there are a number of weekly and monthly newspapers. These include weeklies are Chattala, Jyoti, Sultan and the monthlies are Sanshodhani, Purobi, Mukulika, Simanto. The only press council in Chittagong is the Chittagong Press Club. Government owned Bangladesh Television and Bangladesh Betar have transmission centers in Chittagong. Chittagong has been featured in all aspects of popular culture such as television, movies, journal, music and books. Almost all the TVs and radios of Bangladesh have coverage in Chittagong. Renowned Bollywood film director Ashutosh Gowariker is directing a movie based on the 1930s Chittagong Uprising[17] where Abhishek Bachchan will play the lead role.[18][19]

Tourism

Chittagong Hill Tracts, one of the tourist attractions of Bangladesh

The city of Chittagong is a major tourist attraction in Bangladesh. Its green hills and forests, its broad sandy beaches and its fine cool climate always attract the holiday-markers. Described by the Chinese traveler poet, Huen Tsang (7th century AD) as "a sleeping beauty emerging from mists and water" and given the title of "Porto Grande" by the 16th century Portuguese seafarers. Chittagong is filled with dense green forests, endless rolling hills, a moderate climate and breathtaking beaches. Since the 7th century, Chittagong has been mentioned in many documents as a seaport of mystical beauty and magnificent charm. The bustling harbor stands in stark contrast to the tranquility and peaceful surroundings of the city.

Chittagong Hill Tracts

The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) comprising an area of 13,180 km2 in south-eastern Bangladesh, is the only hill intensive area of Bangladesh. CHT consisting Rangamati, Khagrachari and Bandarban districts is home to country's largest concentration of at least 11 different ethnic groups and is a unique part of the country both in terms of landscape and its people.[20] The ethnic groups are bound together by a shared history, years of peaceful cohabitation, and a common future. They differ from the majority Bengali population of Bangladesh in their physical features, culture and religion. However, nearly all the indigenous peoples also include traditional indigenous elements in their formal religious beliefs and practices.[21]

Patenga beach

Patenga beach

Patenga Beach is a popular tourist spot. The beach lies approximately twenty kilometers outside the city of Chittagong, and located near to fascinating landmarks including the Shah Amanat International Airport and the BNS Isha Khan Naval Base. It is located at the 'Karnaphuli' River mouth and stretches to the Bay of Bengal which ensures a constant influx of travelers and visitors from home and abroad. The beach width is narrow and swimming in the seas is not recommended. Part of the seashore is built-up with concrete walls. Also large blocks of stones have been laid out to prevent erosion. During 1990s a host of restaurants and kiosks have sprouted out around the beach area. After the sun-down, drug-peddlers start to approach visitors. Also, alcohol peddling is very common. Lighting of the beach area has enhanced the security aspect of visiting in the evening. Vendors from the city flock to Patenga Beach to sell their selection of ice creams, cold drinks and food to the hundreds of tourists who come to Patenga Beach. The beach is lined with massive shady palm trees and fishing boats. It is quite sandy, with a few rocky patches here and there. Most visitors come to 'Patenga' Beach as it is known for having some of the most stunning sunsets and sunrises in Bangladesh.

Foy's Lake

A view of the Foy's Lake

Foy's Lake is a human-made lake in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The lake was once just a lake and spillway constructed by Assam-Bengal Railway engineer. It was dug in 1924 and was named after the English engineer Mr. Foy.[citation needed] The lake is next to Batali Hill, the highest hill in Chittagong Metropolitan area. An amusement park, managed by the Concord group, is located here which features usual theme park rides and attractions as well as boat rides on the lake, landscaping, restaurants, concerts with floating stages, scenic walking trails and many other fun activities. The park includes a water theme park, resort and an amusement center. The Chittagong Zoo is next door. Chittagong is known as the land of saints, darwishes and fakirs. Several mosques and shrines bear testimony to their presence in the city.[11]

Heritage Park

There is a heritage park called Shaheed Zia Memorial Complex and Mini Bangladesh at Chandgaon which reflects the most notable structures and instances of Bangladesh. This 71-metre tower in Mini Bangladesh in Chittagong has a restaurant on the top that rotates once every 90 minutes.[22] The museum includes a revolving restaurant. One can perceive of the country's architectural beauty, ethnic traditions and archaeological inheritance through having a glimpse of the heritage park. Replica of major structures of the country, includes Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban (parliament building), National Memorial of Savar, Ahsan Manzil, Curzon Hall of Dhaka University, Paharpur Monastery, Kantajew Temple of Dinajpur, Lalbagh Fort and Sona Masjid. The park also has different rides for children.[23]

Chittagong Ethnological Museum

Chittagong Ethnological Museum

The Chittagong Ethnological Museum located in the bustling commercial street of Agrabad, country’s lone ethnological museum, offers the visitors the chance to acquaint with the lifestyles and heritage of various ethnic groups of the country. It was established in 1965. The museum authorities had collected rare elements used in everyday lives of different ethnic groups, of which some had already become extinct while some were on the verge of extinction. The museum contains four galleries and a small hall. Three galleries of the museum feature diverse elements of 25 ethnic groups, including Chakma, Marma, Tongsinga, Khumi, Murang, Sautal, Garo, Chak, Monipuri, Palia, Tipra, Hajang, Lusai, Shimuji, and Bom while the rest gallery displays the lifestyles of some racial groups of India, Pakistan, and Australia.[24] The sculptures of the people of different ethnic communities and a piece of broken Berlin Wall draw the visitors especially the children who can get impression of different festivals, livelihoods, and cultures of the communities from the murals set up at the hall room. These are reminiscent of the museum in the film 'Planet of the Apes'.[25] People between 200 and 300 visits the museum every day in addition to a number of researchers from home and abroad.

World War II cemetery and Zia Memorial Museum

Zia Memorial Museum

The War Cemetery on Badshah Mia Road is another place of historic interest. It contains the graves of 755 soldiers of the Allied Forces who laid down their lives on the Indo-Burmese front during World War II. Most of the soldiers buried there were from Australia, Britain, Canada, East and West Africa, British India and New Zealand. The total area of the cemetery is eight acres and it is protected and maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.[26] There are a number of museums in Chittagong. The most prominent is the Zia Memorial Museum which is housed in the old circuit house building. President Ziaur Rahman was assassinated there on 30 May 1981. This commemorative museum houses the Late President Ziaur Rahman's mementos and personal belongings. It was established in 1993 with 12 galleries.[27]

Economy and development

GEC circle, the commercial hub of Chittagong city.

The sea-borne exports consist chiefly of ready made garments, knitwear, frozen food, jute and jute products, leather and leather products, tea, and chemical products. There is also a large trade by country boats, bringing chiefly cotton, rice, spices, sugar and tobacco. Sailing ships built in Chittagong include the Betsey, the Argo, and the Mersey. Ship breaking was introduced to the area in 1969. This industry is concentrated at Fauzdarhat, a 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) long beach 20 kilometres (12 mi) north-west of Chittagong. Chittagong is also home to a large number of industries from small to heavy. Around 40% of the heavy industrial activities of the country is located in Chittagong city and adjacent areas, which include dry dock, Dock Yards, Oil Refinery, Steel Mills, Power Plant, Cement clinker factory, automobile industries, pharmaceutical plants, chemical plants, cable manufacturing, textiles mills, jute mills, urea fertilizer factory along with other private sector medium size industrial developments and activities.[2] A Korean company, Youngone Corporation, has established a special Korean Export Processing Zone (KEPZ) in the port city of Chittagong. The KEPZ is built on a land area of nearly 1,000 hectares and is expected to attract foreign direct investment worth $1 billion.[28] There is as well a Karnaphuli Export Processing Zone, with the same acronym (KEPZ)[29]

The city of Chittagong had been long neglected by the Bangladeshi government, until the turn of the century when exports grew by 21.13% to an all time high of $8.02 billion.[30] Chittagong is the site of Bangladesh's busiest port which handles 80% of all Bangladeshi imports and exports. The strategic location of the port has allowed for interest by investors to help improve the city.

Ship breaking near Chittagong, Bangladesh
HSBC Bank at GEC

Most of the International trading are believed to be done from Khatunganj, Asadganj & Chaktai area. The Sawdagars (traditional businessman) of Chittagong still controls the entire Bangladesh Market in this import oriented country. Agrabad is often known as Chittagong's chief commercial region. Banks like HSBC, Standard Chartered, Citibank, Dutch Bangla Bank, BRAC Bank, Dhaka Bank Limited, Bangladesh Bank, Eastern Bank, Sonali Bank, Rupali Bank and all other banks operating in Bangladesh have offices in and around the city. Numerous investments have allowed for a construction boom similar to Dhaka. Over the years, scores of hotels, shopping centers, and other modern buildings have sprung up to change the face of the city. Ongoing developments include various multi-story shopping malls and a Chittagong World Trade Centre.[31]

The Chittagong Development Authority (CDA) is primarily responsible for framing and implementing the Master Plan for city development. The CDA makes and implements plans for area development (i.e. commercial areas, residential areas and recreational areas) and city road development in accordance with the approved Master Plan for the city. In 2000, manufacturing industry of Chittagong contributed 15% of the total GDP.[32] According to CityMayors Statistics[2] Chittagong registered a GDP of $25.5 billion in 2010 with an annual growth rate of 6.3%. It is estimated that in 2020 the GDP of Chittagong will be $39 billion.[33]

Education

Cheragi Pahar Circle

Educational facilities in the city are substantially provided by the Ministry of Education, supplemented by the service provided by the City Corporation, NGOs and the private sector. Chittagong University, Chittagong Medical College and Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology are totally funded by the government. Chittagong is home to two of the nation's most prominent public universities, and is the site of one of Bangladesh's largest universities, the University of Chittagong, established in 1966. The university is located in a remote place from the city (22 km north) of Chittagong. Therefore, it has free shuttle trains service from 7:00 A.M. to 8:00 P.M. for students. There are bus services for the faculties and other staffs. With a modest beginning of 4 departments in 1966, the University of Chittagong has grown to 8 individual faculties, 35 departments, 3 institutes and 3 research centers. It has 3 affiliated Medical colleges under the Faculty of Medicine and 1 Veterinary Medicine College under the faculty of Veterinary Medicine. The veterinary medical college has recently been upgraded into a separate University. As such the number of faculties at present is 7. Current student enrollment is more than 15,000.

The other public university is Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology

established in 1968. Formerly, it was named Bangladesh Institute of Techonology (BIT). At present this university, with only about 2100 students and 8 academic departments, strongly emphasis in theoretical, applied, and interdisciplinary scientific and technological education. In addition to these, the university undertakes research works sponsored by local industries and national/international organizations, such as United Nations Organizations, Commonwealth Foundation, University Grants Commission, etc. As a center of excellence, CUET is not only continuing as the focal point for the development and dissemination of engineering and technological knowledge within the country, but also it is involved to solve complicated practical problems of national importance faced by the planners, engineers and technologists of the country. The University is situated by the side of the Chittagong-Kaptai road some 25 kilometers off from the center of Chittagong City.

The Asian University for Women (AUW) is another famous higher education centre located in Chittagong,is being established as a leading institution of higher learning for women.

At present, in Chittagong, there are some more private universities like [www.southern-bd.info, BGC Trust University Bangladesh](2002),International Islamic University Chittagong (IIUC)(1995), University of Science and Technology-USTC(1992), Southern University, Bangladesh(1998), Premier University (PU), and University of Information Technology & Sciences.]. Recently Chittagong Govt Veterinary College(CGVC) has been upgraded to Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University(CVASU) which is consisting of one faculty with 300 students providing theoretical, out campus work based learning and excellent scientific and technological education. It is the first university in Bangladesh of this type.

Some examples of private medical colleges of Chittagong are: Chittagong Ma O Shishu Medical College, Southern Medical College, Chittagong International Dental College, BGC Trust Medical College, university of science & technology ctg (1992).

Chittagong has public, denominational and independent schools. Public schools, including pre-schools, primary and secondary schools and special schools are administered by the Ministry of Education and Board of Education. Conspicuous examples of government schools in Chittagong are Chittagong Collegiate School (1836), Chittagong Government High School (1906), Faujdarhat Cadet College (1958), Ctg cantonment public college(1961), Government Muslim High School (1909), Nasirabad Government High School, Chittagong Government Girls' High School, Dr. Khastagir Government Girls' High School (1878), Hazi Muhammad Mohsin Government High School, Kazem Ali High School (1885), Aparnacharan City Corporation Girls' High School (1927), Krishna Kumari City Corporation Girls' High School, Municipal Model High School (1880), City Girls' School Chittagong,Hathey Khari School (1976) etc.

On the other hand, Chittagong possesses lots of government and non governmental primary school. It also has so many English medium schools like William Carey Academy (Best School), Chittagong Grammar School, Mastermind School, Cider International School, Sunshine Grammar School, Radiant School etc. In the city, Institute for Islamic and general study (Madrasha) are also available such as Baitush Sharaf Ideal Kamil Madrasah(1982), Darul Ulum alia Madrasah (1913), Jamiya Ahmadia Sunnia Alia Madrasah (1954) and Nesaria Alia Madrasah

Chittagong College (1869),Government Commerce College (1948) Hazi Muhammad Mohsin College (1979), Chittagong Government Girls' College (1957), Faujdarhat Cadet College (1958),Port Authority High School,Port(1959), Enayet Bazar woman College (1970), Government City College (1954),B.A.F Shaheen College,Chittagong,Hazera Tazu Degree College, Chittagong Cantonment Public College, Ispahani Public College, Agrabad woman college, etc. are the main colleges of this city.

Health

Health services are mainly provided by hospitals run by the Health Ministry. The City Corporation has its own Health Services and hospitals which supplement the services provided by the government and the NGOs. There are a number of NGO-run clinics in addition to mushrooming private clinics, which are run on a commercial basis. Chittagong Medical College Hospital is the largest government-run health service provider. This huge medical has so many wards, cabins and units. At present this facility also provides medical treatment of ICU and CCU for the serious patients. Other medical service institutes include General Hospital, Upazila Health Complex,Family Welfare Center, TB Hospital, Infectious Disease Hospital, Diabetic Hospital, Mother and Children Hospital and Police Hospital. Notably, the total health service of Chittagong is intensificating day by day. At present, many non government hospitals and clinics also belong to the city. Chittagong Metropoliton Hospital, Surgiscope Hospital, CSCR, Centre Point Hospital, National Hospital etc. are the noteworthy non government hospitals and clinics Chittagong City.

Transport

GEC Circle Chittagong

Transport in Chittagong is similar to that of Bangladesh's capital, Dhaka. There are various bus systems, taxis, and as well as smaller 'baby' or 'CNG' taxis, which are basically tricycle-structured motor vehicles. There are also traditional manual rickshaws, which are very common.

Chittagong has a station on the meter gauge eastern section of the Bangladesh Railway. The headquarters of this railway are located here. There are main two railway stations in Station road Chittagong. Trains are available traveling to the Bangladeshi cities of Dhaka, Shylhet, Comilla, and Bhairav.

Shah Amanat International Airport serves as Chittagong's international airport. It is the second busiest airport in Bangladesh. It has international service to destinations such as Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Jeddah, Kuwait, Bahrain, Doha, Ras Al Khaimah, Kolkata, Yangon, Muscat, Bangkok and Kuala lumpur.Right know several international low carriers like Flydubai, AirArabia,rakairways.com,omanair.com fly from here to international destinations in the Middle East. It was formerly known as MA Hannan International Airport, but was renamed on April 2, 2005 by the Government of Bangladesh.

Chittagong City is connected with the rest of Bangladesh by a network of coastal water routes. Coastal vessels carry most of the bulk cargo from Chittagong to other important trading centres in the country. Among the important items carried are fuel oil, cement, food grains and salt. Passenger service along the coastal route was never very popular and safe.

Dialect

Many Chittagong natives speak Chittagonian (চাটগাঁইয়া Chaţgaiã), an Indo-European language of the Eastern Indic group. A large number of Arabic words and transformed Arabic words are used in this dialect. This is due arrival of traders and saints from Arabian Peninsula hundred years ago. Many speakers consider their language to be a dialect of standard Bengali, the official language of Bangladesh. However, the two languages are not mutually intelligible, meaning that those who only know how to speak Standard Bengali will not understand Chittagonian speakers, and vice versa - normally the metric for languagehood among linguists. There is, however, a dialect continuum between Chittagonian and neighboring dialects of Bengali, meaning that speakers of each neighboring dialect can largely understand each other, while speakers of more distant dialects cannot. Chittagonian has approximately 14 million speakers. According to the status of Top 100 Languages by Population by Ethnologue, Chittagong ranked in 67th Language of the world.[34]

Sports

Chittagong has produced many cricketers, footballers, athletes. Tamim Iqbal, Akram Khan, Aftab Ahmed Minhazul Abedin Nannu are some of the most prominent figures among them. Cricket is the most popular sport in Chittagong, while football, tennis, kabaddi are also much popular. A number of stadium are located in Chittagong. The MA Aziz Stadium is the main stadium in Chittagong. It is one of the most famous cricket grounds in Bangladesh. It has a seating capacity of 20,000 and hosts football matches as well as cricket.[35] MA Aziz Stadium was the stadium where Bangladesh achieved its first test victory—which came against Zimbabwe in 2005.[36] This stadium now doesn't host any cricket match and focuses only on football. Another stadium of Chittagong is Chittagong Divisional Stadium, currently known as Zohur Ahmed Chowdhury Stadium, which was awarded the test status in 2006, now hosts both domestic and international cricket matches . The city hosted two group matches of the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011, both of them taking place in Zohur Ahmed Chowdhury Stadium .[37] Other stadiums include Women's Complex Ground. One of the major sporting club, Mohammedan Sporting Club is based in Chittagong. Another sporting club Abahani Sporting Club is also located here.

Sister cities

See also

References

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  22. ^ Shaheed Zia Memorial Complex and Mini Bangladesh Retrieved 1 January 2010
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  24. ^ "Chittagong Ethnological Museum". skyscrapercity.com. http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=136288&page=3. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  25. ^ "See". WikiTravel.org. http://wikitravel.org/en/Chittagong#See. Retrieved 2009-12-21. 
  26. ^ "Features of Commonwealth War Cemeteries". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. http://www.cwgc.org/document.asp?menuid=5&submenuid=24&id=68&menuname=Annual%20Report%202008-09&menu=subsub. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
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External links

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Coordinates: 22°22′N 91°48′E / 22.367°N 91.8°E / 22.367; 91.8


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