Sydney Brenner


Sydney Brenner

Infobox Scientist
name = Sydney Brenner
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caption = E. Lederberg, G. Stent, S. Brenner, J. Lederberg, 1965
birth_date = birth date and age|1927|01|13|df=yes
birth_place = Germiston
death_date =
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residence =
citizenship =
nationality = South African
ethnicity =
field = Biology
work_institutions = Molecular Sciences Institute, King's College, Cambridge
alma_mater =
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students =
known_for = "Caenorhabditis elegans", Apoptosis
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influences =
influenced =
prizes = Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
religion =
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Sydney Brenner, CH FRS (born January 13 1927) is a South African biologist and the 2002 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate.

Biography

Brenner was born in a small town, Germiston (South Africa). His parents were Jewish immigrants. His father came to South Africa from Lithuania in 1910, and his mother, from Riga, Latvia, in 1922. [cite web| url=http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/2002/brenner-autobio.html| title=Sydney Brenner - Autobiography| publisher=nobelprize.org| accessdate=2008-09-28] Educated at Germiston High School and the University of the Witwatersrand, he went on to complete a D.Phil. from Exeter College, Oxford.

Brenner made several seminal contributions to the emerging field of molecular biology in the 1960s. These include the identification of messenger RNA, and in the elucidation of the triplet nature of the code of protein translation through the Crick, Brenner et al. experiment of 1961, which discovered frameshift mutations. This insight provided early elucidation of the nature of the genetic code. Brenner then focused on establishing "Caenorhabditis elegans" as a model organism for the investigation of animal development including neural development. Brenner chose this 1 millimeter-long soil roundworm mainly because it is simple, is easy to grow in bulk populations, and turned out be quite convenient for genetic analysis. The title of his Nobel lecture on December 2002, "Nature's Gift to Science" is a homage to this modest nematode, and he considered that having chosen the right organism turned out to be as important as having addressed the right problems to work on. [cite web| url=http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2002/brenner-lecture.html| title=Nobel Lecture: Nature's Gift to Science| author=Sydney Brenner| format=video & pdf| date=December 8, 2002| publisher=nobelprize.org| accessdate=2008-09-28] For the latter work he shared the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with H. Robert Horvitz and John Sulston. In recognition of his pioneering role in starting what is now a global research community that work on "C. elegans", another closely related nematode was given the scientific name "Caenorhabditis brenneri". [cite journal|last=Sudhausi|first=Walter|coauthors=Kiontke, Karin| title=Comparison of the cryptic nematode species Caenorhabditis brenneri sp. n| work=Zootaxa| date=25 Apr. 2007| volume=1456| pages=45–62| url=http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2007f/zt01456p062.pdf| format=pdf| publisher=Magnolia Press| accessdate=2008-09-28]

Brenner founded the Molecular Sciences Institute and is currently associated with the Salk Institute, the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, and the Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He is also on the Board of Scientific Governors at The Scripps Research Institute. Known for his penetrating scientific insight and acerbic wit, Brenner for many years penned a regular column ("Loose Ends") in the journal "Current Biology"; he wrote "A Life In Science" (ISBN 0-9540278-0-9) paperback published by Biomed Central Ltd. in 2001.

Brenner was awarded the National Science and Technology Medal by A*STAR, Singapore on 11 October 2006 for his distinguished and strategic contributions to the development of Singapore’s scientific capability and culture, particularly in the biomedical sciences sector. [ [http://www.a-star.edu.sg/astar/about/action/award_NSTM_citation.do?id=0e39f93f71TO&awardId=0e29810124jK A*STAR Corporate Site - Awards - NSTM - Winner Citation ] ]

"American plan" and "European plan"

The "American plan" and "European Plan" were proposed by Sydney Brenner as competing models for the way brain cells determine their neural functions.

According to the European plan (sometimes referred to as the British plan), the function of cells is determined by its genetic lineage. Therefore, a mother cell with a specific function (for instance, interpreting visual information) would create daughter cells with similar functions.

According to the American plan, a brain cell's function is determined by the function of its neighbors after cell migration. If a cell migrates to an area in the visual cortex, the cell will adopt the function of its neighboring visual cortex cells, guided by chemical and axonal signals from these cells. If the same cell migrates to the auditory cortex, it would develop functions related to hearing, regardless of its genetic lineage.

ee also

*Apoptosis and History and highlights in apoptosis research.

References

*"The Science Times Book of the Brain" 1998. Edited by Nicholas Wade. The Lyons Press
* Judson, H. F. The Eighth Day of Creation (1979), p. 10–11

External links

*peoples Archive|id=4106|title=Sydney Brenner
* http://www.bluesci.org/content/view/436/265/ for a report on his talk on 1st of May 2006!
* [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/2002/index.html 2002 Nobel Prize]
* [http://elegans.swmed.edu/Sydney.html Sydney Brenner]

Persondata
NAME= Brenner, Sydney
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
SHORT DESCRIPTION= Bioligist, Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
DATE OF BIRTH= January 13 1927
PLACE OF BIRTH= Germiston
DATE OF DEATH=
PLACE OF DEATH=


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Sydney Brenner — Sydney Brenner, né le 13 janvier 1927 à Germiston en Afrique du Sud, est un biologiste sud africain qui a obtenu le prix Nobel de physiologie ou médecine en 2002[1]. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sydney Brenner — Sydney Brenner …   Wikipedia Español

  • Sydney Brenner — E. Lederberg, Gunther Stent, Sydney Brenner und Joshua Lederberg, 1965 Sydney Brenner, CH (* 13. Januar 1927 in Germiston, Südafrika) ist ein britischer Biologe, der 2002 zusammen mit H. Robert Horvitz und …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sydney Brenner — Recibió el Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina en el año 2002, compartido con H. Robert Horvitz, John E. Sulston, en reconocimiento a sus trabajos sobre la regulación genética del desarrollo y muerte celular. Este fue el broche de oro a la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Brenner (Familienname) — Brenner ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Inhaltsverzeichnis A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Adam Br …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Brenner — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Brenner peut faire référence à : Personnalités Ernst Brenner (1856 1911) politicien suisse Leo Brenner (1855 1928) astronome Simon Brenner  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • BRENNER, SYDNEY — (1927– ), British scientist and Nobel laureate. Brenner was born in Germiston, South Africa, and studied medicine at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, which incorporated a medical B.Sc. course and stimulated his interest in… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Brenner , Sydney — (1927–) South African–British molecular biologist The son of a Lithuanian exile, Brenner was born in Germiston, South Africa, and educated at the universities of Witwatersrand and Oxford, where he obtained his DPhil in 1954. In 1957 he joined the …   Scientists


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