Borneo-Philippine languages


Borneo-Philippine languages

Infobox Language family
name=Borneo-Philippines
region=Southeast Asia and Madagascar
familycolor=Austronesian
fam2=Malayo-Polynesian
child1=two dozen branches


map_caption=The Borneo-Philippines languages (red). Not shown: Yami in Taiwan.

The Borneo-Philippines languages (or Outer Hesperonesian or Outer Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a branch of the Austronesian family which includes the languages of the Philippines, much of Borneo, the northern peninsula of Sulawesi, and Madagascar.

In this classification, the older clade of Western Malayo-Polynesian (WMP), or Hesperonesian, has been broken up into "outer" (Borneo-Philippines) and "inner" (Sunda-Sulawesi) clades, and Western Malayo-Polynesian is considered merely a geographic term.

Classification

There are a large number of small clusters of languages in the Borneo-Philippines family whose interrelationship remains uncertain.

Parenthetical headings below are geographic conveniences and do not imply a genealogical relationship.

"(Northern Philippines)"
*Bashiic languages (4 languages between Luzon and Formosa, including Ivatan of the Philippines and Yami of Taiwan)
*Northern Luzon languages
**"Ilokano" (encircles the cordillera)
**Northern Cordilleran languages (15 languages of the cordillera and east coast of Luzon, including Ibanag and Agta)
**South-Central Cordilleran languages (25 languages in the mountains of northern Luzon, including Pangasinan and the Igorot languages)
**"Arta" (within the Pangasinan area)
*Central Luzon languages (5 languages near Mount Pinatubo, including Kapampangan)
**Sambalic languages (including Tina, Bolinao, and Botolan)
*Northern Mindoro languages (or North Mangyan; 3 languages)

"(Visayas and southern Luzon)"
*South Mangyan languages (3 languages of Mindoro, including Buhid and Hanunoo)
*Kalamian languages (2 languages between Mindoro and Palawan, Tagbanwa and Agutaynen)
*Palawano languages (5 languages of the Palawanos)
*Central Philippine languages
**"Tagalog" (Filipino)
**Bikol languages (8 languages of southern Luzon called Bikol)
**Visayan languages (20 languages in and around the Sibuyan and Visayan Seas, including northern Mindanao; major languages are Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray-Waray, Kinaray-a, Tausug)
**"Mamanwa" (northern tip of Mindanao)
**Mansakan languages (8 languages of the Davao Region, including Davawenyo)

"(Mindanao)"
*Southern Philippine languages
**Manobo languages (15 languages of central Mindanao, including Tasaday)
**Danao languages (3 languages of east Mindanao, including Magindanao and Maranao)
**Subanun languages (5 languages of the western peninsula of Mindanao)
*South Mindanao languages (5 languages of the southern coast, including Tboli)
*Sama-Bajaw languages (10 languages of the Sulu Archipelago and Biliran, several called Sama or Bajaw)

"(Borneo and Madagascar)"
*Barito languages (12 languages of south Borneo and Madagascar, including Ngaju Dayak and Malagasy)
*Kayan languages (18 languages of central Borneo, including Kayan)
*"Penan (Punan-Nibong)"
*Land Dayak (Bidayuh) (12 languages of west Borneo, such as Lara’)
*Melanau-Kajang languages
**Kajang (Rejang) (3)
**Melanau (Lower Rejang) (3)
*Berawan-Lower Baram (Baram-Tinjar) (5)
*Bintulu
*Dayic languages (languages of Sabah-Sarawak-Kalimantan border area)
**Kelabitic (Apo Duat) (5 languages, including Kelabit)
**Murutic (Murut-Tidong) (12 languages, including Tagol Murut)
*Kenyah (11 languages of central Borneo called Kenyah
*Rejang-Sajau languages (5, languages including Punan Bah-Biau)
*Sabahan languages (languages of Sabah)
**Dusunic (Dusun-Bisaya) (15 languages, including Kadazan-Dusun)
**"Ida’an"
**Paitanic (5 languages, including Tambanuo)

"(Northern Sulawesi)"
*Sangiric languages (4 languages of very north, including Bantik)
*Minahasan languages (5 languages called Minahasa)
*Mongondow-Gorontalo languages (9 languages of Gorontalo and North Sulawesi provinces, including Bolaang Mongondow)

References

*Fay Wouk and Malcolm Ross (ed.), "The history and typology of western Austronesian voice systems." Australian National University, 2002.


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