- Borneo-Philippine languages
Infobox Language family
Southeast Asiaand Madagascar
child1=two dozen branches
map_caption=The Borneo-Philippines languages (red). Not shown: Yami in Taiwan.
The Borneo-Philippines languages (or Outer Hesperonesian or Outer Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a branch of the Austronesian family which includes the languages of the
Philippines, much of Borneo, the northern peninsula of Sulawesi, and Madagascar.
In this classification, the older clade of Western Malayo-Polynesian (WMP), or Hesperonesian, has been broken up into "outer" (Borneo-Philippines) and "inner" (Sunda-Sulawesi) clades, and Western Malayo-Polynesian is considered merely a geographic term.
There are a large number of small clusters of languages in the Borneo-Philippines family whose interrelationship remains uncertain.
Parenthetical headings below are geographic conveniences and do not imply a genealogical relationship.
Bashiic languages(4 languages between Luzon and Formosa, including Ivatan of the Philippines and Yami of Taiwan)
Northern Luzon languages
**"Ilokano" (encircles the cordillera)
Northern Cordilleran languages(15 languages of the cordillera and east coast of Luzon, including Ibanag and Agta)
South-Central Cordilleran languages(25 languages in the mountains of northern Luzon, including Pangasinan and the Igorotlanguages)
**"Arta" (within the Pangasinan area)
Central Luzon languages(5 languages near Mount Pinatubo, including Kapampangan)
Sambalic languages(including Tina, Bolinao, and Botolan)
Northern Mindoro languages(or North Mangyan; 3 languages)
Visayasand southern Luzon)"
South Mangyan languages(3 languages of Mindoro, including Buhid and Hanunoo)
Kalamian languages(2 languages between Mindoro and Palawan, Tagbanwaand Agutaynen)
Palawano languages (5 languages of the Palawanos)
Central Philippine languages
Bikol languages(8 languages of southern Luzon called Bikol)
Visayan languages(20 languages in and around the Sibuyan and Visayan Seas, including northern Mindanao; major languages are Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray-Waray, Kinaray-a, Tausug)
**"Mamanwa" (northern tip of
Mansakan languages(8 languages of the Davao Region, including Davawenyo)
Southern Philippine languages
Manobo languages(15 languages of central Mindanao, including Tasaday)
Danao languages(3 languages of east Mindanao, including Magindanao and Maranao)
Subanun languages(5 languages of the western peninsula of Mindanao)
South Mindanao languages(5 languages of the southern coast, including Tboli)
Sama-Bajaw languages(10 languages of the Sulu Archipelagoand Biliran, several called Sama or Bajaw)
Barito languages(12 languages of south Borneo and Madagascar, including Ngaju Dayak and Malagasy)
Kayan languages(18 languages of central Borneo, including Kayan)
*Land Dayak (Bidayuh) (12 languages of west Borneo, such as Lara’)
**Kajang (Rejang) (3)
**Melanau (Lower Rejang) (3)
*Berawan-Lower Baram (Baram-Tinjar) (5)
Dayic languages(languages of Sabah-Sarawak-Kalimantan border area)
**Kelabitic (Apo Duat) (5 languages, including
**Murutic (Murut-Tidong) (12 languages, including Tagol Murut)
*Kenyah (11 languages of central Borneo called Kenyah
Rejang-Sajau languages(5, languages including Punan Bah-Biau)
Sabahan languages(languages of Sabah)
**Dusunic (Dusun-Bisaya) (15 languages, including
**Paitanic (5 languages, including
Sangiric languages(4 languages of very north, including Bantik)
Minahasan languages(5 languages called Minahasa)
Mongondow-Gorontalo languages(9 languages of Gorontaloand North Sulawesiprovinces, including Bolaang Mongondow)
*Fay Wouk and Malcolm Ross (ed.), "The history and typology of western Austronesian voice systems." Australian National University, 2002.
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