Ludhiana district


Ludhiana district

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
type = district
native_name = Ludhiana district
hq = Ludhiana
area_total = 3767
area_magnitude = 9
latd = 30
latm = 53
longd = 75
longm = 51
locator_position = left
state_name = Punjab
population_total = 3030352
population_total_cite = cref|‡
population_as_of = 2001
literacy = 76.54
website = www.ludhiana.nic.in
footnotes = cnote|‡|Population increase (1981–91): 24.79%

Ludhiana district is one of the 20 districts in the state of Punjab in North-West India. Ludhiana city which is district headquarters is the hub of industry in Punjab. The main industries are bicycle parts and hosiery.

History

Ludhiana gets its name from the Lodhi Dynasty, which is believed to have founded the city in 1480. During the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar the area formed part of the sarkar or Sirhind. In the latter period of Mughal rule the western part of the district was leased to the Rais of Raikot, by the early eighteen century they had become semi independent of the Mughals. In 1747 Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded and battled the imperial army near Khanna, although the Mughals were able to stop Ahmad Shah - his subsequent invasions weakened the Mughals, which allowed the Rais to take control of Ludhiana town in 1760. [ [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V16_206.gifImperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 200.] ]

During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Ludhiana became an important British cantonment. Initially, in 1805, Ranjit Singh occupied Ludhiana. However, in 1809, the British decided to curb his advance eastward and sent troops to confront him. Ranjit Singh was forced to sign the treaty of 'perpetual friendship' with the British, which confined his activities to the right bank of the Sutlej. British troops were permanently stationed in Ludhiana and the Cis-Sutlej states came under British protection.

Location

Ludhiana is one of the centrally located cities of Punjab, which is located on the Grand Trunk Road from Delhi to Amritsar at latitude 30.55 North & longitude 75.54 East in the state of Punjab in Northern India.

Ludhiana is the most centrally located district which falls in the Malwa region of the state of Punjab. For administrative purposes it has been placed in the Patiala Division. It lies between north latitude 30°-34' and 31°-01' and east longitude 75°-18' and 76°-20'. It is bounded on the north by the Satluj River, which separates it from Jalandhar district. The river also forms its northern boundary with Hoshiarpur district. On other sides it shares common boundaries with Rupnagar district in the east, Moga district in the west, and Sangrur and Patiala districts in the south and southeast, respectively. [ [http://www.ludhiana.nic.in/html/history_location.html Ludhiana.nic.in] ]

Topography

The topography of the district is typical representative of an alluvial plain. It owes its origin to the aggravation work of the Satluj River. The alluvium deposited by the river has been worked over by the wind, which gave rise to a number of small dunes and sand mounds. Most of these dunes have been leveled by farmers of the district.

The district can be divided into the flood plain of the Satluj and the upland plain.

Climate

The climate of the district is characterized by dryness except a brief spell of monsoon season, a very hot summer and a bracing winter. The cold season is from mid-November to the early part of March. The succeeding period until the end of June is the hot season. July, August and half of September constitute the southwest monsoon. The period of mid-September to about the middle of November may be termed as post-monsoon or transitional period. June is generally the hottest month. Hot and scorching dust-laden winds blow during summer season. December and January are the coldest months.

Rainfall

The rainfall in the district increases from the southwest toward the northeast. About 70% of the rainfall is received during the period of July through September. The rainfall between December and March accounts for 16% of the rainfall the remaining 14% rainfall is received in the other months of the year.

Rivers and drains

The Sutlej and its tributary, the Buddha Nala, constitute the chief hydrographic features of the district. A brief description of these is as follows.

; Sutlej River: originates from Mansarovar Lake in Tibet. After flowing through Himachal Pradesh, it debouches from the Shivaliks. Just about Rupnagar, 32 km east of the boundary of Samrala Tehsil, it flows due west along the top of the district for 96 km and turns, as it leaves Jagraon Tehsil, slightly north toward its junction with the Beas at Harike. It maintains an east-west direction. It can be devastating during floods. The Sutlej has experienced a westward drift during recent times. Old towns and villages, such as Bahlulpur, Machhiwara, and Kum Kalan, were built on its banks. The river has since been dammed at Bhakhra, which has considerably checked its flooding menace in the district.

; Buddha Nala: It runs parallel to the Satluj on its south for a fairly large section of its course in the district and ultimately joins the Satluj at Gorsian Kadar Baksh in the northwestern corner of the district. It floods during the rainy season, but in the dry season it can be crossed on foot at certain points. Ludhiana and Machhiwara are situated to the south of the Buddha Nala. The water of the stream is polluted after it enters Ludhiana City.

Demographics

Total geographical area of the district is 3767 km². The total population of the district as per 2001 census is 3,030,352 (rural: 1,339,566; urban: 1,690,786). The density of population per km² is 804 persons.

* Area (in km²): 3,767
* Total population: 3,030,352
** Male: 1,661,329
** Female: 1,369,023
** Females per thousand males: 824
* Density of population (per km²): 804
* Literacy%: 76.54
* % of workers in total population: -
* % increase in population (1981–91): 24.79
* % of SC population: -

References


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