Donald A. Glaser


Donald A. Glaser
Donald A. Glaser

Donald A. Glaser
Born Donald Arthur Glaser
September 21, 1926 (1926-09-21) (age 85)
Cleveland, Ohio
Fields Physics, Molecular biology
Institutions University of Michigan
University of California at Berkeley
Alma mater Case Western Reserve University, California Institute of Technology
Doctoral advisor Carl David Anderson
Known for Invention of bubble chamber
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physics (1960)
Elliott Cresson Medal (1961)

Donald Arthur Glaser (born September 21, 1926), is an American physicist, neurobiologist, and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his invention of the Bubble chamber used in subatomic particle physics.

Born in Cleveland, Ohio, Glaser completed his B.Sc. degree in physics and mathematics from the Case Western Reserve University in 1946. He completed his Ph.D. in physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1949. Glaser accepted a position as an instructor at the University of Michigan, and was promoted to professor in 1957. He joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley, in 1959, as a Professor of Physics. During this time his research concerned short-lived elementary particles. The bubble chamber enabled him to observe the paths and lifetimes of the particles.

Starting in 1962, Glaser changed his field of research to molecular biology, starting with a project on ultraviolet-induced cancer. In 1964, he was given the additional title of Professor of Molecular Biology. Glaser's current position (since 1989) is Professor of Physics and Neurobiology in the Graduate School.

Contents

Background

Donald Glaser was born on September 21, 1926, in Cleveland, Ohio, to Russian immigrants. He enjoyed music and played the piano, violin, and viola. He went to Cleveland Heights High School, where he became interested in physics as a means to understand the physical world.[1]

Education and First Job

Glaser attended Case Institute of Technology, where he completed his Bachelor’s degree in physics and mathematics in 1946. During the course of his education there he became especially interested in particle physics.[2] He played viola in the Cleveland Philharmonic while at Case, and taught mathematics classes at the college after graduation.[3] He continued on to the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), where he pursued his Ph.D. in physics. His interest in particle physics led him to work with Nobel laureate Carl Anderson, studying cosmic rays with cloud chambers.[4] He preferred the accessibility of cosmic ray research over that of nuclear physics. While at Caltech he learned to design and build the equipment he needed for his experiments,[5] and this skill would prove to be useful throughout his career. He also attended molecular genetics seminars led by Nobel laureate Max Delbruck;[6] he would return to this field later. Glaser completed his doctoral thesis, “The Momentum Distribution of Charged Cosmic Ray Particles Near Sea Level,” after starting as an instructor at the University of Michigan in 1949.[7] He received his Ph.D. from Caltech in 1950, and he was promoted to Professor at Michigan in 1957.[8]

Bubble Chamber

A bubble chamber.

While teaching at Michigan, Glaser began to work on experiments that led to the creation of the bubble chamber.[9] His experience with cloud chambers at Caltech had shown him that they were inadequate in studying strange particles. In a cloud chamber, particles pass though gas and collide against metal plates that obscure the scientists’ view of the event. The cloud chamber also needs time to reset between recording events and cannot keep up with the high-energy accelerators used in studying strange particles.[10]

He experimented with using superheated liquid in a glass chamber. The strange particles would leave a track of bubbles as they passed through the liquid, and their tracks could be photographed. He created the first bubble chamber with ether.[11] He experimented with hydrogen while visiting the University of Chicago, showing that hydrogen would also work in the chamber.[12]

It has often been claimed that Glaser was inspired to his invention by the bubbles in a glass of beer; however, in a 2006 talk, he refuted this story, saying that although beer was not the inspiration for the bubble chamber, he did experiments using beer to fill early prototypes.[13]

His new invention was ideal for use with high-energy accelerators,[14] so Glaser traveled to Brookhaven National Laboratory with some students to study strange particles using the accelerator there. The images that he created with his bubble chamber brought recognition of the importance of his device, and he was able to get funding to continue experimenting with larger chambers. Glaser was then recruited by Nobel laureate Luis Alvarez,[15] who was working on a hydrogen bubble chamber at the University of California at Berkeley. Glaser accepted an offer to become a Professor of Physics there in 1959.[16]

Nobel Prize

Glaser was awarded a Nobel Prize for Physics in 1960 for the invention of the bubble chamber. His invention allowed scientists to observe what happens to high-energy beams from an accelerator, thus paving the way for many important discoveries.[17]

Transition to Molecular Biology

After winning the Nobel Prize, Glaser began to think about switching from physics into a new field. He wanted to concentrate on science, and found that as the experiments and equipment grew larger in scale and cost, he was doing more administrative work. He also anticipated that the ever more complex equipment would cause consolidation into fewer sites and would require more travel for physicists working in high-energy physics.[18] Recalling his interest in molecular genetics that began at Caltech, Glaser began to study biology. He spent a summer at MIT as a visiting professor and attended biology seminars there. He also spent a semester in Copenhagen with Ole Maaloe, the prominent Danish molecular biologist.[19]

He worked in UC Berkeley’s Virus Lab (now the Biochemistry and Virus Laboratory),[20] doing experiments with bacterial phages, bacteria, and mammalian cells. He studied the development of cancer cells, in particular the skin cancer xeroderma pigmentosum.[21] As with the bubble chamber, he used his experience designing equipment to improve the experimental process. He automated the process of pouring out agar, spreading culture, and counting colonies of cells using a machine he called the dumbwaiter. It took photographs, administered chemicals, and had a mechanical hand to pick up colonies.[22]

Commercial Ventures

While continuing to work at UC Berkeley, Glaser started Berkeley Scientific Laboratory with Bill Wattenberg in 1968. The short-lived partnership worked on automating diagnostic procedures.[23]

In 1971 he founded Cetus Corporation with Moshe Alafi, Ron Cape, and Peter Farley.[24] Glaser’s position was Chairman of the Science Advisory Board.[25] The founders felt that the knowledge scientists had gained about DNA had not yet been applied to solve real problems.[26] The company did microbial strain improvement,[27] and then genetic engineering,[28] becoming the first biotechnology company. Cetus was purchased by Chiron Corporation in 1991.[29]

Transition to Neurobiology

As molecular biology became more dependent on biochemistry, Glaser again considered a career change. His experience automating visual tasks in physics and molecular biology led him to an interest in human vision and how the brain processes what is seen. He began to work on computational modeling of the visual system and visual psychophysics.[30]

Notes

  1. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” pp. 2,6,8.
  2. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 15.
  3. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 12.
  4. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p.22.
  5. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p.22.
  6. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 20.
  7. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 28.
  8. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 43.
  9. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 37.
  10. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 31-32.
  11. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 37-38.
  12. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 44.
  13. ^ Anne Pinckard (21 July 2006). "Front Seat to History: Summer Lecture Series Kicks Off – Invention and History of the Bubble Chamber". Berkeley Lab View Archive. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. http://www.lbl.gov/Publications/Currents/Archive/Jul-21-2006.html#6. Retrieved 2009-10-03. 
  14. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 47.
  15. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 59.
  16. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 60.
  17. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” pp. 64-65.
  18. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 68.
  19. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 72.
  20. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” pp. 75-76.
  21. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 69.
  22. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” pp. 76-77.
  23. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 88.
  24. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” pp. 89-90.
  25. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 96.
  26. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 112.
  27. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” pp. 96-97.
  28. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 110.
  29. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 115.
  30. ^ Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” p. 116.

References

  • Donald Glaser, “The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology,” an oral history conducted in 2003-2004 by Eric Vettel, Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, 2006.

Resources

External links


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  • Donald Arthur Glaser — noun United States physicist who invented the bubble chamber to study subatomic particles (born in 1926) • Syn: ↑Glaser, ↑Donald Glaser • Instance Hypernyms: ↑nuclear physicist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Physiknobelpreis 1960: Donald Arthur Glaser —   Der amerikanische Physiker erhielt den Nobelpreis für die »Erfindung der Blasenkammer«.    Biografie   Donald Arthur Glaser, * Cleveland 21. 9. 1926; ab 1957 Professor für Physik an der University of Michigan, ab 1959 an der University of… …   Universal-Lexikon

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