Tverskoy District


Tverskoy District

Tverskoy District ( _ru. райо́н Тверско́й) is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of Moscow, Russia. The district extends from Kitai-gorod northwest to Belorussky and Savyolovsky Rail Terminals . Its southern boundary runs one or two city blocks south from Tverskaya Street; eastern boundary follows the track of the Neglinnaya River now flowing in a tunnel under Samotechnaya Street, Tsvetnoy Boulevard, and Neglinnaya Street.

Tverskoy District houses State Duma, Federation Council, the Mayor of Moscow, Moscow City Council, and Moscow Police Headquarters. It contains Theatre Square, the business district of Tverskaya Street with Pushkin Square, Petrovka Street, Dmitrovka Street, and the western part of Kuznetsky Most. It has the highest concentration of theatres, including Bolshoi Theatre and the historical Pillar Hall.

Historical areas of Patriarshy Ponds, Malaya Bronnaya Street, and most of Tverskoy Boulevard, while closely associtated with Tverskaya Street actually belong to Presnensky District. In 1990s, Tverskoy District also included Kitai-gorod, which is now a separate territory managed directly by Central Administrative Okrug.

History

"This section is based on P. V. Sytin's "History of Moscow Streets" [Russian: П.В.Сытин, "Из истории московских улиц", М, 1948 ("Sytin")]

Old Muscovy to 19th century

Tverskaya Street emerged, as the road to Tver, in the 12th century. Dmitrovka Street, the road to Dmitrov, and Petrovka Street, leading to Vysokopetrovsky Monastery, date back to the 14th century.

Until the 1820s, the territory of what is now Tverskoy District was separated from the Moscow Kremlin by the Neglinnaya River. Because of that, the city grew primarily eastward in the Middle Ages—into the Red Square and Kitai-Gorod—while the development of western territories lagged behind. A stone bridge connecting Tverskaya with the Red Square was built in 1595. Urban development in the western part concentrated along Tverskaya Street. In the late 15th century, it was built out with country-like wooden homes to Pushkin Square, and by the end of the 16th century the city extended beyond the present-day Garden Ring. First stone Boyar houses appeared in downtown Tverskaya around that time. In 1654, Strastnoy Monastery was set up in present-day Pushkin Square, and three years later, Odoyevsky family set up a stone mansion on the site of present-day Museum of Modern History (formerly Museum of Revolution), beyond the Bely Gorod walls. Dmitrovka Street also developed rapidly after the fire of 1648, as marked by the one-of-a-kind eight-tented church of Nativity in Putinki. Unusually for Moscow outskirts, it was financed by the State, as the church was located near the Embassy Inn ( _ru. Посольский двор), home to foreign guests. ["Sytin", p.190]

Peter the Great's move of the national capital to Saint Petersburg actually improved the leading role of Tverskaya Street, as it became the main road of royal journeys between two capitals. Tverskaya acquired Moscow's first triumphal arch (1703, giving name to Triumphalnaya Square), Gagarin family palace (1760s), and Zakhar Chernyshyov mansion (1782); later the seat of Moscow Governor, Mossovet, and currently of the Mayor of Moscow (which was rebuilt in the 1940s). The Fire of 1812 wiped out wealthy mansions and peasant homes alike, sparing only the Pushkin Square ["Sytin", p.128] ; Tverskaya was rebuilt as an upper-class street and retained this status ever since.

North-eastern side of Tverskoy District (east of Petrovka Street) lagged behind Tverskaya Street and Moscow's east side due to frequent floods on the Neglinnaya River. First attempt to control the river, proposed in 1775 by Matvey Kazakov, materialized in 1792 Neglinnaya Canal, which was running parallel to the river. Once the canal was completed, the old river bed was filled with earth. In 1817–1819, the channel was covered with masonry vaults, locking the stream in an underground tunnel. This created Neglinnaya Street, the youngest street inside Boulevard Ring, but did not rule out future floods. The most recent flood, in 1973, led to complete rebuilding of the aging tunnel (1974–1989, see [http://www.mosinzhproekt.ru/press-center/articles/print_neglinka.shtml 1965 flood photos] ) [Russian, Contractor report: Река Неглинная. История и современность, Мосинжроект, 2005 [http://www.mosinzhproekt.ru/press-center/articles/print_neglinka.shtml www.mosinzhproekt.ru] ] Another legacy of the Neglinnaya river survives in Central Baths (1890) and Sandunovsky Baths (1896). [Russian: "Москва начала века", М, ООО "O-Мастер", 2001 ISBN 5-9207-0001-7 стр.184 ("Builders of Moscow", p.184). Dates are for extant buildings. Sandunov family owned the baths since 18th century.] [Sandunovsky Baths on Neglinnays Street are actually located in Meshchansky District (on the eastern side of the street), just like the Central Bank of Russian Federation building.]

Theatre District

The first public theater, "Petrovsky Teatr", was set up in 1780 by English enterpeneur Michael Maddox and Prince Urusov in present-day Theatre Square. It burned down in October 1805 after 425 successful shows. [German: [http://russlandonline.ru/bolschoi/morenews.php?iditem=27 http://russlandonline.ru] ] In 1825, Joseph Bove built a new, larger Bolshoi Theatre on the same site. By this time, downtown stretch of the Neglinnaya River was contained in an underground tunnel; Peter's bastions of Kitai-gorod were razed, forming the Theatre Square. In the same 1825, landowner Vargin built Maly Theatre on his own adjacent lot. For the first five years, the State leased the building from Vargin; he was later convicted of fraud and the State bought out the building in 1832. ["Builders of Moscow", p.184] Owners of the opposite land lots were obliged to build houses exactly like Maly Theatre, forming a perfectly symmetrical neoclassical square with a parade ground and water fountain. The symmetry was eventually ruined by expansions in 1870s, which added the third theatre—originally Bronnikov private theater (now Molodyozhny Theater).

Another historical hall, the Assembly of Nobility (now "Dom Soyuzov") stands on the corner of Bolshaya Dmitrovka and Okhotny Ryad since 1790. The building, designed by Matvey Kazakov, was rebuilt externally, but the Pillar Hall inside it, famous for its acoustics, remains close to Kazakov's original draft. When the State lifted the ban on private theatres in 1882, tradition continued with Moscow Art Theatre in Kamergersky Lane (1902–1909) ["Builders of Russia", p.187 says "minor construction work proceeded till 1909". Substantial completion is usually dated 1903] , Yermolova Theatre (1925), Hermitage (1883), and Aquarium (1898) park theatres, etc. Currently, Tverskoy District has nineteen repertory theatres, the Pillar Hall, Tchaikovsky Hall (1940), and Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard (originally Salamonovsky Circus, 1880, rebuilt in 1987–1989).

Industrial expansion

Unlike Presnensky or Basmanny Districts, Tverskoy has, and always had, very few industrial properties. However, its northern part, beyond Garden Ring, developed into a working class neighborhood in line with the 19th century industrialization. Development began in the 18th century with the Butyrka prison (rebuilt to a castle shape in 1800). ["Builders of Moscow", p.42] For the next hundred years, the territories around the prison were filled with farms and small wooden homes. Things changed with the construction of railroads—Smolensk railroad station was built in 1870; current building, known as Belorussky Rail Terminal, was completed in 1909. Savyolovsky Rail Terminal and Moscow Ring Railroad followed in 1900s. Territories near the railroads were quickly used for factories, cheap housing for workers followed soon.

Miusskaya Square, located three blocks from Belorussky Terminal, was a site of unusual urban development, a new center of blue-collar social life. In the course of one decade, 1904–1914, the city and private sponsors built Abrikosova Hospital and Nursery (1906) ["Builders of Moscow", p.329] , Junior High School (1912) ["Builders of Moscow", p.372] , Shanyavsky University (1913) ["Builders of Moscow", p.382] , kindergartens, and trade schools. Development of similar social hubs in other working districts lagged behind and terminated with World War I and Russian Revolution of 1917.

Modern history

Redevelopment of Tverskaya Street began in late 1920s with infill buildings like Ivan Rerberg's Central Telegraph (1927), and Grigory Barkhin's Izvestia building in Pushkin Square (1927). This was followed by demolition of Okhotny Ryad and Manege Square.

Major reconstruction of Tverskaya Street began in 1937 with demolition of Strastnoy Monastery and dozens of smaller buildings. Three buildings, including Savvinskoye Podvorye, Mossovet building, and the Eye Clinic, were spared from demolition and moved to new foundations farther from the street. As a result, Savvinskoye Podvorye is now completely locked inside a 1930s stalinist block. Another building, a print shop at Pushkin Square, was moved in the 1970s to make way for Izvestia expansion. [М.Трубилина, "Переезды во сне и наяву", Российская Газета, 1 марта 2004, [http://www.rg.ru/2004/03/01/pereezdy.html www.rg.ru] ]

Design of the first stretch of new Gorky Street (the name of Tverskaya since 1935) was awarded to Arkady Mordvinov, 1929 graduate in architecture known for his ultra-left public statements. Mordvinov proved himself a good project manager, successfully testing so-called "flow method" of fast-track construction. By 1941, most of central Gorky Street was completed; the rest was built out after World War II.

In the 1970s, the street acquired Brezhnev-era boxlike buildings of 23-story Intourist Hotel (1970, demolished in 2002 [Russian: illustrated contractor's report on demolition [http://www.krealist.ru/showinfo.php?id=50 www.krealist.ru] ] ) and smaller Minsk Hotel and New Izvestia building; less controversial pseudo-stalinist infill buildings followed in 1980s and late 1990s. However, outside Tverskaya, historical buildings and neighborhoods were being demolished throughout 1990s and 2000s. Many blocks in Novoslobodskaya area are already rebuilt in post-2000 highrise. The City has declared plans to reconstruct Pushkin Square and Belorussky Terminal Square with mult-level underground tunnels, shopping space, and parking. [English: Pushkin Square Under Threat, The Moscow Times, 24.10.2006 [http://www.maps-moscow.com/index.php?chapter_id=149&data_id=229&do=view_single MAPS] ]

Population of Tverskoy District is traditionally affluent and educated, with a substantial share of foreigners (most of them are not included in official population count). Its ethnic mix, changing rapidly since 1980s, has high shares of Tatars, Armenians and Jews; once-strong Ukrainian community has dispersed. [Russian: Ethicity maps in: Вендина, Ольга (ред.) Москва этническая: грозит ли городу геттоизация? "Население и общество", 2004, N177 [http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/2004/0177/tema03.php www.demoscope.ru] ] Like all Central Okrug population, Tverskoy residents have life expectancy of three to four years higher than other Muscovites, attributed to better education and social status. [Russian: Mortality
http://www.rg.ru/2007/02/19/moskva-jizn.html www.rg.ru]
]

Notable buildings, cultural, and educational facilities

Public transportation access

*Teatralnaya, Okhotny Ryad, Kuznetsky Most - city center
*Pushkinskaya, Chekhovskaya, Tverskaya - Pushkin Square
*Mayakovskaya
*Belorusskaya-Radialnaya, Belorusskaya-Koltsevaya - Belorussky Rail Terminal and Miusskaya Square
*Tsvetnoy Boulevard
*Mendeleevskaya, Novoslobodskaya - Miusskaya Square
*Savyolovskaya - Savyolovsky Rail Terminal (northern extremity)

References

External links

* [http://tveruprava.ru/ Official website of Tverskoy District]


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