66th Armor Regiment (United States)


66th Armor Regiment (United States)

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=66th Armor Regiment


caption=66th Armor Regiment coat of arms
dates=February 1918-
country=USA
allegiance=
branch=Regular Army
type=armor regiment
role=
size=
command_structure=
current_commander=
garrison=
ceremonial_chief=
colonel_of_the_regiment=
nickname=Iron Knights
patron=
motto="Semper in Hostes"
colors=Yellow. Red and Blue
march=
mascot=
battles=World War I
World War II
Korean War
War in Southwest Asia
Iraq Campaign
notable_commanders=George S. Patton(304th Tank Brigade)
Elgin Braine (305th Tank Brigade)
anniversaries=

The 66th Armor Regiment is the oldest Armored unit in the United States Army, tracing its lineage to the beginning of the Tank Service in February 1918 under the command of Col. George S. Patton.

History

The regiment participated in the battles of St. Mihiel, France, where it received its baptism of fire in the Meuse-Argonne and the Somme Offensives. The casualties among the officers and men were heavy during the short period the regiment participated in World War I and their valor was recognized by General John J. Pershing in the following words: "The percentage of casualties among the officers and men tells the tale of splendid morale and gallantry in action and their unselfish devotion to duty".

The numerical designation of the regiment was changed several times during the period of 1918 to 1928. On 15 July 1940, the unit was redesignated from the "66th Infantry (Light Tanks)" to "66th Armored Regiment" as part of the newly-formed 2nd Armored Division, stationed at Fort Benning, Georgia.

In December 1942, the regiment participated in the amphibious invasion of French Morocco in North Africa and led the division's entry into Casablanca. The regiment participated in the invasion of Sicily and through fierce fighting earned the unit six battle streamers during the war.

In 1944, the regiment went into action on the European Continent, landing on Omaha Beach on D+3 (June 9, 1944.) Four days later the regiment (as part of Combat Command A of the 2nd Armored Division) decisively defeated the German 6th Fallschirmjager Regiment and elements of the 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division southwest of Carentan, France at the Battle of Bloody Gulch. The regiment rolled across France to the German border with the rest of the division and the U.S. Third Army, but was diverted north to counter the German advance during the Battle of the Bulge, assisting in the destruction of the 2nd Panzer Division and capturing Houffalize, Belgium.

As a result of its exemplary conduct in the liberation of Belgium, the regiment was twice cited in the Order of the Day of the Belgian Army. Captain James M. Burt, the commander of B Company, 66th Armored Regiment, was awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroism during the Battle of Aachen in October 1944. Captain Burt later served as Honorary Colonel of the Regiment.

Following the war, elements of the 66th and other units of the Second Armored Division were selected to occupy the American sector of Berlin and serve as the first American troops to enter the fallen German capital.

During the Korean War, an offspring of the 66th fought under the designation "6th Tank Battalion". During the war, the sixth won seven battle streamers and the Korean Presidential Unit Citation. These honors were awarded to the 66th Armored Regiment when the 6th Tank Battalion was deactivated after the conflict.

Throughout the Cold War the four battalions of the regiment served as part of the 2nd Armored Division at both Ft. Hood, Texas and in the Federal Republic of Germany.

In 1991, during Operation Desert Storm, the regiment again proved its worth by assisting in the liberation of Kuwait and the push towards Iraq. The 2nd and 3rd battalions of the 66th Armored Regiment, part of the 2nd Armored Division (Forward) stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany, deployed and fought under the operational control of the 1st Infantry Division. The 4th battalion, along with the 3d (Phantom) Brigade of the 3rd Infantry Division, was attached to the 1st Armored Division. The Phantom Brigade became the 1st Armor's lead brigade for VII Corps' "left hook" to smash the Iraqi Republican Guard divisions.

In the Spring of 1995, the 1st Battalion of the 66th was assigned to assist over 5,000 Cuban and Haitian refugees interned at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

66th Armor Today

As of 2008 two battalions of the regiment are still in active service. First Battalion is assigned to the 1st Brigade of the 4th Infantry Division at Ft. Hood. The First Battalion has participated in combat operations in Operation Iraqi Freedom. On March 17, 2008 1st Battalion, 77th Armor was reflagged as 3rd Battalion, 66th Armor as part of the activation ceremony of the 172nd Infantry Brigade (United States). The unit is currently stationed at Schweinfurt, Germany.

Coat of Arms

*Shield::Tierced in pairle reversed gules, azure, and or; in chief a label of three points argent.:On dexter side an inescutcheon of the second fimbriated, semé-de-lis, overall a saltire all of the last.
*Crest:: On a wreath of the three colors a wyvern without wings sinister couchant reguardant argent, grasping in its dexter claw a pine tree inverted and eradicated proper.:On its neck a label of three points azureMotto: "Sempre in Hostes". "(Always into the enemy)".
*Symbolism:The coat of arms was originally approved for the "15th Tank Battalion", part of which was in the old "304th Tank Brigade". Therefore, the shield and crest of the 304th Tank Brigade are used with the label added for difference.:The shield is of the colors of the "Tank Corps Shoulder Sleeve Insignia".:The Brigade was organized at Langres, France, in 1918, and the arms of Langres are shown on an inescutcheon differenced by a silver border and changing the cross from red to silver.:The wyvern is from the original insignia of the "French Tank Corps".:The uprooted pine tree commemorates the activities of the brigade in the "Argonne Forest" during the "Meuse-Argonne" operations.

Lineage

World War I

*Organized in August 1918 in the American Expeditionary Forces in France as Headquarters and Headquarters Companies, 1st and 2d Provisional Brigades, Tank Corps.
*Redesignated 6 November 1918 as Headquarters and Headquarters Companies, 304th and 305th Brigades, Tank Corps, respectively
*Consolidated and redesignated 22 June 1921 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Tank Group
*Reorganized and redesignated 1 September 1929 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Tank Regiment; remainder of the 1st Tank Regiment organized from existing units as follows:::16th Tank Battalion reorganized and redesignated as the 1st Battalion, 1st Tank Regiment (16th Tank Battalion organized in 1918 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 327th Battalion, Tank Corps, and Company C, 1st Separate Battalion, Heavy Tank Service, 65th Engineers)::15th Tank Battalion reorganized and redesignated as the 2d Battalion, 1st Tank Regiment (15th Tank Battalion organized in 1918 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, and Companies A and C, 1st Battalion, 1st Tank Center, and Company A, 1st Separate Battalion, Heavy Tank Service, 65th Engineers)::18th Tank Battalion redesignated as the 3d Battalion, 1st Tank Regiment (18th Tank Battalion organized in 1918 as the 329th Battalion, Tank Corps, and Headquarters and Headquarters Company, ::328th Battalion, Tank Corps; inactivated 29 July 1922)::21st Tank Maintenance Company redesignated as the Service Company (21st Tank Maintenance Company organized in 1918 as the 316th Repair and Salvage Company, Tank Corps)
*(3d Battalion activated 16 September 1931 at Camp Devens, Massachusetts)
*1st Tank Regiment converted and redesignated 25 October 1932 as the 66th Infantry (Light Tanks)
*(Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 66th Infantry [Light Tanks] inactivated 1 September 1938 at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland; Headquarters Company activated 16 October 1939 at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland; Headquarters activated 10 January 1940)

World War II

*Converted and redesignated 15 July 1940 as the 66th Armored Regiment and assigned to the 2d Armored Division
*Regiment broken up 25 March 1946 and its elements reorganized and redesignated as elements of the 2d Armored Division as follows:::Regimental Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, and Company D as the 66th Tank Battalion::2nd Battalion (less Company D) and Headquarters Company, 3d Battalion, as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Companies A and B, and Service Company, 6th Tank Battalion (remainder of 6th Tank Battalion organized from elements of the 67th Armored Regiment)::Reconnaissance Company as Troop D, 82d Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, Mechanized::Service Company as the Service Company, 12th Armored Infantry Battalion::(Band as the 2d Armored Division Band hereafter - separate lineage)::3d Battalion (less Headquarters Company) and Maintenance Company disbanded
*After 25 March 1946 the above units underwent changes as follows:::66th Tank Battalion redesignated 5 January 1949 as the 66th Medium Tank Battalion Redesignated 1 April 1953 as the 66th Tank Battalion Inactivated (less Company A) 1 July 1957 in Germany and relieved from assignment to the 2d Armored Division::6th Tank Battalion redesignated 31 January 1949 as the 6th Medium Tank Battalion Relieved 14 July 1950 from assignment to the 2d Armored Division Assigned 29 October 1950 to the 24th Infantry Division Redesignated 10 November 1951 as the 6th Tank Battalion Inactivated 5 June 1958 in Korea and relieved from assignment to the 24th Infantry Division::Troop D, 82d Mechanized Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, redesignated 17 January 1948 as Company D, 82d Reconnaissance Battalion Inactivated 1 July 1957 in Germany and relieved from assignment to the 2d Armored Division::Service Company, 12th Armored Infantry Battalion, redesignated 11 October 1948 as Company D, 12th Armored Infantry Battalion Inactivated 1 July 1957 in Germany and relieved from assignment to the 2d Armored Division::Maintenance Company and Companies G, H, and I, 66th Armored Regiment, reconstituted 1 July 1957 in the Regular Army
*6th Tank Battalion (less Companies C and D); 66th Tank Battalion; Company D, 82d Reconnaissance Battalion; Company D, 12th Armored Infantry Battalion; and the Maintenance Company and Companies G, H, I, 66th Armored Regiment, consolidated, reorganized and redesignated 1 July 1957 as the 66th Armor, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System (Companies C and D, 6th Tank Battalion reorganized and redesignated as elements of the 67th Armor -- hereafter separate lineages)
*Withdrawn 1 October 1983 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System

Honors

Campaign Participation Credit

*World War I:
# Somme Offensive;
# St. Mihiel;
# Meuse-Argonne

*World War II:
# Algeria-French Morocco (with arrowhead);
# Sicily (with arrowhead);
# Normandy;
# Northern France;
# Rhineland;
# Ardennes-Alsace;
# Central Europe

*Korean War:
# UN Defensive;
# UN Offensive;
# CCF Intervention;
# First UN Counteroffensive;
# CCF Spring Offensive;
# UN Summer-Fall Offensive;
# Second Korean Winter;
# Korea, Summer 1953

*Southwest Asia:
# Defense of Saudi Arabia;
# Liberation and Defense of Kuwait;
# Cease-Fire

*Operation Iraqi Freedom

Decorations

#Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for NORMANDY
#Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for VIRE RIVER
#Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for ROER RIVER
#Valorous Unit Award for IRAQ-KUWAIT
#Belgian Fourragere 1940
#Cited in the Order of the Day of the Belgian Army for action in BELGIUM 1944
#Cited in the Order of the Day of the Belgian Army for action in the ARDENNES

Bibliography

*American Forces in Action Series; Historical Division; US Army Center of Military History
#OMAHA BEACHHEAD (6 June-13 June 1944); CMH Pub 100-11.
#UTAH BEACH TO CHERBOURG (6 June-27 June 1944); CMH Pub 100-12
#ST-LO (7 July - 19 July 1944); CMH Pub 100-13
#UNITED STATES ARMY IN THE KOREAN WAR; POLICY AND DIRECTION: THE FIRST YEAR; CMH Pub 20-1-1
#__________; SOUTH TO THE NAKTONG,NORTH TO THE YALU (June-November 1950) CMH Pub 20-2-1
#__________; TRUCE TENT AND FIGHTING FRONT; CMH Pub 20-3-1
#__________; EBB AND FLOW NOVEMBER 1950-JULY 1951; CMH pub
* Other Publications
#Barth, George B. Tropic Lightning and Taro leaf in Korea. N.p.: 1953.
#Blumenson, Martin. Breakout and Pursuit. 1961
#Cole, Hugh M. The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge. 1965
#Harrison, Gordon A. Cross-Channel Attack. 1951.
#Garland, Albert N., and Howard McGaw Smith. Sicily and the Surrender of Italy. 1965.
#Howe, George F. Northwest Africa: Seizing the initiative in the West. 1957.
#MacDonald, Charles B. The Siegfried Line Campaign. 1963.
#Stadtmauer, Saul A.., editor. A Pictorial History of the Victory Division in Korea. Tokyo, Japan: 1953.Unit Members. A History of the Second Armored Division, 1940—1946. Atlanta, Georgia] : 1946.
#____________. Brief History of the 6th Tank Battalion (Medium), 1918—1953, Organization Day March 25. Japan: 1952.
#____________ Hell on Wheels, War Against the Axis, 1942—1945.
#____________ 24th infantry Division, A Brief History. The Story of the 24th Division’s Actions in the Korean Conflict. Tokyo, Japan: 1954.

External links

* [http://www.hood.army.mil/4ID/ 1-66th AR Website (4th ID)]
* [http://www.history.army.mil/html/forcestruc/lineages/branches/ar/066ar.htm Lineage and Honors 66th Armor (Iron Knights)] ]


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