Tucuxi


Tucuxi

Taxobox
name = Tucuxi
status = DD
status_system = iucn2.3



image2_width = 250px
image2_caption = Size comparison against an average human
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Mammalia
ordo = Cetacea
familia = Delphinidae
genus = "Sotalia"
species = "S. fluviatilis"
binomial = "Sotalia fluviatilis"
binomial_authority = (Gervais & Deville, 1853)
range_

range_map_width = 250px
range_map_caption = Tucuxi range

The Tucuxi ("Sotalia fluviatilis") is a dolphin found both in the rivers of the Amazon Basin and in the coastal waters to the north and east of South America. The word "tucuxi" (pronounced too-koo-shi) is derived from the Tupi language word "tuchuchi-ana" and has now been adopted as the species' common name. Despite being found in similar geographic locations to 'true' river dolphins such as the Boto, the Tucuxi is not closely related to them genetically. Instead it is classed in the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). Physically the species, particularly the marine variety, resembles the Bottlenose Dolphin. However, this species is sufficiently different from the Bottlenose Dolphin that it is given its own genus, "Sotalia".

Description

The Tucuxi is frequently described (see three references below) as looking similar to the Bottlenose Dolphin. However it is typically smaller, in particular the riverine ecotype (150cm) which is smaller than its marine counterpart (up to 210cm). The dolphin is coloured light to bluish grey on its back and sides. The ventral region is much lighter, often pinkish in the riverine ecotype and a lighter gray in the marine. The dorsal fin is typically slightly hooked, particularly so amongst the riverine groups. The beak is well-defined and of moderate length.

Distribution

The marine Tucuxi is found close to estuaries, inlets and other protected shallow water areas around the east to north South America coast. It has been reported as far south as Southern Brazil and north as far as Nicaragua. One report exists of the animal reaching Honduras.The riverine Tucuxi exists along much the length of the Amazon River and many of its tributaries, and is found in Peru, south-east Colombia, eastern Ecuador. Plenty of examples have been seen in the Orinoco River further north, though it is not clear whether these are riverine or lost marine individuals.

Behaviour

Both marine and freshwater exist in small groups of about 10-15 individuals, occasionally up to 30 in marine environments and swim in tight-knit groups, suggesting a highly developed social structure. Tucuxis are quite active and may jump clear of the water (a behavior known as Breaching), somersault, spy-hop or tail-splash. They are unlikely however to approach boats.

Tucuxis have been observed to feed with other river dolphins. They feed on a wide variety of fish. Studies of growth layers suggest that the species can live up to 30 (marine) to 35 (river) years.

Conservation

The Tucuxi is endemic to the regions described above and, although no precise estimates of population are available, it is common. Possible natural predators are the Orca and Bull Shark. Such predation has not been observed. A significant human problem are fishing nets. Reliable figures do not exist on the number of Tucuxis accidentally killed each year due to entanglements. Another major problem in some areas is boating and tourism. Small fishing boats sometimes collide with the Tucuxi dolphins which are not fast enough to swim out of danger in time to avoid these collision. Deliberate hunting in the Amazon Basin, for food or for use as shark bait at sea, has also been reported. Pollution, in particular mercury poisoning of water due to gold-mining, is a particular concern for this species, which exists only close to shore.

Tucuxis are observed not to maintain good health and attitude in captive environments. A few Tucuxis remain in captivity in European aquaria.

References

* Database entry includes a lengthy justification of why this species is listed as data deficient
*"National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World" ISBN 0-375-41141-0
*"Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals" ISBN 0-12-551340-2
*"Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises", Mark Carwardine, ISBN 0-7513-2781-6

External links

* [http://www.projetoboto.com/ Projeto Boto] - a non-profit research project that is increasing knowledge, understanding and the conservation prospects of the Amazon's two endemic dolphins - the boto ("Inia geoffrensis") and the tucuxi ("Sotalia fluviatilis")
* [http://www.wdcs.org Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society (WDCS)]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tucuxi — Sotalia fluviatilis • Sotalie de l Amazone Tucuxi …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Tucuxi — Sotalia Systematik Ordnung: Wale (Cetacea) Unterordnung: Zahnwale (Odontoceti) Familie: Delfine (Delphinidae) Gattung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • tucuxi — noun A dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis, found in the rivers of the Amazon Basin …   Wiktionary

  • Tucuxi — Amazonas Sotalia …   Universal-Lexikon

  • tucuxi — …   Useful english dictionary

  • Amazonas-Sotalia — Tucuxi …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Sotalia fluviatilis —   Tucuxi Tucuxi saltando en el …   Wikipedia Español

  • Costero — Size comparison against an average human Conservation status …   Wikipedia

  • Cetacea — Cetaceans[1] Temporal range: 55–0 Ma …   Wikipedia

  • Inia geoffrensis —   Delfín rosado …   Wikipedia Español


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