- Statute of Rhuddlan
Documents relevant to personal and
legislative unions of the Countries
of the United Kingdom
- Treaty of Perth (1266)
- Statute of Rhuddlan 1284
- Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542
- Crown of Ireland Act 1542
- Union of the Crowns
- Treaty of Union 1706
- Acts of Union 1707
- Irish Constitution of 1782
- Acts of Union 1800
- Government of Ireland Act 1920
- Anglo-Irish Treaty, 1921
- Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927
- Government of Wales Act 1998
- Northern Ireland Act 1998
- Scotland Act 1998
- Government of Wales Act 2006
The Statute of Rhuddlan (Welsh: Statud Rhuddlan, Welsh pronunciation: [ˈr̥ɨðlan], approximately "RITH-lan"), also known as the Statutes of Wales (Latin: Statuta Wallie) or as the Statute of Wales (Statutum Wallie) provided the constitutional basis for the government of the Principality of North Wales from 1284 until 1536. The statute was enacted on 3 March 1284 and promulgated on 19 March at Rhuddlan Castle in North Wales, after careful consideration of the position by Edward I.
The status of the Prince of Gwynedd had been recognised by the English crown as Prince of Wales in 1267, holding his lands with the king of England as his overlord. This position was held by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Lord of Aberffraw, and briefly held after his death by his successor Dafydd ap Gruffudd. This meant that when Llywelyn rebelled, it was an act of treason. Accordingly, his lands escheated to the king of England and Edward I took possession of the Principality of Wales by military conquest from 1282 to 1283. By this means the principality became 'united and annexed' to the crown of England.
Following his conquest Edward I erected four new marcher lordships in northeast Wales, Chirk, Bromfield and Yale, Duffryn Clwyd and Denbigh; and one in South Wales, Cantref Bychan. He restored the principality of Powys Wenwynwyn to Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn who had suffered at the hands of Llewellyn, and he and his successor Owen de la Pole held it as a marcher lordship. Rhys ap Maredudd of Dryslwyn would have been in a similar position in Cantref Mawr, having adhered to the king during Llewellyn's rebellion, but he forfeited his lands by rebelling in 1287. A few other minor Welsh nobles submitted in time to retain their lands, but became little more than gentry.
The English crown already had a means of governing South Wales in the honours of Carmarthen and Cardigan, which went back to 1240. These became counties under the government of the Justiciar of South Wales (or of West Wales), who was based in Carmarthen. The changes of the period made little difference in the substantial swathe of land from Pembrokeshire through South Wales to the Welsh Borders which was already in the hands of the marcher lords. Nor did they alter the administration of the royal lordships of Montgomery and Builth, which retained their existing institutions.
The Statute of Rhuddlan was issued from Rhuddlan Castle in North Wales, one of the 'iron ring' of fortresses built by Edward I, to control his newly conquered lands. It provided the constitutional basis for the government of what was called 'The Land of Wales' or 'the kings lands of Snowdon and his other lands in Wales', but subsequently called the 'Principality of North Wales'. The Statute divided the principality into the counties of Anglesey, Merionethshire, Caernarfonshire, and Flintshire, which were created out of the remnants of the Kingdom of Gwynedd in North Wales. Flintshire was created out of the lordships of Tegeingl, Hopedale, and Maelor Saesneg. It was adminstered with the Palatinate of Cheshire by the Justiciar of Chester.
The other three counties were overseen by a Justiciar of North Wales and a provincial exchequer at Caernarfon, run by the Chamberlain of North Wales, who accounted for the revenues he collected to the Exchequer at Westminster. Under them were royal officials such as sheriffs, coroners, and bailiffs to collect taxes and administer justice. The king had ordered an inquiry into what rents and other dues the princes had been entitled to, and these were enforced by the new officials. At the local level, commotes became hundreds, but their customs, boundaries and offices remained largely unchanged.
Law in Wales under the Statute
The Statute introduced the English common law system to Wales, but the law administered was not precisely the same as in England. The criminal law was much the same, with felonies, such as murder, larceny, and robbery prosecuted before the justiciar, as in England. The English writs and forms of action, such as novel disseisin, debt, and dower, operated, but with oversight from Caernarfon, rather than the distant Westminster. However, the Welsh practice of settling disputes by arbitration was retained. The procedure for debt was in advance of that in England, in that a default judgment could be obtained. In land law, the Welsh practice of partible inheritance continued, but in accordance with English practice:
- Daughters could inherit their father's lands if there was no son.
- Widows were entitled to dower in a third of their late husband's lands.
- Bastards were excluded from inheriting.
- ^ Francis Jones (1969). The Princes and Principality of Wales. University of Wales Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=7SWTAAAAIAAJ. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- ^ G. W. S. Barrow (1956). Feudal Britain: the completion of the medieval kingdoms, 1066-1314. E. Arnold. http://books.google.com/books?id=_FlnAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- ^ Davies, R. R. (2000), The Age of Conquest: Wales 1063-1415, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198208782
- ^ Davies, Age of Conquest, 363.
- ^ Davies, Age of Conquest, 361.
- ^ Davies, R. R. (1987), Conquest, Coexistence and Change: Wales 1063-1415, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ch. 14, ISBN 0198217323 .
- ^ Davies, Age of Conquest, 357 364.
- ^ Davies, Age of Conquest, pp. 357–60.
- ^ Davies, Age of Conquest, p. 356.
- ^ J. Graham Jones (January 1990). The history of Wales: a pocket guide. University of Wales Press. p. 32. ISBN 9780708310762. http://books.google.com/books?id=xA0XAQAAIAAJ. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- ^ Davies, Age of Conquest, p. 364.
- ^ Brian L. Blakeley; Jacquelin Collins (1 January 1993). Documents in British History: Early times to 1714. McGraw-Hill. p. 74. ISBN 9780070057012. http://books.google.com/books?id=U7cIAQAAMAAJ. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- ^ Davies, Age of Conquest, pp. 364–5.
- ^ Hilaire Barnett (2004). Constitutional and Administrative Law (5th edition). Cavendish Publishing. p. 59.
- ^ Davies, Age of Conquest, pp. 367–70.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Rhuddlan Castle — is a Welsh castle located in Rhuddlan, Denbighshire. It was erected by King Edward I beginning in 1277, but was not completed until 1282. The castle sits alongside the River Clwyd, which allowed the castle to be provisioned through a special… … Wikipedia
Rhuddlan (district) — infobox historic subdivision Name= Rhuddlan HQ= Rhyl Status= Borough Start= 1974 End= 1996 Replace= Denbighshire Arms= The Borough of Rhuddlan was one of six districts of the county of Clwyd, north east Wales, from 1974 to 1996. It was formed… … Wikipedia
Rhuddlan — infobox UK place country= Wales welsh name= constituency welsh assembly= Vale of Clwyd constituency westminster= Vale of Clwyd official name= Rhuddlan unitary wales= Denbighshire lieutenancy wales= Clwyd population= 4,296 (2001 Census) post town … Wikipedia
Statut de rhuddlan — Le Statut de Rhuddlan (en anglais Statute of Rhuddlan) fut promulgué le 19 mars 1284 après l achèvement de la conquête du Pays de Galles par le roi anglais Édouard Ier. Il fut signé au château de Rhuddlan dans le nord du Pays de… … Wikipédia en Français
Statut de Rhuddlan — Le Statut de Rhuddlan (en anglais Statute of Rhuddlan) fut promulgué le 19 mars 1284 après l achèvement de la conquête du Pays de Galles par le roi anglais Édouard Ier. Il fut signé au château de Rhuddlan dans le nord du Pays de… … Wikipédia en Français
United Kingdom — a kingdom in NW Europe, consisting of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: formerly comprising Great Britain and Ireland 1801 1922. 58,610,182; 94,242 sq. mi. (244,100 sq. km). Cap.: London. Abbr.: U.K. Official name, United Kingdom of Great… … Universalium
Wales — This article is about the country. For other uses, see Wales (disambiguation) … Wikipedia
Kingdom of Gwynedd — Infobox Former Country native name = Teyrnas Gwynedd conventional long name = Kingdom of GwyneddRef|1 common name = Gwynedd |continent = Europe region = British Isles country = Wales era = Middle Ages government type = Monarchy |event start =… … Wikipedia
Welsh law — For the current Welsh law, see Contemporary Welsh Law. For the law currently in force in England and Wales, see English law. Drawing of a judge from the Peniarth 28 manuscript … Wikipedia
Edward I of England — Edward I redirects here. For other kings who might be known by this name, see King Edward. Edward I Longshanks … Wikipedia