Latino sine Flexione


Latino sine Flexione

language
name=Latino sine flexione
creator=Giuseppe Peano
date=1903
setting=international auxiliary language
speakers=virtually extinct
fam2=auxiliary language
posteriori=Completely based on Latin, but influenced by ideas in other auxiliary languages

Latino sine flexione (Latin without inflections) is an auxiliary language invented by the Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano (1858 - 1932) in 1903. It is a simplified version of Latin, and retains its vocabulary. It was published in the journal "Rivista di Matematica", vol. 8, number 3, pp. 74-83, in an article entitled "De Latino Sine Flexione, Lingua Auxiliare Internationale", which explained the reason for its creation. The article argued that other auxiliary languages were unnecessary, since Latin was already established as the world's international language. The article was written in classical Latin, but it gradually dropped its inflections until there were none.

Originally, Latino sine flexione was sometimes known as "Interlingua" but should not be confused with the later, better known Interlingua presented by the International Auxiliary Language Association in 1951. After Interlingua was introduced, Latino sine flexione was sometimes called "Interlingua de Peano" to distinguish the two languages.

Though Peano removed the inflections of Latin from nouns and adjectives, he did not entirely remove grammatical gender, permitting the option of a feminine ending for . The gender of animals is immutable. All forms of nouns end with a vowel and are taken from the ablative case, but as this was not listed in most Latin dictionaries, he gave the rule for its derivation from the genitive case. The plural is not required when not necessary, such as when a number has been specified, the plural can be read from the context, and so on. Verbs have few inflections of conjugation; tenses and moods are instead indicated by verb adjuncts. The result is a change to a positional language.

Nouns

Nouns that have no inflection are used as is: ad, in, et, non, semper, heri, quatuor, etc. Others are as follows:

Latin declension number (genitive ending)1: -æ2: -i3: -is4: -us5: -ei
Latino ending-a-o-e-u-e

Latin declension/nominative formLatin genitiveLatinoEnglish
1st: rosarosærosarose
2nd: lauruslaurilaurolaurel
3rd: paxpacispacepeace
4th: casuscasuscasucase
5th: seriesserieiserieseries

Pronouns

NumberSingularPlural
1st personmenos
2nd persontevos
3rd personillo (male), illa (female), id (it)illos
Reflexivesese

Verbs

Verbs are formed from the Latin by dropping the final "-re" of the infinitive. Tense, mood, etc., are indicated by particles, auxiliary verbs, or adverbs, but none is required if the sense is clear from the context. If needed, the past may be indicated by preceding the verb with "e", and the future with "i".

There are specific endings to create the infinitive and participles:
*basic form: ama (loves)
*infinitive: amare (to love)
*past participle: amato (loved)
*present participle: amante (loving)

Adjectives and adverbs

Adjectives are formed as follows:
*If the nominative neuter ends with -e, the Latino form is unchanged.
*If the nominative neuter ends with -um, the Latino form is changed to -o: novum > novo (new).
*In all other cases adjectives are formed with the ablative case from the genitive, as is the case with nouns.

Adjectives can be used as adverbs if the context is clear, or "cum mente" or "in modo" can be used:
*Diligente (diligent): "Cum mente diligente", "cum diligente mente", "in modo diligente", "in diligente modo" = diligently.

Articles

As with Latin, neither the definite nor the indefinite article exists in Latino sine Flexione. When necessary they may be translated with pronouns or words such as "illo" (it, that) or "uno" (one):

*da ad me libro = give me (the) book
*da ad me hoc libro = give me this book
*da ad me illo libro = give me that book
*da ad me uno libro = give me a book
*da ad me illo meo libro = give me that book of mine
*da ad me uno meo libro = give me a book of mine

Pronunciation

According to Peano's guide to the language in 1931, "most Interlinguists are in favour of the old Latin pronunciation." This gives the pronunciation of vowels as follows:

*a--as in father -- [a]
*e--as in they or as -- [e, (æ)]
*i--as in feet -- [i]
*o--as in tone -- [o]
*u--as in rule -- [u]
*y--as French u -- [y]
*j--as in yes -- [j]

Consonants are sounded as in English with the following exceptions:

*b--like English b, but like p if followed by s or t -- [b, p]
*c--like k always, as in can, cat -- [k]
*g--like g in go, get -- [g]
*h--silent in th, ph, ch, rh, otherwise like English h -- [h, Ø]
*q--as qu in quarrel -- [kʷ]
*r--as in correct (trilled) -- [r]
*v--like English w or v. -- [w, v]
*x--as ks. -- [ks]

The following simplifications to pronunciation are also allowed:

*y and j--as i in tin -- [ɪ]
*ae and oe--exactly like latin [e] above
*b--always like English b -- [b]
*h--silent always -- [Ø]
*ph--as f -- [f]
*v--like English v -- [v]

The principal accent is always on the penultimate (second from the last) syllable, and secondary accent may be placed when necessary as the speaker deems appropriate.

Proper nouns

Those written with the Roman alphabet are kept as close to the original as possible: München, New York, Roma, Giovanni.

Language examples

« Latino es lingua internationale in occidente de Europa ab tempore de imperio romano, per toto medio aevo, et in scientia usque ultimo seculo. Seculo vigesimo es primo que non habe lingua commune. Hodie quasi omne auctore scribe in proprio lingua nationale, id es in plure lingua neo-latino, in plure germanico, in plure slavo, in nipponico et alio. Tale multitudine de linguas in labores de interesse commune ad toto humanitate constitute magno obstaculo ad progressu. »

Translation: Latin was the international language in the west of Europe from the time of the Roman Empire, throughout the Middle Ages, and in the sciences until the last century. The 20th century is the first that does not have a common language. Today almost all authors write in their own national languages, that is in neo-latin languages, in germanic, in slavic, in Japanese, and others. This multitude of languages in works of communal interest to the whole of humanity constitutes a large obstacle to progress.

The Lord's Prayer

Latin proverbs converted to Latino sine flexione

LatinLatino sine flexioneEnglish
Vox populi, vox Dei.Voce de populo, voce de Deo.The voice of the people is the voice of God.
Hodie mihi, cras tibi.Hodie ad me, cras ad te.It is my lot today, yours to-morrow.
Gratia gratiam generat, lis litem generat.Gratia genera gratia, lite genera lite.Goodwill begets goodwill, bickering begets bickering.
In medio stat virtus.Virtute sta in medio.Virtue stands in the middle.
Qui non laborat, non manducet.Qui non labora, non debe manduca.He that laboureth not, let him not eat.
Medice, cura te ipsum.Medico, cura te ipso.Physician, cure thyself.
De gustibus non est disputandum.Nos ne debe disputa de gustu.There is no disputing about tastes.

See also

*Dog Latin - Latin without conjugation or declension

References

External links

* [http://www.europeano.org Europeano.org]
* [http://www.geocities.com/athens/olympus/2948/ Europeano: Latin without Inflexions] - Information about Latino sine flexione and some writings of Giuseppe Peano
* [http://www.homunculus.com/babel/alsf.html Latino Sine Flexione introduction] and [http://www.homunculus.com/babel/glossaries/englsf.html English - Latino sine flexione wordlist]
* [http://web.archive.org/web/2/http://babel.inno.bme.hu/ Latino sine flexione] - archive copy of a site in latino sine flexione; Peano's original writings on this language, blog in latino sine flexione, etc.
* [http://latinosineflexione.wordpress.com Blog in Latino sine Flexione]


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