Action démocratique du Québec

Action démocratique du Québec
Action démocratique du Québec
Leader Gérard Deltell
President Christian Lévesque
Founded January 6, 1994 (1994-01-06)
Headquarters 740 rue Saint-Maurice, Suite 108, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 1L5
Ideology Conservatism,
Quebec autonomism,
Right-wing populism[1],
Official colours Blue and Red (Unofficial)
Seats in the National Assembly
4 / 125
Politics of Quebec
Political parties

The Action démocratique du Québec, commonly referred to as the ADQ[3] is a centre-right political party in Quebec, Canada. On the sovereignty question, it defines itself as autonomist[4], and has support from both soft nationalists and federalists.

Its members are referred to as adéquistes, a name derived from the French pronunciation of the initials 'ADQ'.

Under longtime leader Mario Dumont, the ADQ had a strong showing in the 2007 provincial election, reducing the ruling Quebec Liberal Party (PLQ) to a minority government and relegating the Parti Québécois (PQ) to third place. The ADQ won 41 seats with 31% of the popular vote to serve as the Official Opposition in the National Assembly of Quebec. However, the ADQ's popularity declined significantly soon afterward and in the 2008 provincial elections, the party failed to secure at least twenty percent of the popular vote or twelve Members of the National Assembly (MNAs) in the last election, and consequently lost official party status, though in early 2009 it was recognized as an official party by the PLQ and the PQ.[5]



On the political spectrum of Quebec, the ADQ is to the political right of the Quebec Liberal Party and the Parti Québécois. The ADQ advocates the autonomy of individuals, the autonomy of municipal governments, and the autonomy of Quebec within Canada.

In recent years the ADQ has abandoned a number of radical free market proposals, including issuing school vouchers to give parents the ability to pay for the education of their children at a school of their choice. Furthermore, the ADQ's conservatism is not based on religious values.[8][9]

Electoral support

Socially and geographically, the core support of the ADQ is similar to that of the Ralliement créditiste, the provincial wing of the Social Credit Party in the 1962, and 1963 federal elections and the 1970 provincial election, the Union Nationale in the 1976 provincial election and the Conservative Party of Canada in 2006 federal election.[citation needed]

Its strongest base is provided by Chaudière-Appalaches and Québec, the most conservative regions of Quebec. The party’s popularity also reached other predominantly French-speaking areas of the province, including Mauricie, Bas-Saint-Laurent, Centre-du-Québec and even Montérégie in the 2007 provincial election.

However, the ADQ has always had more difficulty breaking through in Gaspésie–Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Outaouais and the more cosmopolitan urban districts of the Montreal area.

Because of the polarization of the debate over constitution from 1970 to 1995, conservative voters have often limited their choice between the Quebec Liberal Party or the Parti Québécois. However, a number of commentators claim that resentment of the rest of Quebec against Montreal’s perceived hegemony, general mistrust towards current office holders, overburdened taxpayer's frustration and constitutional fatigue have let a cultural gap in Quebec society become more apparent and have provided a window of opportunity for the ADQ to grow in recent years.[10][11]


Foundation and first decade: 1994-2002

Action démocratique du Québec logo (1994-1998)

The party was formed in 1994 by a group of nationalists, known as les allairistes, that supported the Allaire Report, a document that advocated a decentralized federal system in which the provincial Government of Quebec would have significantly increased powers.

After the failure of the Meech Lake Accord, which made many French-speaking Québécois feel rejected by the rest of Canada, the Liberals adopted the Allaire Report as their official constitutional policy. However, the party eventually chose the Charlottetown Accord over the Allaire Report in 1992. The Charlottetown Accord would have recognized Quebec as a distinct society within Canada, but consisted of a much milder reform of the Canadian federal system. While most Liberals supported the Charlottetown Accord, a number of them opposed it and eventually quit the party.

Led by Jean Allaire, an attorney from Laval and author of the Allaire Report, and Mario Dumont, a rising political star who had been President of the Liberal Youth Commission, the dissidents founded the ADQ. Allaire became the first party leader, but resigned within a few months for health reasons. He was succeeded by Mario Dumont, who retained the leadership until early 2009.

With limited financial resources and excluded from the televised leaders debate, Dumont won a seat in the Quebec National Assembly in the 1994 provincial election, the only adéquiste candidate to do so in that election.

In the 1995 Quebec referendum on the Parti Québécois government's proposals for sovereignty, Dumont campaigned for the "Yes" side, in favour of the sovereignty option. However, in subsequent election campaigns, he has promised a moratorium on the sovereignty question, which earned him accusations of not having a clear and honest stand on the constitution question.

Shortly before the 1994 provincial election, Yvon Lafrance, a one-term Liberal backbencher who served under Premier Robert Bourassa, switched parties to join the ADQ, becoming the party's first sitting member of the legislature. In the ensuing election campaign, Dumont took part in the televised leaders debate and was re-elected as an MNA, but could not expand his electoral support significantly enough to get other party members elected and remained his party's only sitting MNA. Although Dumont was a very popular leader, support for the ADQ always lagged behind support for its leader. In fact, for many years, the ADQ tried to capitialize on Dumont's personal popularity by using the official name Action démocratique du Québec-Équipe Mario Dumont (Action démocratique du Québec-Team Mario Dumont).

Rise: 2002

In April and June 2002, voter dissatisfaction with both the Parti Québécois (PQ) government of Bernard Landry and the Liberal alternative presented by Jean Charest led the ADQ to an unexpected victory in a series of by-elections, bringing the party caucus to five members.

After the by-election wins, the ADQ soared in popularity, leading the established parties in public opinion polling for the first time in its existence. For a brief period, a number of political analysts predicted that the ADQ could gather as much as 42% of the vote and more than 80 seats in the National Assembly.

The increased popularity of the party provided the ADQ with larger grassroots support, more money and star candidates for the subsequent election. Dumont, who was able to recruit Beauce businessman Marcel Dutil, chairman of Groupe Canam Inc. as director of the ADQ's fund-raising activities, was considered as a serious candidate for the office of Premier of Quebec for the first time.

Backlash: 2002-2003

As a result of the ADQ attaining greater popular support, its political opponents conducted negative campaigning against the ADQ for the first time. Those efforts were successful in damaging the public perception of the party. Moreover, the party's repeated backtracking on its various policies, including a flat rate income tax of 20 per cent, may have appeared opportunist and harmed the party’s image as a viable alternative. It was also revealed that a close advisor of Mario Dumont had a criminal record, which prompted the media to question Dumont’s judgment.

The popularity of the ADQ declined. Dumont did not make any major mistake during the televised leaders' debate, but did not deliver the outstanding performance he needed to gain momentum. By contrast, Quebec Liberal leader Jean Charest was able to put Bernard Landry of the Parti Québécois on the defensive.

The ADQ received 18% of the vote at the 2003 provincial election. All ADQ incumbents and star candidates, except Dumont, were defeated. The losses were compensated by the election of three new ADQ MNAs, who were still unknown at the provincial level but were well established in their communities. The ADQ drew enough votes from previous PQ supporters to give the victory to Jean Charest's Liberals, but did not make a significant breakthrough in the National Assembly.

Resurgence: 2003-2007

In the months that followed the election, the ADQ benefited from anger over the decision of the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) not to renew the license of Quebec City radio station CHOI-FM. Radio host Jeff Fillion urged listeners to vote for ADQ candidate Sylvain Légaré in a by-election for the local district of Vanier. Légaré defended the station’s freedom of speech and was elected on September 20, 2004, which raised the number of ADQ seats back to five.

A few days later, the ADQ held a convention in Drummondville, where its members adopted the new constitutional position of the ADQ, which is labeled as autonomist without much precision on what it actually means. ADQ members also elected ex-Liberal minister Yvon Picotte as President of the ADQ, a job previously held by political analyst Guy Laforest.

In the January 2006 federal election, ten Conservative Members of Parliament were elected in Quebec, at the federal level. Four of those newly elected federal Members of Parliament - Maxime Bernier, Steven Blaney, Jacques Gourde and Josée Verner - came from districts represented by ADQ members at the provincial level. All except Bernier were at one point ADQ activists.[12] Blaney was ADQ candidate in Beauce-Nord in 1998. This breakthrough prepared the ground the subsequent growth of the ADQ, which could rely on a number of supporters from the modest Conservatives' organization in Quebec.

In May 2006, the ADQ held a general council (French: conseil général) in Granby, where Dumont brought up the subject of having the current federal Conservative government broach the subject of a new round of constitutional talks in order to get Quebec to finally sign the Constitution.[13]

Embarrassing comments were made by party president Yvon Picotte about PQ Leader André Boisclair. Boisclair had decided not to run in a by-election for the district of Sainte-Marie—Saint-Jacques in Montreal, the district where he lives and which includes Montreal's Gay Village. Accusing Boisclair of being a coward, Picotte jokingly said that the riding would fit Boisclair, who is openly gay, like a glove (comme un gant). Many journalists criticized Picotte, saying his comment sounded homophobic. Within days, Picotte apologized.[14]

In November 2006, the ADQ held its sixth party convention. The next month, it adopted its platform for the 2007 election, entitled "A Plan A for Quebec" ("Un plan A pour le Québec")[15] and defined its stance on the controversial reasonable accommodation debate, which was well received by a substantial number of voters.

Provincial election, 2007

Action démocratique du Québec logo, (2007-2009)

When the 2007 election campaign started, the ADQ was running only a few candidates with widespread name recognition and lacked the financial resources its rivals (especially the Liberals) had. Marcel Dutil announced that even though he likes Dumont, he would vote strategically in favour of the Liberals.[16]

However, polls showed that the ADQ had the potential to significantly increase its representation in the National Assembly. Dumont ran an effective campaign,[17] unveiling one plank from his electoral platform every day and therefore benefiting from sustained attention from his opponents and the media.

Dumont's performance had its own setbacks, however, as it led to more scrutiny of the ADQ.

The Liberals criticized the ADQ's financial plan as vague and unrealistic, accusing Dumont of underestimating its total cost. According to them, the ADQ's promises totaled $6.3 billion rather than the $1.7 billion announced by Dumont.

Besides, many journalists accused the ADQ of being a one-man show.[18] Two candidates, who had made inappropriate comments, were dropped by the party from the election.[19]

On election day, the ADQ made a surprisingly strong showing. It took 21 seats from the Quebec Liberal Party and 15 seats from the PQ. All five ADQ incumbents were re-elected, for a total of 41 seats. (The election of so many legislators without prior parliamentary experience delights cartoonist Serge Chapleau who likes to portray the ADQ MNAs as elementary school kids and Dumont as their teacher.)[20] The reigning Liberals were reduced to a minority government, with only 48 MNAs.

For the first time, the ADQ received a plurality of the popular vote among Francophones and formed the official opposition.

Nonetheless, it failed to take a single seat on the island of Montreal, but it did come second in many of the city's ridings.

Official Opposition

The ADQ MNAs and supporters met in Victoriaville in late September 2007 to detail the party's environmental policy.[21] Former PQ Cabinet Member Jean Garon, former Hydro-Québec CEO André Caillé and environmental activist Steven Guilbeault attended the convention. Tom Pentefountas, a former ADQ candidate in the district of Nelligan in a [2004 by-election, succeeded Gilles Taillon as President of the party. Pentefountas enjoys little name recognition among voters in general, but he is a member of the Greek community and lives in Montreal. ADQ supporters hope that his profile might facilitate the party's attempts to connect with these constituencies.[22]

During the year that followed the 2007 election, a number of ADQ members such as Éric Caire, Gilles Taillon and especially Sébastien Proulx emerged as effective and articulate legislators. Nonetheless, according to journalist Gilbert Lavoie, the more experienced PQ caucus was better able to position itself as the best alternative to Jean Charest's Liberals.[23] Political observers made unflattering comments about the ADQ's performance, and political support for the party seemed to lose momentum again.[24][25] The ADQ suffered a major setback in 2008, losing four consecutive by-elections by substantial margins. Its support did not exceed 15% in any of the districts at stake.[26][27][28] Furthermore, MNAs Pierre-Michel Auger and André Riedl, as well as power broker Yvon Picotte, switched political affiliation from ADQ to Liberal in October 2008.[29][30]

Federal election, 2008

ADQ Leader Mario Dumont made no official endorsement in the 2008 federal election. He said that he would vote Conservative, but claimed that his colleagues and party's supporters were free to support whoever they wanted. MNAs Pierre Gingras, Ginette Grandmont, Linda Lapointe, Lucie Leblanc and Sébastien Proulx campaigned on behalf of the Conservative Party of Canada's candidates.[31][32] Yet, the election provided no increase in membership for Quebec's Conservative delegation to Parliament.

Provincial election, 2008

Quebec premier Jean Charest subsequently called a snap election for December 8, 2008. Polls indicated that the ADQ entered the campaign far behind the governing Liberals and the PQ.[33]

The party was routed in this election and lost official party status in the assembly. The size of its caucus was reduced to seven members, six of whom were incumbents.[34] While giving his concession speech, Dumont announced that he would not be the leader of his party for the subsequent election.[35]

While political commentators wondered whether the ADQ would survive Dumont's departure,[36] there were three candidates for the 2009 leadership election. On February 27, 2009, Sylvie Roy was named the interim leader of the party.[37]

By-election loss of Dumont's seat

The ADQ candidate came in third place in a June 21, 2009 by-election to fill the Rivière-du-Loup seat that Dumont vacated when he resigned from the National Assembly. Dumont had held the seat for 14 years and had carried it in the 2008 provincial election with over 50% of the vote, compared to the less than 15% garnered by ADQ candidate Gilberte Côté. The loss reduced the ADQ to six seats in the National Assembly.[38]

2009 leadership election

In 2009, MNA Éric Caire,[39] former MNA and former party president Gilles Taillon,[40] and former MNA Christian Lévesque ran for the party leadership to succeed Dumont. MNA François Bonnardel also initially considered entering the contest, but ultimately decided to manage Taillon's campaign.[41] Myriam Taschereau, a former federal Conservative candidate, and director of communications in the Prime Minister's Office, had also declared she would run, but later withdrew and endorsed Caire.

On October 18, 2009, Taillon was elected leader on the second ballot by the slim margin of 50.03% of ballots cast, two votes more than runner-up Éric Caire. Christian Lévesque had previously been eliminated after finishing third on the first ballot.[42]

On November 6, 2009, Caire and supporter Marc Picard subsequently left the party, alleging that the party organization lacked transparency and that Taillon had a dictatorial style of leadership.[43] They resigned from caucus to sit as independents. This further reduced the size of the ADQ caucus to four seats in the National Assembly.[44]

On November 10, 2009, 23 days after his election as party leader, Taillon announced a new leadership election, citing the party infighting and alleging irregularities in the party's financial affairs, dating back to 2003, which he had called in the Sûreté du Québec to investigate. It was later told he never contacted the Sûreté du Québec.[45] He then explained that he would remain the leader until the results of a new leadership race election, in which he would not be a candidate. Runner-up Éric Caire said he would not run again for the party leadership, adding "Mr. Taillon has done irreparable damage to the ADQ... I don't know how the party will recover from this. I can't see the party going through a second leadership race. The last one almost destroyed us."[46]

On November 19, the party executive acclaimed Gérard Deltell as the party's leader.[47] Since Deltell assumed the leadership the party has enjoyed a modest rebound, rising from 5% in the polls in spring 2010 to 15% by the end of the year, and enjoying a substantial lead in the Quebec City region. The party maintained the level of support it had enjoyed in the 2008 election in the by-elections held in Saint-Laurent and Kamouraska-Temiscouata in fall 2010. The ADQ held a convention on November 13, 2010, adopting a number of proposals dealing with democratic reform and anti-corruption measures. Deltell received a 97% vote of confidence from the party membership and received considerable attention when, in his opening address, he referred to Premier Jean Charest as the "godfather of the Liberal family." Charest threatened legal action if the statement was not retracted. Deltell refused to apologize or issue a retraction and no action was taken.

Since Deltell took the reins of the ADQ, the party has recovered from its pecarious position to a solid 18% of support in the opinion polls. The ADQ recovery was initially at the expense of the Liberals from an extremely unpopular Charest; since then, Charest has recovered from his unpopularity and the collapse of the Bloc Quebecois on the federal stage has hurt the PQ, where the ADQ have made gains where the Liberals have recovered. The Liberals are still in the lead in the polls, with 35% support (29% PQ, 18% ADQ, 7% QS, 7% PVQ)

After a new movement, named the Coalition for the Future of Quebec, established itself as an alternative to the sovreignty movement, there have been calls for the ADQ (currntly at 20% support) to merge with the new movement. These suggestions have been made due to the similar policies held by both the ADQ and the new movement. Polls suggest the new movement would win a plurality of seats at the next election with 35% support, compared to 22% for the PLQ, 20% for the PQ and 8% for the ADQ (if a merger does not come into fruition).


Leader Home region Years of service Background
Jean Allaire Laval 1994 Lawyer
Mario Dumont Bas-Saint-Laurent 1994–2009 Economist
Sylvie Roy (interim leader) Chaudière-Appalaches 2009 Lawyer
Gilles Taillon Laurentides 2009 Teacher, businessman
Gérard Deltell Chauveau 2009 – present TV Correspondent


President Years
Mario Dumont 1994
Moncef Guitouni 1994
Hubert Meilleur 1994–1996
Jean Dion 1996–1998
Ritha Cossette 1998–2000
Isabelle Marquis 2000–2002
Guy Laforest 2002–2004
Yvon Picotte 2004–2006
Gilles Taillon 2006–2007
Tom Pentefountas 2007-2008[48]
Mario Charpentier[49] 2008–2009
Christian Lévesque 2009-

Presidents of Youth Commission

The Youth Commission of the ADQ was created in August 1995.

President Years
1 Éric Boisselle n/a
2 Patrick Robitaille n/a
3 Sylvain Frenette n/a
4 Jean-François Tétrault n/a
5 Jean-Sébastien Brault n/a
6 Marie-Ève Bonneville 1999–2000
7 Stéphanie Deslandes n/a
8 Keven Tremblay n/a
9 Jean-François Sylvestre n/a
10 Stéphane Laforest n/a
11 Micaël Bérubé n/a
12 Simon-Pierre Diamond 2004–2007
13 Catherine Goyer 2007–2009
14 Martin-Karl Bourbonnais 2009-

Members of the National Assembly

MNA District Region Years of Service
Within Caucus
Pierre-Michel Auger Champlain Mauricie 2007-2008[50] Teacher
Pascal Beaupré Joliette Lanaudière 2007-2008 Lawyer
François Benjamin Berthier Lanaudière 2007-2008 Mayor of Mandeville
Hubert Benoît Montmorency Québec 2007-2008 Financial Adviser
François Bonnardel Shefford Montérégie Since 2007 Business Person
Éric Caire La Peltrie Québec 2007-2009 Computer Programmer and Analyst
Martin Camirand Prévost Laurentides 2007-2008 Council Member in Saint-Jérôme
Éric Charbonneau Johnson Eastern Townships 2007-2008 Scheduler in a Manufacturing Business
François Corriveau Saguenay Côte-Nord 2002-2003 Sculptor and Assistant Clerk of Court
Jean Damphousse Maskinongé Mauricie 2007-2008 Business Consultant and Mayor of Sainte-Ursule
Gérard Deltell Chauveau Québec Since 2008 TV Correspondent
Albert De Martin Huntingdon Montérégie 2007-2008 Farmer and Councillor in Godmanchester, Quebec
Robert Deschamps Saint-Maurice Mauricie 2007-2008 Safety Manager
François Desrochers Mirabel Laurentides 2007-2008 Public School Teacher
Simon-Pierre Diamond Marguerite-D'Youville Montérégie 2007-2008 Law Student
Jean Domingue Bellechasse Chaudière-Appalaches 2007-2008 Project Manager
Éric Dorion Nicolet-Yamaska Centre-du-Québec 2007-2008 Director of an Addiction Intervention Center
Mario Dumont Rivière-du-Loup Bas-Saint-Laurent 1994-2009[51] Economist
Raymond Francœur Portneuf Québec 2007-2008 Mayor of Sainte-Christine-d'Auvergne
François Gaudreau Vimont Laval 2002-2003 Realtor, Coffee Merchant
Pierre Gingras Blainville Laurentides 2007-2008 Mayor of Blainville, Quebec
Jean-François Gosselin Jean-Lesage Québec 2007-2008 Sales and Development Manager
Ginette Grandmont Masson Lanaudière 2007-2008 Business Manager
Marie Grégoire Berthier Lanaudière 2002-2003 Marketing Consultant
Janvier Grondin Beauce-Nord Chaudière-Appalaches Since 2003 Mayor of Saint-Jules
Yvon Lafrance Iberville Montérégie 1994-1994[52] Army Officer
Linda Lapointe Groulx Laurentides 2007-2008 Business Owner
Éric Laporte L'Assomption Lanaudière 2007-2008 Financial Adviser
Lucie Leblanc Deux-Montagnes Laurentides 2007-2008 Mayor of Sainte-Marthe-sur-le-Lac
Claude L'Écuyer Saint-Hyacinthe Montérégie 2007-2008 Lawyer
Sylvain Légaré Vanier Québec 2004-2008 Financial Consultant
Sylvie Lespérance Joliette Lanaudière 2002-2003 Nurse and Health Provider
Christian Lévesque Lévis Chaudière-Appalaches 2007-2008 Business Person and President of the Lévis Chamber of Commerce
Richard Merlini Chambly Montérégie 2007-2008 Project Manager
Lucille Méthé Saint-Jean Montérégie 2007-2008 Development Officer
Claude Morin Beauce-Sud Chaudière-Appalaches 2007-2008 Financial Adviser
Catherine Morissette Charlesbourg Québec 2007-2008 Lawyer
Marc Picard Chutes-de-la-Chaudière Chaudière-Appalaches 2003-2009 Tax audit technician, finance officer and
tax research officer with Ministère du Revenu du Québec
Sébastien Proulx Trois-Rivières Mauricie 2007-2008 Lawyer and Political Consultant
André Riedl Iberville Montérégie 2007-2008[53] Project Manager
Jean-François Roux Arthabaska Centre-du-Québec 2007-2008 Project Manager
Claude Roy Montmagny-L'Islet Chaudière-Appalaches 2007-2008 Business Person and TV Host
Sylvie Roy Lotbinière Chaudière-Appalaches Since 2003 Lawyer, Mayor of Sainte-Sophie-de-Lévrard
Monique Roy Verville La Prairie Montérégie 2007-2008 Pharmaceutical Representative
Sébastien Schneeberger Drummond Centre-du-Québec 2007-2008 Factory Worker
Gilles Taillon Chauveau Québec 2007-2008 President of the Conseil du patronat du Québec
Jean-François Therrien Terrebonne Lanaudière 2007-2008 Researcher from the Public Sector

Defeated ADQ star candidates

Candidate District Region Year Background
Diane Bellemare Blainville
Montreal East
by-election, 2007
Senior Vice-President and
Chief Economist of the Conseil du patronat du Québec
Pierre Bourque Bourget Montreal 2003 Mayor of Montreal
Pierre Brien Rouyn-Noranda—Témiscamingue
Bloc Québécois Member of Parliament
Mario Charpentier Brome-Missisquoi Eastern Townships 2008 Lawyer
Guy Laforest Louis-Hébert Québec 2003 Teacher
Joëlle Lescop Vachon Montérégie 2003 Pediatrician
Hubert Meilleur Argenteuil
Laurentides 1994
Mayor of Mirabel
Denis Mondor Bourget Montreal East by-election, 2007 Former President of the Quebec Bar

Prominent members

Member Region Years Background
Léon Courville Montreal 2002–2003[54] Executive of National Bank of Canada
Yvon Cyrenne Montreal 2003–2006 Economist
Marcel Dutil Chaudière-Appalaches 2002–2003 Business Leader
Yvon Picotte Mauricie 2002-2008[55] Liberal MNA and Cabinet Member

Election results

General election # of candidates # of seats before election # of seats won % of popular vote
1994 80 1* 1 6.46%
1998 125 1 1 11.81%
2003 125 5 4 18.18%
2007 125 5 41 30.80%
2008 125 39 7 16.38%

General conventions

General conventions (French: congrès généraux) are open to all card-carrying supporters.

# Date Location Turnout
1st March 1994 Laval n/a
2nd October 1996 Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu n/a
3rd April 2000 Saint-Hyacinthe n/a
4th October 2002 Drummondville n/a
5th September 2004 Drummondville n/a[56]
6th November 2006 Trois-Rivières 300[57]
7th March 2008 Laval 1,000[58][59]


  • Julien Béliveau, Mario Dumont - Le pouvoir de l'image

See also


  1. ^ Jones, Keith (March 28, 2007). "Quebec elections: Right-wing populist ADQ benefits from mass disaffection with establishment". Retrieved October 24, 2008. 
  2. ^ Interview with Jean-Herman Guay, Ouvert le Samedi, Radio-Canada, March 31, 2007
  3. ^ While some journalists have translated the name into English as Democratic Action of Quebec, it has no official English name, and is normally referred to by its French name in the English-language media, or simply as "the ADQ".
  4. ^ "Asserting our Identity Without Separating". Autonomy and identity. Action démocratique du Québec. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  5. ^ Standing Orders of the National Assembly[dead link]
  6. ^ Autonomy thrust into spotlight, Graeme Hamilton, National Post, March 28, 2007.
  7. ^ [1] ADQ Program, Action démocratique du Québec website, 2007
  8. ^ Mario Dumont veut limiter la notion d’accommodement raisonnable, Dominique Poirier, Dominique Poirier en Direct, Radio-Canada, November 17, 2006
  9. ^ Les défis de Mario Dumont, Dominique Poirier, Dominique Poirier en Direct, Radio-Canada, April 3, 2007
  10. ^ Montreal Versus the ROQ, Lysiane Gagnon, The Globe and Mail, February 26, 2007
  11. ^ Charest is not a slam-dunk, Chantal Hébert, The Toronto Star, February 23, 2007
  12. ^ Gourde prédit 25 députés pour l'ADQ, Martin Pelchat, Le Soleil, February 26, 2007
  13. ^ "ADQ's Dumont calls for constitutional talks, ''CTV'', May 8, 2006". May 8, 2006. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  14. ^ Picotte présente ses excuses à Boisclair, Radio-Canada, May 8, 2006
  15. ^ Le programme de l'ADQ prévoit baliser l'accommodement raisonnable,, December 18, 2006
  16. ^ Could this be Mario's breakthrough election?, Konrad Yakabuski, The Globe and Mail, March 10, 2007
  17. ^ PQ: la barre à gauche, toute!, Denis Lessard, La Presse, March 18, 2007
  18. ^ L’équipe de l’ADQ - la liste, André Pratte, La Presse, March 21, 2007
  19. ^ 2nd ADQ candidate steps down for 'unacceptable' comments, CBC News, March 12, 2007
  20. ^ Caricatures du 14 avril, Serge Chapleau, La Presse, March and April 2007
  21. ^ Dumont se drape de vert, La Presse, September 30, 2007
  22. ^ Dumont séduit plus que jamais, Radio-Canada, September 30, 2007
  23. ^ Mario à l'école du pouvoir, Gilbert Lavoie, Le Soleil, May 3, 2008
  24. ^ "La page blanche, Michel C. Auger, Radio-Canada, April 22, 2008". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  25. ^ Qu’est-ce qui cloche à l’ADQ ?, Vincent Marissal, La Presse, May 2, 2008
  26. ^ "Les favoris élus, Radio-Canada, May 12, 2008". March 3, 2008. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  27. ^ L'ADQ s'effondre trois fois, Tommy Chouinard, La Presse, May 12, 2008
  28. ^ "Yves Bolduc écrase ses adversaires, Tommy Chouinard, La Presse, September 30, 2008". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  29. ^ Gazette, Montreal (October 23, 2008). "ADQ MNAs defect to Liberals, Montreal Gazette, October 23, 2008". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Yvon Picotte votera libéral, Denis Lessard, La Presse, October 29, 2008". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  31. ^ "L’ADQ monte au front pour aider les conservateurs, Joël-Denis Bellavance, La Presse, September 11, 2008". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Des sièges québécois sur un plateau adéquiste, Radio-Canada, September 18, 2008". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  33. ^ Andy Riga, "Premier Widens Lead to Possible Majority," Montreal Gazette, November 20, 2008.
  34. ^ "Riding Results & Candidates". Canadian Broadcasting Company. Retrieved December 9, 2008. 
  35. ^ "Simon Boivin, Mario Dumont rend les armes, Le Soleil, December 9, 2008". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Graeme Hamilton, Dumont's exit could mean the end of the ADQ, National Post, December 9, 2008". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  37. ^ "Sylvie Roy chef intérimaire de l’ADQ, LCN, February 27, 2009". February 26, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  38. ^ "Quebec Liberals steal back longtime ADQ riding - CTV News". June 22, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  39. ^ "This page is available to GlobePlus subscribers". Toronto: Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  40. ^ [2][dead link]
  41. ^ "This page is available to GlobePlus subscribers". Toronto: Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  42. ^ [3][dead link]
  43. ^ "Denis Lessard : Éric Caire et Marc Picard claquent la porte de l'ADQ | Politique québécoise". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  44. ^ Canada (November 6, 2009). "Ailing ADQ loses one-third of its caucus". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  45. ^ "Simon Boivin : Financement de l'ADQ: Taillon n'a jamais parlé à la SQ | Politique". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  46. ^ "ADQ leader quits less than a month after taking helm". The Globe and Mail, November 10, 2009.
  47. ^ "Deltell to be crowned ADQ chief". Montreal Gazette, November 19, 2009.
  48. ^ Pentefountas resigned as President of the ADQ on December 12, 2008, one year and a half before the expiration of his term. See:Tom Pentefountas démissionne, Radio-Canada, December 12, 2008 and Simon Boivin, D'autres départs prévus à l'ADQ, Le Soleil, December 10, 2008
  49. ^ Charpentier was Vice-President of the ADQ when Tom Pentefountas resigned. In that capacity, he became interim President of the party. See:Alexandre Robillard, Des changements s'imposent, dit le président de l'ADQ, La Presse, December 12, 2008
  50. ^ Elected in the 2007 election as ADQ candidates, Auger and his colleague André Riedl switched Liberal on October 23, 2008.
  51. ^ "Dumont to step down after ADQ defeat". December 9, 2008. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  52. ^ Elected in the 1989 election as a Liberal candidate, Yvon Lafrance sat as an Independent MNA by February 1994 and switched affiliation to ADQ less than a month later. He did not run for re-election in the 1994 election
  53. ^ Elected in the 2007 election as ADQ candidates, Riedl and his colleague Pierre-Michel Auger switched Liberal on October 23, 2008.
  54. ^ "Mettre fin au monopole de l'État et des syndicats, Les Actualités, February 11, 2003". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  55. ^ "Yvon Picotte pourrait revenir avec le PLQ comme conseiller, Martin Lafrenière, La Nouvelliste, October 29, 2008". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  56. ^ "ADQ's Dumont pushes Quebec's autonomy within Canada, Rheal Seguin, The Agonist, September 24, 2004". September 26, 2004. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  57. ^ L'ADQ veut abolir les commissions scolaires, Paul Roy, La Presse, November 19, 2006
  58. ^ Congrès de l'ADQ: le salaire du chef a été décidé à deux, Michel Corbeil, Le Soleil, March 16, 2008
  59. ^ "Mario Dumont obtient un vote de confiance massif malgré l'affaire du salaire, Kathleen Lévesque, Le Devoir, March 17, 2008". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 

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