- House Finch
name = House Finch
status = LC | status_system = IUCN3.1
status_ref = [IUCN2006|assessors=BirdLife International|year=2004|id=53468|title=Carpodacus mexicanus|downloaded=12 May 2006]
image_width = 250px
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
genus = "
species = "C. mexicanus"
binomial = "Carpodacus mexicanus"
binomial_authority = (Müller, 1776)
range_map_width = 250px
The House Finch ("Carpodacus mexicanus") is a medium-sized
finchof the Rosefinchgenus.
Adults have a long, square-tipped brown tail and are a brown or dull-brown color across the back with some shading into deep gray on the wing feathers. Breast and belly feathers may be streaked; the flanks usually are. In most cases, adult males' heads, necks and shoulders are reddish.cite book | author=Sibley, David | title=
The Sibley Guide to Birds| publisher=Knopf | year=2000 | isbn=0679451226] cite book | author=Steve N. G. Howell and Sophie Webb | title=A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=1995 | pages=757-758 | isbn=0198540124] This color sometimes extends to the stomach and down the back, between the wings. Male coloration varies in intensity with the seasons and is derived from the berries and fruits in its diet.cite web | author=Caldwell, Eldon R. | title=IV Birds - House Finch | url=http://www.imperial.edu/birds/h-finch.htm | accessdate=2008-04-19] cite web | title=All About Birds: House Finch | url=http://www.birds.cornell.edu/AllAboutBirds/BirdGuide/House_Finch_dtl.html | publisher=Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology | accessdate=2008-04-19] As a result, the colors range from pale straw-yellow through bright orange (both rare) to deep, intense red. Adult females have brown upperparts and streaked underparts.
Their song is a rapid, cheery warble or a variety of chirps. [ [http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/Infocenter/Song/h5190so.mp3 House finch "Carpodacus mexicanus"] ]
Range and habitat
These birds are mainly permanent residents; some eastern birds migrate south.cite journal | last=Belthoff and Gauthreaux | first=James R. and Sidney A. | title=Partial Migration and Differential Winter Distribution of House Finches in the Eastern United States | journal=The Condor | volume=93 | issue=2 | date=1991 | url=http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Condor/files/issues/v093n02/p0374-p0382.pdf ] Their breeding habitat is urban and suburban areas in the East as well as various semi-open areas in the West from southern
Canadato northern Florida and the Mexican state of Oaxaca; the population in central Chiapasmay be descended from escaped cagebirds.
Originally only a resident of Mexico and the southwestern
United States, they were introduced to eastern North America in the 1940s. The birds were sold illegally in New York as "Hollywood Finches", a marketing artifice. To avoid prosecution, vendors and owners released the birds. They have become naturalized; in some unforested areas, they have displaced the native Purple Finchand nonnative House Sparrow.cite journal | last = Wootton | first = JT. date = 1987 | journal = Oecologia | volume = 71 | number = 3
title = Interspecific Competition between Introduced House Finch Populations and Two Associated Passerine Species | pages= 325–331
doi = 10.1007/BF00378703
year = 1987 ] In 1870, or before, they were introduced into
Hawaii.cite journal | last=Caum | first=E.L. | title=The exotic birds of Hawaii | journal=Bishop Museum Occasional Papers | volume=10 | issue=9 | date=1933]
House Finches forage on the ground or in vegetation. They primarily eat grains, seeds and berries, being voracious consumers of weed seeds such as
nettleand dandelion; included are incidental small insects such as aphids. They are frequent visitors to feeders throughout the year, particularly if stocked with sunfloweror nyjer seed, and will congregate at hanging nyjer sock feeders. The House Finch is known to damage orchard fruit and consume commercially grown grain, but is generally not considered a significant pest, rather an annoyance. [cite web | url=http://fwp.mt.gov/fieldguide/detail_ABPBY04040.aspx |title=House finch detailed information | author=Montana state government |accessdate=2007-08-14]
Nests are made in cavities, including openings in buildings, hanging plants, and other cup shaped outdoor decorations. Sometimes nests abandoned by other birds are used. Nests may be re-used for subsequent broods or in following years. The nest is built by the female, sometimes in as little as two days. It is well made of twigs and debris, forming a cup shape, usually 1.8 m to 2.7 m (6 to 9 ft) above the ground.
During courtship, the male will touch bills with the female. He may then present the female with choice bits of food and, if she imitates the posture of a hungry chick, actually feed her. The male also feeds the female during the breeding and incubation of both eggs and young.cite journal | last=Thompson | first=William L | title=Agonistic Behavior in the House Finch. Part I: Annual Cycle and Display Patterns | journal=The Condor | volume=62 | issue=4 | publisher=University of California PressCooper Ornithological Society | date=1960 | url=http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Condor/files/issues/v062n04/p0245-p0271.pdf | accessdate=2008-06-28 | accessyear=2008]
The female lays clutches of eggs from February through August, two or more broods per year with 2 to 6 eggs per brood, most commonly 4 or 5. The actual egg laying usually takes place in the morning, at the rate of one egg per day. The eggs are a pale bluish green with few black spots and a smooth, somewhat glossy surface. In response to mite infestation the mother finch may lay one gender of egg first, which increases the chances of the young finches survival.cite journal | last=Badyaev, Hamstra, Oh, Seaman
first=Alexander V., Terri L., Kevin P., Dana A. Acevedo
publisher=National Academy of Sciences (United States)
journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
date=September 26, 2006
title=Sex-biased maternal effects reduce ectoparasite-induced mortality in a passerine bird
accessdate=2008-07-25 | accessyear=2008 ] The female incubates the eggs for 12 to 14 days. Shortly after hatching, she removes the empty eggshells from the nest.cite journal| journal=Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Bulletin | year=1968 | last = Woods | first = Robert S. | url=http://www.birdsbybent.com/ch41-50/houfinch.html | title=Life Histories of Familiar North American Birds: House Finch | number = 237 | pages = 290–314 ] The young are pink with closed eye and tufts of fluffy down at hatching. [cite web | title="House Finch Nest Survey" | url = http://www.birds.cornell.edu/hofi/hofins4.pdf | accessdate=2008-06-28 ] The female always feeds the young, and the male usually joins in. The young are silent for the first seven or eight days, and subsequently start peeping during feedings.cite journal | last=Evanden | first=Fred G. | title=Observations on Nesting Behavior of the House Finch | journal=The Condor | volume=59 | issue=2 | publisher=University of California Press/Cooper Ornithological Society | date=1957 | url=http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Condor/files/issues/v059n02/p0112-p0117.pdf | accessdate=2008-06-28 | accessyear=2008] Initially, the mother carries fecal sacs out of the nest, but when the young become older, she no longer carries away all fecal sacs, allowing droppings to accumulate around the edge of the nest. Before flying, the young often climb into adjacent plants, and usually fledge at about 11 to 19 days after hatching. Dandelion seeds are among the preferred seeds fed to the young.cite web | title=A Study of the House Finch |author=Bergtold, W.H. | work=The Auk | year=1913 |url=http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v030n01/p0040-p0073.pdf | accessdate=2008-05-23]
House Finches are one of the few birds that are aggressive enough to keep
House Sparrowsout of their birdhouse and evict them.Fact|date=April 2008
The house finch may be infected by a number of parasites including "
Plasmodium relictum"cite journal | last=Hartup, Oberc, Stott-Messick, Davis, and Swarthout | first=Barry K., Allison, Briana, and Elliott C.H. | title=Blood Parasites of House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) from Georgia and New York | journal=Journal of Wildlife Diseases | volume=44 | issue=2 | date=April 2008 ] and " Mycoplasma gallisepticum", which caused the population of house finches in eastern North America to crash during the 1990s.cite journal | last=Nolan, Hill, and Stoehr | first=Paul M., Geoffrey E., and Andrew M. | title = Sex, Size, and Plumage Redness Predict House Finch Survival in an Epidemic | journal = Proceedings: Biological Sciences | publisher = The Royal Society | volume = 265 | number = 1400 | date = 7 June 1998 | url=http://journals.royalsociety.org/content/g2mlgg7n4mwpwtw8/fulltext.pdf ]
mite" Pellonyssus reedi" is often found on house finch nestlings, particularly for nests later in the season.cite journal | last=Stoehr, Nolan, Hill, and McGraw | first = Andrew M., Paul M., Geoffrey E., Kevin J. | title=Nest mites (Pellonyssus reedi) and the reproductive biology of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) | journal=The Canadian Journal of Zoology | date = 2000 | url=http://www.public.asu.edu/~kjmcgraw/pubs/Can.J.Zool.00MS.pdf ]
Brown-Headed Cowbird, a brood parasite, will lay its eggs in house finch nests, although the diet house finches feed their young is inadequate for the young cowbirds, which rarely survive.cite journal | last=Kozlovic, Knapton, and Barlow | first=Daniel R., Richard W., and Jon C. | title=Unsuitability of the House Finch as a Host of the Brown-Headed Cowbird | journal=The Condor | volume=96 | issue=2 | date=1996 | url=http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Condor/files/issues/v098n02/p0253-p0258.pdf ]
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* [http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/Infocenter/i5190id.html Comprehensive information with sound files at the US Geological Survey site]
* [http://ibc.hbw.com/ibc/phtml/especie.phtml?idEspecie=8805 House Finch videos] on the Internet Bird Collection
* [http://sdakotabirds.com/species/house_finch_info.htm South Dakota Birds - House Finch Information and Photos]
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house finch — noun small finch originally of the western United States and Mexico • Syn: ↑linnet, ↑Carpodacus mexicanus • Hypernyms: ↑finch • Member Holonyms: ↑Carpodacus, ↑genus Carpodacus * * * … Useful english dictionary
house finch — meksikinė sniegena statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Carpodacus mexicanus angl. house finch vok. Hausfink, m; Hausgimpel, m; Mexikanischer Karmingimpel, m rus. мексиканская чечевица, f pranc. roselin familier, m ryšiai:… … Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas
house finch — noun Date: 1869 a small finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) that has a male with a red head, breast, and rump and that is native to Mexico and the western United States and has been introduced in the eastern United States … New Collegiate Dictionary
house finch — a small common finch, Carpodacus mexicanus, originally of the western U.S. and Mexico and now widely distributed: the males have a red forehead, throat, breast, and rump. [1865 70, Amer.] * * * … Universalium
house finch — noun a common red breasted brown finch, native to western North America. [Carpodacus mexicanus.] … English new terms dictionary
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Finch (Groupe) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Finch. Finch Pays d’origine … Wikipédia en Français
finch — /finch/, n. 1. any of numerous small passerine birds of the family Fringillidae, including the buntings, sparrows, crossbills, purple finches, and grosbeaks, most of which have a short, conical bill adapted for eating seeds. 2. any of various… … Universalium
Finch Cottage — (Camano,США) Категория отеля: Адрес: 643 Finch Way, Camano, WA 98282, США … Каталог отелей