South Shields


South Shields

Coordinates: 54°59′31″N 1°25′44″W / 54.992°N 1.429°W / 54.992; -1.429

South Shields
South Shields high street and metro station 01.jpg
King Street is South Shields' main shopping street, which was pedestrianised in the 1980s. The Metro station can be seen above the street.
South Shields is located in Tyne and Wear
South Shields

 South Shields shown within Tyne and Wear
Population 82,854 
OS grid reference NZ365665
Metropolitan borough South Tyneside
Metropolitan county Tyne and Wear
Region North East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town SOUTH SHIELDS
Postcode district NE33, NE34
Dialling code 0191
Police Northumbria
Fire Tyne and Wear
Ambulance North East
EU Parliament North East England
UK Parliament South Shields
List of places: UK • England • Tyne and Wear

South Shields (or locally known just as Shields) is a coastal town in Tyne and Wear, England, located at the mouth of the River Tyne to Tyne Dock, and about 4.84 miles (7.79 km) downstream from Newcastle upon Tyne. The town has a population of 82,854,[1] and is part of the metropolitan borough of South Tyneside, which includes the riverside towns of Jarrow and Hebburn and the villages of Boldon, Cleadon and Whitburn. South Shields is represented in parliament by Labour MP David Miliband.

Contents

History

The first settlers of the area were the Brigantes, although there is no evidence they built a settlement within the town of South Shields. Earlier Celtic inscriptions were found as evident in CAER URFA, the original name for south Shields. The Romans built a fort here around AD 160, and expanded it around AD 208 to help supply their soldiers along Hadrian's Wall. Divisions living at the fort included Tigris bargemen (from Persia/modern day Iraq), Spanish/French soldiers, and Syrian archers/spearmen. The fort was abandoned as the Roman Empire declined in the fourth century AD. Many ruins still exist today, and some stuctures have been rebuilt as part of a modern museum.

In the sixth century, northeast England was famed for its centre of religious enlightenment and education, with the holy isle of Lindisfarne, close to Bamburgh and important religious clergy: St Aidan, St Bede, St Cuthbert. This region was known as 'Bernicia' with Bamburgh its capital and forming the Kingdom of Northumbria, with Deira (Yorkshire) forming the southern boundary.

The Vikings raided the area in the ninth century, establishing settlements and controlling most of northern England (and East Anglia) from York (Yorvik) to South Shields. It is said in local folklore that a Viking ship ran aground at herdsands in its attempts to disembark at a cove nearby.

The current town was founded in 1245 and developed as a fishing port. Salt-panning expanded as an industry in 1499. During the Civil War, parliament's Scottish allies captured the town and caused the royalists to flee south, leading to the Boldon Hill battle.

In the Victorian era, coal mining led to a boom in the town. Population increased from 12,000 in 1801 to 75,000 by the 1860s, as the coal industry played a part in creating wealth both regionally and nationally. Due to an ancient Royal Charter, Newcastle administrated the sale of coal on the river Tyne. In 1832, with the Great Reform Act, South Shields and Gateshead got their own MP and became boroughs, resulting in coal mining taxes being paid to the Government instead of the Bishops of Durham. The rapid growth of coal made sanitation a problem as evident in the creation of the Cleadon water tower, still used to this day. In the 1850s, shipbuilding became a prominent industry, but this industry declined over time due to cheaper labour and raw materials in South East Asia.

Zeppelin airships attacked the town in World War I, and Nazi air raids caused damage and death in World War II. Throughout the 20th century, the coal and shipbuilding industries ceased. In the 21st century, most of the town's populace work in the cities of Sunderland and Newcastle upon Tyne in the public sector/service sector; with a small minority working in service industries/retail and the ever increasing role of tourism in the local economy.

Geography

Frenchman's Bay. Much of the South Shields' coastline is undeveloped, due in part to natural erosion
Sandhaven Beach

South Shields is situated in a peninsula setting, where the River Tyne meets the North Sea. It has six miles of coastline and three miles of river frontage, dominated by the massive piers at the mouth of the Tyne. These are best viewed from the Lawe Top, which also houses two replicas of cannon captured from the Russians during the Crimean War (the originals having been melted during World War II).

The town slopes gently from the Cleadon Hills down to the river. The Cleadon Hills are made conspicuous by the Victorian water pumping station (opened in 1860 to improve sanitation) and a now derelict windmill which can be seen from many miles away and also out at sea.

The town has extensive beaches including sand dunes as well as dramatic Magnesian Limestone cliffs with grassy areas above known as The Leas, which cover three miles of this coastline and are a National Trust protected area. Marsden Bay, with its famous Marsden Rock, is home to one of the largest seabird colonies in Britain.

One of the most historic parts of the town is the quaint & beautiful Westoe village, which consists of a quiet street of 1st grade and 2nd gradeGeorgian and Victorian houses, many of which had been built by Victorian business leaders from the coal or ship industries in town. Given its beautiful setting, parks and trees, this street was often the setting for a number of books by the novelist Catherine Cookson.[2] Westoe village was once a separate village about a mile from South Shields but urban sprawl has now consumed it along with the village of Harton slightly further along the road to Sunderland.

Demography

Before 1820, South Shields was a predominantly sparse hamlet and Village based rural economy with some small-scale shipbuilding, glass making and salt processing along the riverside. Beyond 1820 and into the Industrial Revolution, South Shields expanded into an urban settlement built around shipbuilding and coal mining. Migration came from up the River Tyne, with other migrants from rural County Durham, Northumberland, Scotland and Ireland. The majority of the people living in South Shields are descendants of those who migrated and settled in the area during the Industrial Revolution in order to work in expanding coalmines and shipyards. Towards the end of the 19th century, with the British Navy needing seamen, Yemeni British sailors settled in the town, this resulted in the first roots of the Yemeni British community in the town.

Irish and Scottish community

The influence of these communities is evident today in the number of Anglian, Baptist, Catholic, Presbyterian and Methodist churches in South Shields. The local boys' brigades often take part in parades in the town during the festival of Easter.

Yemeni community

South Shields has been home to a Yemeni British community since the 1890s. The main reason for the Yemeni arrival was the supply of seamen, such as engine room firemen, to British merchant vessels. Similar communities were founded in Hull, Liverpool and Cardiff.[3] In 1909, the first Arab Seamen's Boarding House opened in the Holborn riverside district of the town. At the time of the First World War there was a shortage of crews due to the demands of the fighting and many Yemenis were recruited to serve on British ships at the port of Aden, then under British protection. At the end of the war, the Yemeni population of South Shields had swelled to well over 3,000. Shields lost one of the largest proportions of Merchant Navy sailors. Approximately 1 in 4 of these men was of Yemeni background.

Disputes over jobs led to riots - also called the Arab Riots - in 1919. Often incorrectly reported as 'race riots', these were in fact trades union disputes involving equal pay protests championed by Communist union activists. In fact, the Yemeni had already become a successfully integrated into the wider community. In 1930 a further dispute broke out over working practices, which the Yemeni seamen felt to be discriminatory, and led to more rioting. However, over time, attitudes to Yemenis in the town were softened and there was no significant recurrence of this violence.[4]

After World War II, the Yemeni population declined, partly due to migrations to other industrial areas such as Birmingham, Liverpool and Sheffield.[5] However, the main reason for the reduction in numbers was the end of the shipping industry and the need for sailors as coal burning ships decreased in numbers. Today, the Yemeni population of South Shields numbers around 1,000.[6] Many Yemeni sailors married local women and became integrated with the wider community, resulting with a migrant population less distinct than in other mixed communities across the UK. The Yemeni are the first, settled Muslim community in Britain and have been used to justify multi-culturalism.

There is a mosque at Laygate, including the Yemeni School, which was visited by American boxer Muhammed Ali in 1977. He had his marriage blessed at the Al-Ahzar Mosque, the first purpose-built in the UK. This story is covered in a documentary film, The King of South Shields film website. Throughout April and early May 2008, the BALTIC Arts Centre in Gateshead chronicled the Yemeni community of South Shields, including interviews with the last remaining survivors of the first Yemeni generation. The exhibition depicted the Yemeni story as an example of early successful multi-cultural integration in Britain, as well as showcasing the high-profile 1977 visit by Muhammed Ali.

In 2008, South Shields resident and filmmaker Tina Gharavi unveiled plans for a plaque to mark Ali's visit.[7]

In 2009, the detective series George Gently, based on the novels by Alan Hunter, portrayed the Yemeni integration in a 1960s setting.[8]

Economy

Abandoned docks in South Shields' harbour

The last shipbuilder, John Readhead & Sons, closed in 1984 and the last pit, Westoe Colliery, in 1993. Today, the town relies largely on service industries, whilst many residents commute to work in nearby Newcastle, Gateshead, North Tyneside and Sunderland.

Despite a skilled local workforce, for many years South Tyneside had the highest unemployment rate in mainland Britain,[9] although between December 2002 and December 2008 unemployment in South Shields fell by 17.8%,[9] and that of South Tyneside by 17.7%,[9] the best performance in the North East region over that time period. However, latest figures from the Guardian in January 2011, show a marked improvement with unemployment at: 6.5%.

The Port of Tyne is one of the UK's most important and is further developing its freight and passenger activities. In 2007, it imported two million tonnes of coal. Manufacturing and ship repair/engineering are other significant sectors.

South Shields benefits from significant public and private sector investment. More recently this has included primarily the town centre, riverside and foreshore areas, given the decline of once-traditional heavy industries with the town's growing importance as a major commercial centre and tourist destination.

Landmarks and tourism

The Customs House Theatre
The Groyne sits atop a short pier built to protect the Harbour Beach

As well as being the oldest and largest town in South Tyneside, South Shields is also one of the region's most popular seaside resorts. The area markets itself as Catherine Cookson Country, which attracts many visitors. Further improvements and developments to the seafront are planned.[10]

The town and region include:

  • the reconstructed Roman Fort and excavations at Arbeia, which form part of the Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site
  • the town's museum & art gallery, including a permanent exhibition dedicated to the life and times of Catherine Cookson
  • the home to the Barbour headquarters, warehouse and factory
  • the Customs House theatre and arts venue and the historic Mill Dam riverside
  • traditional, continental and farmers' markets and high street shopping
  • seafront complete with promenade, parks, fairground and amusement arcades, crazy golf, skate complex, quasar laser, miniature steam railway and boating lake and live entertainment
  • coastal scenery, beaches and dunes at Littlehaven, Sandhaven and Marsden Bay
  • the National Trust-owned Souter Lighthouse and The Leas cliff tops
  • Temple Park Leisure Centre
  • an extensive network of cycle paths and trails, and
  • a newly refurbished multi-purpose family friendly complex at the seafront called Dunes Adventure Island, including a bowling alley, a soft play area, a fully licensed bar, Italian restaurant and an arcade.

There is a good choice of restaurants, cafes, public houses and nightlife as well as hotels, guest houses and caravan parks. South Shields plays host to an annual free summer festival and each autumn the town is the seaside finish to the world-famous Great North Run.

It is also home to the legendary Colman's of South Shields Fish and Chip Restaurant and Takeaway, winners of countless regional and national food awards. Colman's also provided their famous Fish and Chips for the Queens birthday party at the British Embassies in Guatemala and Rome. http://www.colmansfishandchips.com[11][12][13]

Education

South Shields is home to South Tyneside College, one of the two leading maritime training centres in the UK, with facilities including a marine safety training centre and a simulated ship's bridge for the training of deck officers. The college was also home to the only planetarium in the region, as well as an observatory; and in its time was a popular visitor attraction for local schools and visitors in general. The observatory was used for 20 years and in 2008 it was deemed redundant to the future curriculum needs of the college.[14] The college provides a wide range of other flexible vocational and training courses.[15]

Local schooling is generally regarded as being very good, which is reflected in continuing improvements to school results and independent inspections.

In 2007, Brinkburn Comprehensive and King George V Comprehensive merged forming South Shields Community School. The new school will be built at a cost of £19 million on the King George V School site and is due to open in September 2011.[16][17]

Regional identity

The 1998 sculpture Spirit of South Shields, by Irene Brown, embodies the town's maritime heritage. It overlooks the mouth of the Tyne.

Residents of South Shields are identified as Geordie, a term commonly associated with all residents of Tyneside.[18][19]

A less commonly used colloquial term is Sandancer. It is presumed to originate from the town's beach and history with the Arabic peoples, as the Arbeian fort was Arabic for: "place of the arabs."[citation needed]

Notable people

(1892–1915) John Simpson Kirkpatrick. Lost son of the Gallipoli campaign in WWI,[20] seen with his donkey; Ocean Road, South Shields

A number of notable people have been associated with South Shields. They include Ridley Scott, William Wouldhave (creator of the lifeboat), Eric Idle[21], David Cunningham[disambiguation needed ] (Leading Games Designer), John N. Gray[22] (Philosopher), Sir Frank Williams[23] (founder and manager of Williams F1 Formula 1 team), Phil Brown (current manager of Preston North End F.C.), Elinor Brent-Dyer, Catherine Cookson, Dame Flora Robson (Oscar-nominated Actress), Claire Rutter (leading operatic soprano), Jack Brymer, Dorfy, Ginger (Wildhearts singer and guitar), Craig Conway (Actor), Steve Furst (comedian), Sarah Millican (comedian), Tom Curry former Newcastle United player and Munich air disaster victim, Joe McElderry winner of X Factor 2009, Professor David Phillips (Chemist), John Simpson Kirkpatrick (ANZAC war hero) and Professor John Erickson (world-renowned historian and UN advisor).[24]

Sport

Football

South Shields FC is the town's main football team. Originally formed during the first decade of the 20th century, the team played in the Football League during the 1920s. As of 2008, the club plays in the Northern League's first division.

Rugby

South Shields is the home of two rugby clubs, Westoe RFC and South Tyneside College RUFC.

South Tyneside College RUFC[25] have been playing at Grosvenor Road since they were formed.

Westoe RFC, formed in 1875, still play at their original ground, Wood Terrace.[26][27] In 2005 they had an Intermediate Cup run and got to Twickenham but were beaten by Morley R.F.C. from Yorkshire.[27][28]

Politics

South Shields is a safe Labour Party Parliamentary seat, currently held by David Miliband, who was Foreign Secretary under Gordon Brown.[29]

The local authority (South Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council) is also controlled by Labour.

The town also has a local independent political party, the Progressive Party. This broadly centre-right party was formed in the 1950s to address hostility towards the Conservative Party. The Progressives have no representation beyond South Shields. Having controlled the old County Borough of South Shields council until 1974, they still hold several seats on the borough council and have experienced a resurgence in recent years, sitting in alliance with independent members of the council.[30]

Public transport

South Shields is bounded by the A19 trunk road to the West and situated close to the Tyne Tunnel at Jarrow. The town is well connected to other areas of Tyne & Wear and to the strategic road network - the A194(M) motorway provides a direct link between the Borough and the A1/A1(M).

The Tyne and Wear Metro light rail system was introduced in the 1980s and replaced British Rail services over the same route. The Metro network serves South Tyneside, Gateshead, Newcastle, North Tyneside, Sunderland and Newcastle Airport. The platform at South Shields Metro Station is situated on a bridge directly above King Street - the town's main shopping area. When Metro services were introduced, the railway line at the former High Shields LNER station at Laygate was re-routed eastwards to the then-new Chichester Metro and bus interchange. The former South Shields LNER station was also closed and the Victorian buildings survived as a secondary entrance to the Metro station until they were demolished in 1998. There are other Metro stations at Tyne Dock and Brockley Whins, while a new station at Simonside opened in early 2008. Long-term plans by Nexus to re-open the former Sunderland to South Shields line between Tyne Dock, Brockley Whins and East Boldon would create a direct rail service between South Shields and Sunderland, without the need for passengers to change trains at Pelaw in Gateshead.

There is a frequent pedestrian ferry service to North Shields on the opposite bank of the Tyne. The Shields Ferry carries tens of thousands of commuters and pleasure trippers each year. There has been a cross-river ferry service between the two towns since 1377.[31]

The Port of Tyne headquarters and international freight terminal are located at Tyne Dock in South Shields. The Port has a freight rail connection.

Local bus routes are operated by Stagecoach North East and Go North East, which are planned to integrate with Metro services.

There is a National Express coach service direct to London.

The town's extensive network of strategic footpaths and cycle routes includes the Sea to Sea Cycle Route and National Cycle Route 1.

List of bus services

The following are the bus services currently using South Shields Interchange, correct to 5 September 2011.[32][33]

Key
  • Bus interchange - Route serves a bus/coach station.
  • Tyne and Wear Metro - Route serves a Tyne & Wear Metro station.
  • National Rail - Route serves a railway station.
Route To Via Operator Days of operation
(if not 7 days)
1 Circular Service Westoe, Biddick Hall & Laygate Stagecoach in South Shields Sat/Sun morning.
2 Circular Service Laygate, Biddick Hall & Westoe Stagecoach in South Shields Sat/Sun morning.
3 Circular Service Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Biddick Hall & Westoe Stagecoach in South Shields
4 Circular Service Westoe, Biddick Hall & Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro Stagecoach in South Shields
5 Jarrow Bus Station Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Whiteleas & Fellgate Tyne and Wear Metro Go North East
7 Circular Service Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Marsden & Westoe Stagecoach in South Shields
8 Circular Service Westoe, Marsden & Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro Stagecoach in South Shields
10 Jarrow Bus Station Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Horsley Hill, Whiteleas & Simonside Tyne and Wear Metro Stagecoach in South Shields One-Way.
12 The Lonnen Laygate, West Harton & Harton Nook Stagecoach in South Shields
South Shields Mile End Road
12A The Lonnen Watson Avenue Laygate, West Harton & Harton Nook Stagecoach in South Shields Mon-Sat daytime.
South Shields Mile End Road
Note - Sat service terminates at Harton Nook.
17 Circular Service Laygate, Whiteleas & West Harton Stagecoach in South Shields
18 Circular Service Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, West Harton & Brockley Whins Stagecoach in South Shields Daytime
18A Jarrow Bus Station Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, West Harton & Brockley Whins Stagecoach in South Shields Evenings
27 Newcastle Market Street Jarrow Bus interchange,_Heworth_Tyne and Wear Metro, Heworth Bus interchangeTyne and Wear MetroNational Rail & Gateshead Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Go North East "The Crusader".
30 Boldon Colliery Westoe, Cleadon & East Boldon Stagecoach in South Shields
35 Rainton Bridge Industrial Estate (Mon-Sat)
Low Moorsley (Sun)
Sunderland Bus interchangeTyne and Wear MetroNational Rail, Silksworth & Herrington Burn Go North East "The Laser".
Note - Alternate Mon-Sat evening journeys extended to Low Moorsley or South Hetton, also 1 Sun journey/hour extended to South Hetton.
50 Durham Bus Station Bus interchange West Boldon, Washington Bus interchange & Chester-le-Street Go North East Mon-Sat daytime.
50A Chester-le-Street Whiteleas, Sulgrave & Washington Bus interchange Go North East Mon-Sat evenings & all-day Sun.
Note - Sun daytime service extended to Durham Bus Station Bus interchange.
88 Lukes Lane Estate Chichester ,_South_Leam_&_Jarrow_Tyne and Wear Metro, South Leam & Jarrow Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Go North East "South Tyne", daytime.
88A Lukes Lane Estate Chichester ,_South_Leam_&_Jarrow_Tyne and Wear Metro, South Leam & Jarrow Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Go North East "South Tyne", Mon-Sat daytime.
516 South Tyneside General Hospital Pier Head, Marsden & Harton Nook Go North East Mon-Sat daytime.
961 DSS Waterview Park Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Simonside & Fellgate Arriva Northumbria 1 journey, Mon-Fri daytime.
E1 Sunderland Interchange Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Bents Park, Marsden & Roker Stagecoach in South Shields
E2 Sunderland Interchange Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Marsden & Fulwell Grange Stagecoach in South Shields
E6 Sunderland Interchange Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Marsden & Roker Stagecoach in South Shields
TB503 Low Simonside Laygate, Chichester & Simonside Eurocab Minibuses Taxibus, Mon-Sat daytime.
TB504 Horsley Hill Square Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Tyne Dock & S.Tyneside Gen.Hosp. Eurocab Minibuses Taxibus, Mon-Sat evening &
all-day Sun.
X20 Fellgate Tyne and Wear Metro Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Simonside & Primrose Stagecoach in South Shields

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Office for National Statistics : Census 2001 : Urban Areas : Table KS01 : Usual Resident Population Retrieved 2009-08-26
  2. ^ "Dame Catherine Cookson". http://www.afundit.co.uk/Cookson1.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-22. "4. Sir William Fox Hotel, Westoe village, South Shields. This conservation village was the setting for many of her books including Katie Mulholland and Kate Hannigan." 
  3. ^ The British Yemeni Society
  4. ^ The North East's Yemeni Race Riots
  5. ^ American Institute for Yemeni Studies
  6. ^ David Miliband MP - Maiden Speech to Parliament
  7. ^ Reed, Angela (2008-08-08). "MP backs moves to mark Muhammad Ali's South Shields visit". South Shields Gazette. http://www.shieldsgazette.com/news/MP-backs-moves-to-mark.4373635.jp. Retrieved 2008-08-16. "Ms Gharavi, from South Shields, creative director of Bridge + Tunnel Productions in Newcastle, said: "Mr Miliband's support for the plaque project is exciting and has brought momentum to the campaign. "I'm sure the people of South Shields will be glad to hear that it is another step closer to reality." 
  8. ^ "Inspector George Gently is back for four new single dramas for BBC One – Gently In The Blood". bbc.co.uk. 2009-04-07. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2009/04_april/07/gently3.shtml. Retrieved 2010-01-13. 
  9. ^ a b c "Version 5, Change in Claimant Count / Unemployment rate in the borough". southtyneside.info. 2008-05-05. http://www.southtyneside.info/intelligence/enterprise/unemployment.asp. Retrieved 2008-08-30. [dead link]
  10. ^ "Foreshore set for big revamp". South Shields Gazette. 2007-03-13. http://www.shieldsgazette.com/south-shields-news/Foreshore-set-for-big-revamp.2117415.jp. Retrieved 2007-12-24. 
  11. ^ "Awards". Colmans Fish and Chip Restaurant. Cooldot Web Design. http://www.colmansfishandchips.com/awards.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  12. ^ Staines, Shelly (2008-03-07). "Chip Shop Helps Embassy Offer Right Royal Treat". Shields Gazette. 
  13. ^ Sharma, Sonia (2008-03-06). "His Royal Fryness". Evening Chronicle. 
  14. ^ Reed, Angela (2008-07-21). "Planetarium's future saved - with move out of town!". South Shields Gazette. http://www.shieldsgazette.com/news/Planetarium39s-future-saved--with.4308182.jp. Retrieved 2008-08-21. "THE future of South Tyneside College's planetarium and observatory has been secured – with a move outside the borough." 
  15. ^ "College Info - Courses by Subject". South Tyneside College. 2008. http://www.stc.ac.uk/college-info/courses/index.php. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  16. ^ "ANY QUESTIONS?". South Shields Gazette. 2007-02-09. http://www.shieldsgazette.com/news/ANY-QUESTIONS.2038676.jp. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  17. ^ Shaw, Leah (2007-02-10). "PARENTS MEET TO DISCUSS CONCERNS OVER SUPERSCHOOL". The South Shields Gazette. http://www.shieldsgazette.com/news/PARENTS-MEET-TO-DISCUSS-CONCERNS.2040567.jp. Retrieved 2008-01-19. ""King George V and Brinkburn schools will merge on April 16 to form South Shields Community School on split sites in Nevinson Avenue and McAnany Avenue. "Pupils will then move to Brinkburn School's buildings while a new £19m superschool, due to open in 2009 at the earliest…"" 
  18. ^ "AskOxford.com". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20070929145559/http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/geordie?view=uk. Retrieved 2007-10-13. 
  19. ^ Dickens, Jnr, Charles (1872). All the Year Round. new ser.:v.8. Charles Dickens. p. 487. "the engineer, a brawny Geordie from South Shields, imbued with a thoroughly English contempt for every thing foreign;" 
  20. ^ "Not Only A Hero, An Illustrated Life of Simpson, the Man with the Donkey". http://www.anzacday.org.au/spirit/hero/chp00.html. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  21. ^ "Eric Idle Biography". Flmreference.com. http://www.filmreference.com/film/25/Eric-Idle.html. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  22. ^ "Philospher John Grey: We are not facing our problems". Independent.co.uk. 11 April 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/philosopher-john-gray-were-not-facing-our-problems-weve-got-prozac-politics-1666033.html. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  23. ^ "Sir Frank Williams - Formula 1". VisitSouthShields.com. 8 December 2009. http://visitsouthshields.com/sir-frank-williams-formula-1/. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  24. ^ "Professor John Erickson". Independent.co.uk. 12 February 2002. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/professor-john-erickson-729741.html. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  25. ^ "South Tyneside College RFC". http://stc-rugby.co.uk/. Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
  26. ^ "Westoe RFC". Official site. Westoe RFC. http://www.westoerfc.com/index.php. Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
  27. ^ a b "Westoe RFC History". Official site. Westoe RFC. http://www.westoerfc.com/index.php?contents=9800. Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
  28. ^ "WESTOE GRIT WIPES STAINES CLEAN AWAY". South Shields Gazette. 2005-03-07. http://www.shieldsgazette.com/sport/WESTOE-GRIT-WIPES-STAINES-CLEAN.964518.jp. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  29. ^ 2005 General Election results - South Shields
  30. ^ "South Tyneside Alliance". Politics. southtynesidealliance.info. http://www.southtynesidealliance.info/1.html. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  31. ^ "Ferry gets first woman boss in 700 years". Shields Gazette (Johnston Press). 2008-08-12. http://www.shieldsgazette.com/news/Ferry-gets-first-woman-boss.4379192.jp. Retrieved 2008-08-16. "There has been a ferry service between North Shields and South Shields since 1377." 
  32. ^ '"Timetables - Nexus'". Nexus. http://www.nexus.org.uk/bus/timetables. Retrieved 01 September 2011. 
  33. ^ '"South Tyneside Bus Map'". Nexus. http://www.nexus.org.uk/sites/nexus.org.uk/files/documents/page/South%20Tyneside%2011_for%20web.pdf. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 

External links


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  • South Shields — 54.999166666667 1.4297222222222 Koordinaten: 55° 0′ N, 1° 26′ W …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • south shields — ˈshēldz adjective Usage: usually capitalized both Ss Etymology: from South Shields, England : of or from the county borough of South Shields, England : of the kind or style prevalent in South Shields * * * a seaport in Tyne and Wear, in NE… …   Useful english dictionary

  • South Shields — 54° 59′ 31″ N 1° 25′ 44″ W / 54.992, 1.429 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • South Shields — Original name in latin South Shields Name in other language Saut Shijlds, Saut Shilds, Shields, South Shields, nan xi er ci, sauseusiljeu, sawt shyldz, Саут Шийлдс, Саут Шилдс State code GB Continent/City Europe/London longitude 54.99859 latitude …   Cities with a population over 1000 database


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