Lord's Resistance Army insurgency

Lord's Resistance Army insurgency
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency
Date 1987–present
Location Northern Uganda, South Sudan, Eastern DR Congo, Central African Republic
Status The LRA have been militarily defeated. Joseph Kony and two deputies with several dozen fighters remain in Eastern Congo but all military bases in South Sudan and Northern Uganda have been destroyed. The LRA may continue to commit attacks on Democratic Republic of the Congo civilians in the East,[1] and increasingly so in the Central African Republic.[2]
Uganda Uganda People's Defence Force
Flag of South Sudan.svg Sudan People's Liberation Army
Democratic Republic of the Congo Military of DR Congo
United Nations MONUC[3]
Central African Republic Central African Republic[2]
United States United States[4]
Flag of Lord's Resistance Army.svg Lord's Resistance Army
Commanders and leaders
Uganda Yoweri Museveni
Democratic Republic of the Congo Joseph Kabila
Flag of South Sudan.svg Salva Kiir
United Nations Alan Doss
United States Barack Obama
Flag of Lord's Resistance Army.svg Joseph Kony
Flag of Lord's Resistance Army.svg Vincent Otti
Flag of Lord's Resistance Army.svg Raska Lukwiya
Flag of Lord's Resistance Army.svg Okot Odiambo
Flag of Lord's Resistance Army.svg Dominic Ongwen

100 U.S. troops[4]

Casualties and losses
Unkown 1987–2009: ~30,000 dead

The Lord's Resistance Army insurgency is an ongoing guerrilla campaign waged since 1987 by the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebel group,[5] operating mainly in northern Uganda, but also in South Sudan and eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The movement, led by Joseph Kony, who proclaims himself the "spokesperson" of God and a spirit medium, aims to overthrow Yoweri Museveni's Ugandan government and to establish a theocratic state based on the Ten Commandments and Acholi tradition, according to its leaders.[6][7]

The conflict, one of Africa's longest running, resulted in a very severe humanitarian crisis. The LRA is accused of widespread human rights violations, including mutilation, torture, rape, the abduction of civilians, the use of child soldiers, and a number of massacres.[8]



The January 1986 overthrow of President Tito Okello, an ethnic Acholi, by the National Resistance Army (NRA) of south west Uganda Yoweri Museveni marked a period of intense turmoil. The Acholi feared the loss of their traditional dominance of the national military; they were also deeply concerned that the NRA would seek retribution for the brutal counterinsurgency, particularly the actions of the army in the Luwero triangle.[9][10] By August of that year, a full-blown popular insurgency had developed in northern regions that were occupied by government forces.


Early history of the rebellion (1987 to 1994)

Lord's Resistance Army
Ugandan districts affected by Lords Resistance Army.png

Juba talks

Related articles

Lord's Resistance Army
Holy Spirit Movement
Alice Auma
Joseph Kony
ICC investigation

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In January 1987, Joseph Kony made his first appearance as a spirit medium, one of many who emerged after the initial success of the Holy Spirit Movement of Alice Auma. Former Uganda People's Democratic Army commander Odong Latek convinced Kony to adopt conventional guerrilla warfare tactics, primarily surprise attacks on civilian targets, such as villages. The LRA also occasionally carried out large-scale attacks to underline the inability of the government to protect the populace. Until 1991 the LRA raided the populace for supplies, which were carried away by villagers who were abducted for short periods. The fact that some NRA units were known for their brutal actions ensured that the LRA were given at least passive support by segments of the Acholi population[11]

The conflict forces many civilians to live in internally displaced person (IDP) camps. The Labuje IDP camp (pictured) is near Kitgum Town.

March 1991 saw the start of "Operation North", which combined efforts to destroy the LRA while cutting away its roots of support among the population through heavy-handed tactics.[12] As part of Operation North, Acholi Betty Oyella Bigombe, the Minister charged with ending the insurgency, created "Arrow Groups" mostly armed with bows and arrows, as a form of local defence. As the LRA was armed with modern weaponry, the bow-and-arrow groups were overpowered. Nevertheless, the creation of the Arrow Groups angered Kony, who began to feel that he no longer had the support of the population. In response the LRA mutilated numerous Acholi whom they believed to be government supporters. While the government efforts were a failure, the LRA reaction caused many Acholi to finally turn against the insurgency. However, this was tempered by the deep-seated antagonism towards the occupying government forces.

After the failure of Operation North, Minister Bigombe initiated the first face-to-face meeting between representatives of the LRA and government. The LRA asked for a general amnesty for their combatants and stated that they would not surrender, but were willing to "return home." However, the government stance was hampered by disagreement over the credibility of the LRA negotiators and political infighting. In particular, the military had learned that Kony was negotiating with the Sudanese government for support while talking to Bigombe, and felt that Kony was simply trying to buy time. At a second meeting on 10 January 1994, Kony asked for six months to regroup his troops. By early February the tone of the negotiations was growing increasingly acrimonious, and following a meeting on 2 February, the LRA broke off negotiations stating that they felt that the NRA was trying to entrap them. Four days later, President Yoweri Museveni announced a seven-day deadline for the LRA to surrender.[11] This ultimatum ended the Bigombe Avengers Initiative.

An international conflict (1994 to 2002)

Areas affected by the LRA insurgency post-2002

Two weeks after Museveni delivered his ultimatum of 6 February 1994, it was reported that LRA fighters had crossed the northern border and established bases in southern Sudan with the approval of the Khartoum government.[11] Sudanese aid was a response to Ugandan support for the rebel Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) fighting in the civil war in the south of the country. Also, convinced that the Acholi were now collaborating with the Museveni government, Kony began to target civilians with his increased military strength. Mutilations became commonplace (especially cutting off ears, lips, nose), and 1994 saw the first mass abduction of children and youth. The most famous of these was the Aboke abductions of 139 female students in October 1996. As most of the LRA combatants are abducted children, a military offensive against the LRA is widely perceived by the Acholi as a massacre of victims. Government attempts to destroy the rebels are thus viewed as another cause for grievance by the Acholi. The moral ambiguity of this situation, in which abducted young rebels are both the victims and perpetrators of brutal acts, is central to the conflicted attitudes of many Acholi towards the rebels.

The creation of the government "protected villages" beginning in 1996 further deepened the antagonistic attitude that many Acholi have toward the government, especially as the population continues to be attacked by the LRA even within the "protected camps." The camps are also crowded, unsanitary, and miserable places to live.[13] Meanwhile, in 1997 the Sudanese government of the National Islamic Front began to recede from its previous hard-line stance. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks in the U.S., the relationship between Sudan and Uganda abruptly changed. Cross-border tensions eased as support to proxy forces fell. Some of the hundreds of thousands of civilians displaced by the war began to return to their homes. The number of people displaced by the conflict declined to about half a million, and people began to talk openly of the day when the "protected camps" would be disbanded.[14]

The insurgency flares (March 2002 to September 2005)

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In March 2002, the Uganda People's Defence Force (UPDF) launched a massive military offensive, named "Operation Iron Fist", against the LRA bases in southern Sudan, with agreement from the National Islamic Front. This agreement, coupled with the return of Ugandan forces that were deployed in the Democratic Republic of Congo upon the official end of the Second Congo War, created what the Ugandan government felt was an ideal situation in which to end a conflict that had become both an embarrassment and political liability.[15] After several months of uncertainty, LRA forces began crossing back into Uganda and carrying out attacks on a scale and of a brutality not seen since 1995 to 1996, resulting in widespread displacement and suffering in regions, such as Soroti, that had never previously been touched by the insurgency.[16]

A series of diplomatic initiatives during these years failed, especially since Kony's negotiating position remained uncertain, but the conflict gained unprecedented international coverage. During a November 2003 field visit to Uganda, United Nations Undersecretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator Jan Egeland stated, "I cannot find any other part of the world that is having an emergency on the scale of Uganda, that is getting such little international attention."[17] In December 2003, Ugandan President Museveni referred the LRA to the International Criminal Court (ICC) to determine if the LRA is guilty of international war crimes.

From the middle of 2004 on, rebel activity dropped markedly under intense military pressure. The government was also the target of increasingly pointed criticism from the international community for its failure to end the conflict. International aid agencies questioned the Ugandan government's reliance on military force and its commitment to a peaceful resolution. The army also admitted that it had recruited child soldiers who escaped the LRA into the military.[18]

In mid-September 2005, a band of LRA fighters, led by Vincent Otti, crossed into the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) for the first time. President Museveni declared that, if Congolese authorities did not disarm the LRA combatants, the UPDF would be sent across the border in pursuit.[19] This sparked a diplomatic row between the governments of the DRC and Uganda, with both militaries making a show of force along their border, while the Congolese ambassador to the United Nations sent a letter to the UN Secretary-General demanding that an economic embargo be placed on Uganda in retaliation.

Juba peace talks (2006 to 2008)

A series of ongoing meetings have been held in Juba since July 2006 between the government of Uganda and the LRA. The talks are mediated by Riek Machar, the Vice President of Southern Sudan,[20] and by the Community of Sant'Egidio.[21] The talks, which resulted in a ceasefire by September 2006, have been described as the best chance for a negotiated settlement since the peace initiative of Betty Bigombe in 1994.

These talks were agreed to after Joseph Kony released a video in May in which he denied committing atrocities and seemed to call for an end to hostilities, in response to an announcement by Museveni that he would guarantee the safety of Kony if peace was agreed to by July.[22] In late June 2006, the Government of Southern Sudan formally invited Uganda to attend peace talks,[23] and on 14 July 2006 talks began in Juba.[24] On 4 August 2006, Vincent Otti declared a unilateral ceasefire and asked the Ugandan government to reciprocate.[25] ICC indictee Raska Lukwiya was killed in battle on 12 August 2006.[26] The government and LRA signed a truce on 26 August 2006. Under the terms of the agreement, LRA forces will leave Uganda and gather in two assembly areas protected by the government of Sudan. The Ugandan government agreed not to attack those areas. LRA rebels had begun gathering in the assembly areas by mid-September.[27] Talks continued to be hindered by demands and counter-demands. Meanwhile, the government began a process of creating "satellite camps" to decongest the main IDP camps.[28]

In broader context, the government of Southern Sudan viewed the talks as a means of ridding itself of a foreign army that is complicating their delicate relationship with the Khartoum government. The request by the Ugandan Government for ICC to suspend war crimes indictments against leaders of the LRA was condemned by international human rights groups but largely supported by leaders and civilians within northern Uganda.[29]

By mid-2007, thousands of IDPs had moved into the decongestion camps. However, the populace remains cautious about the prospect of a peace deal, with many refusing to return to their ancestral homes until a definitive end to the insurgency.[30]

Following a suspension in the peace talks, the Juba Initiative Project enabled the resumption of the talks in May 2007, thanks to the efforts of the United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary-General for LRA-affected areas, Joaquim Chissano. The talks were again mediated by the Government of Southern Sudan, but with the support of the United Nations and logistic facilitation from the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA).[31]

On 20 August 2007, Uganda declared that it is seeking legal advice on setting a war crimes court.[32] In November 2007, an LRA delegation led by Martin Ojul journeyed to Kampala to restate their commitment to a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Ojul later led the delegation on a tour of northern Uganda to meet victims of the insurgency and ask their forgiveness. However, reports surfaced that LRA deputy commander Otti had been executed on or around 8 October 2007 over an internal power struggle with Kony.[33]

War preparations and offensive (2008)

In June 2008 diplomats reported that the Lord's Resistance army bought new weapons and was recruiting new soldiers, by force as usual, adding 1,000 recruits to the 600 soldiers it already had. At about the same time, Uganda, South Sudan, and Congo-Kinshasa agreed to a plan to crush the movement together.[34] A South Sudanese minister said the rebels killed 14 of its soldiers on 7 June 2008.[35]

The LRA is alleged to have killed at least 400 people in attacks on a number of villages in the DR Congo on and after Christmas Day, 2008.[36]

Throughout 2009, the LRA was blamed for several attacks in Southern Sudan, DR Congo and Central African Republic.[37] In March 2010 news emerged about a December 2009 massacre in DR Congo perpetrated by the LRA.

On 14 October, 2011, the United States, under the direction of President Obama, announced the deployment of 100 U.S. troops to aid other anti-LRA forces in subduing LRA leader Joseph Kony.[4]


A market stall in an IDP camp

The insurgency was historically confined to the region known as Acholiland, consisting of the districts of Kitgum, Gulu, and Pader, though since 2002 violence has overflowed into other Ugandan districts. The LRA also operated across the porous border region with Southern Sudan and most recently into the northeastern Ituri Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The plight of the affected peoples has received little media coverage in the developed world. Not until April 2004 did the UN Security Council issue a formal condemnation. A 2005 poll of humanitarian professionals, media personalities, academics and activists identified the conflict in the north of Uganda as the second worst "forgotten" humanitarian emergency in the world, after the conflicts of the neighbouring DRC.[38]

The U.S. government estimates that up to 12,000 people have been killed in the violence, with many more dying from disease and malnutrition as a direct result of the conflict. Nearly two million civilians have been forced to flee their homes, living in internally displaced person (IDP) camps and within the safety of larger settlements, sleeping on street corners and in other public spaces.

War violence experienced by abductees[39]
Witnessed a killing 78%
Tied or locked up 68%
Received a severe beating 63%
Forced to steal or destroy property 58%
Forced to abuse dead bodies 23%
Forced to attack a stranger 22%
Forced to kill a stranger 20%
Forced to kill an opposing soldier in battle 15%
Forced to attack a family member or friend 14%
Forced to kill a family member or friend 8%

While many abductees are taken to carry items looted from raided villages, some are also used as soldiers and sex slaves. The group performs abductions primarily from the Acholi people, who have borne the brunt of the 18 year LRA campaign. The United Nations estimated in the mid-2000s that around 25,000 children have been kidnapped by the LRA since 1987. However, several research have concluded that the figure was significantly higher. In June 2007, UC Berkeley's Human Rights Center researchers worked with reception centers in northern Uganda to compile a database of 25,000 former abductees that went through reception centers.[40] By triangulating data from different sources on the number of former abductees, the research conservatively estimate that the LRA has abducted 24,000 to 38,000 children and 28,000 to 37,000 adults as of April 2006. The research further found that while women represented about a third of all the abductees, they tended to stay longer with the LRA compared to men. Women are forced to serve as sexual and domestic servants. According to a survey of 750 youth in Kitgum and Pader, at least 66,000 youth between the ages of 13 and 30 have been abducted. One-third of all boys and one-sixth of all girls had been taken for at least one day. Of these, 66% of males were taken for longer than two weeks, while the equivalent number for females was 46%. If a female was gone for more than two weeks, there was a one in four chance that she had not returned. Males were again found to be taken for longer periods of time on average, with two in five males that were abducted for more than two weeks not having returned. The number of abductions was greatest in 2002 and 2003, perhaps in retaliation for Operation Iron Fist. However, the average age of abductees has risen from about 13 in 1994 to nearly 18 in 2004, coinciding with the rise in number, and fall in length, of abductions.[39][41]

While the LRA now appears to consist of less than two thousand combatants that are under intense pressure from the Ugandan military, the government has been unable to end the insurgency to date. Ongoing peace negotiations are complicated by an investigation and trial preparation by the International Criminal Court. The conflict continues to slow down Uganda's development efforts, costing the poor country's economy a cumulative total of at least $1.33 billion, which is equivalent to 3% of GDP, or $100 million annually.[42]

Night Commuters

Room of child "night commuters"

At the height of the conflict, each night, children between the ages of 8 and 14, referred to as "Night Commuters" or "Night Dwellers" would walk up to 20 kilometres (12 mi) from IDP camps to larger towns, especially Gulu, in search of safety.


Initiatives to raise international awareness for these children included the "GuluWalk" and the work of the Resolve Uganda. Night commuters are also the subject of documentaries such as Stolen Children, War/Dance, and Invisible Children.

The Invisible Children documentary sponsored the Global Night Commute, an event similar to GuluWalk. On April 29, 2006, over 80,000 youths from around the world converged on urban centers in 130 major cities around the world in solidarity with displaced Ugandan children. The Invisible Children organization also raised awareness for those in the Internally Displaced Camps (IDPs) through its "Displace Me" event held in 15 cities across the US on April 28, 2007. Over 68,000 people participated in the event which required participants to sleep outside in "homes" made out of cardboard, similar to those in the IDPs.

Another program, The Name Campaign, asks people to wear nameplate necklaces imprinted with the first name of one of the thousands of abducted children as a means of raising public awareness.

Danny Glover and Don Cheadle have both been vocal advocates on behalf of the children of Northern Uganda.

See also


  1. ^ [1][dead link]
  2. ^ a b "New Vision Online : LRA rebels clashes with CAR forces". Newvision.co.ug. 2010-10-08. http://www.newvision.co.ug/D/8/13/734498. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  3. ^ ReliefWeb » Document » Guatemalan blue helmet deaths stir Congo debate[dead link]
  4. ^ a b c http://www.cnn.com/2011/10/14/world/africa/africa-obama-troops/
  5. ^ JAMES C. MCKINLEY JR. (1 April 1996). "Uganda's Christian Rebels Revive War in North". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE2DA1039F932A35757C0A960958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=1. 
  6. ^ Ruddy Doom and Koen Vlassenroot (1999). Kony's message: A new Koine? The Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda. 98. Oxford Journals / Royal African Society. pp. 5–36. 
  7. ^ "Interview with Vincent Otti, LRA second in command" and " A leadership based on claims of divine revelations" in IRIN In Depth, June 2007
  8. ^ International Criminal Court (14 October 2005). Warrant of Arrest unsealed against five LRA Commanders. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
  9. ^ Doom, R. and K. Vlassenroot. "Kony's message: a new koine? The Lord's Resistance Army in Northern Uganda," African Affairs 98 (390), p. 9
  10. ^ Martin Plaut (6 February 2004). "BBC NEWS | World | Africa | Profile: Uganda's LRA rebels". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3462901.stm. Retrieved 17 February 2008. 
  11. ^ a b c O’Kadameri, Billie. "LRA / Government negotiations 1993–94" in Okello Lucima, ed., Accord magazine: Protracted conflict, elusive peace: Initiatives to end the violence in northern Uganda, 2002.
  12. ^ Gersony, Robert. The Anguish of Northern Uganda: Results of a Field-based Assessment of the Civil Conflicts in Northern Uganda[dead link] (PDF), US Embassy Kampala, March 1997, and Amnesty International, Human rights violations by the National Resistance Army, December 1991.
  13. ^ Dolan, Chris. What do you remember? A rough guide to the war in Northern Uganda 1986–2000 (PDF), COPE Working Paper No. 33, 2000, p. 19, and Weeks, Willard. Pushing the Envelope: Moving Beyond 'Protected Villages' in Northern Uganda[dead link] (PDF), for UNOCHA Kampala, March 2002, p. 4
  14. ^ Weeks, p. 36
  15. ^ UGANDA-SUDAN: No rapid solutions in anti-LRA campaign[dead link], IRIN PlusNews, 27 May 2002
  16. ^ Behind the Violence: Causes, Consequences and the Search for Solutions to the War in Northern Uganda[dead link] (PDF), Refugee Law Project of Makerere University, Uganda, February 2004, p. 32.
  17. ^ Uganda conflict 'worse than Iraq', BBC News, 10 November 2003
  18. ^ Ugandan army recruiting children, BBC, 15 February 2005
  19. ^ DR Congo militia deadline expires, BBC, 30 September 2005
  20. ^ LRA rebels arrive for Sudan talks, BBC News, 8 June 2006
  21. ^ "Guerra in Nord Uganda: la fine è a portata di mano", Avvenire, 20 August 2006
  22. ^ Uganda LRA rebels reject amnesty, BBC News, 7 July 2006
  23. ^ UGANDA: Gov't to send team to Sudan over proposed LRA talks, IRIN, 28 June 2006
  24. ^ Ceasefire First On Kony Agenda, AllAfrica (The Monitor), 15 July 2006
  25. ^ LRA leaders declare ceasefire, BBC, 4 August 2006
  26. ^ Uganda hopeful about rebel talks, BBC News, 14 August 2006
  27. ^ Uganda drops peace talks deadline, BBC, 12 September 2006
  28. ^ UGANDA: Most rebels have left northern Uganda for Sudan - army, IRIN, 26 September 2006
  29. ^ UGANDA: Locals want rebel leader forgiven, IRIN, 1 August 2006
  30. ^ "UGANDA: IDPs begin slow journey home amid concerns over peace process", IRIN, 18 May 2007
  31. ^ "SUDAN-UGANDA: LRA talks, pencils and helicopters", IRIN, 31 May 2007
  32. ^ "Uganda considers war crimes court". BBC News. 20 August 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6954860.stm. Retrieved 20 August 2007. 
  33. ^ "Ugandan rebel deputy feared dead" BBC News, 7 November 2007
  34. ^ Ugandan rebels 'prepare for war', BBC News, 7 June 2008
  35. ^ Sudan says Uganda rebels kill troops, start "war", Reuters, 7 June 2008
  36. ^ BBC News (30 December 2008). Christmas massacres 'killed 400'. Retrieved on 4 January 2009.
  37. ^ "SUDAN: Southerners still besieged by suspected LRA fighters". IRIN. 24 November 2009. http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=87173. Retrieved 14 December 2009. 
  38. ^ WHO SAID WHAT: AlertNet ‘forgotten’ emergencies poll, Reuters AlertNet, 9 March 2005
  39. ^ a b Research Brief 1: The Abduction and Return Experiences of Youth (PDF), Survey of War Affected Youth (SWAY): Research & Programs for Youth in Armed Conflict in Uganda, April 2006
  40. ^ "N Uganda Report 2007" (PDF). http://hrc.berkeley.edu/pdfs/NUgandaReport2007.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-26. 
  41. ^ See also Figure 2: Distribution of LRA abduction over eight sub-counties, 1985 to 2005, p. 2 of The State of Youth and Youth Protection in Northern Uganda: Findings from the Survey for War Affected Youth (Phase 1 Final Report: Draft for Comments), SWAY, August 2006 for a sense of the geographic shift in abductions over time
  42. ^ Jeff Dorsey and Steven Opeitum for the Civil Society Organisations for Peace in Northern Uganda (CSOPNU), The Net Economic Cost of the Conflict in the Acholiland Sub-Region of Uganda (PDF), Kampala, September 2002


  • Allen, Tim."Trial Justice: The International Criminal Court and the Lord's Resistance Army", African Arguments Series, Zed Books, London, 2006. ISBN 1-84277-737-8
  • Behrend, H. (M. Cohen, trans.) Alice Lakwena and the Holy Spirits: War in Northern Uganda, 1985–97, James Currey, 2000. ISBN 0-8214-1311-2. (Originally published as Behrend, H. 1993. Alice und die Geister: Krieg in Norden Uganda. Trickster, Munich.)
    • "War in Northern Uganda: The Holy Spirit Movements of Alice Lakwena, Severino Lukoya and Joseph Kony (1986–1997)", in Clapham, C. ed. African Guerrillas. James Currey, Oxford, 1998.
  • De Temmerman, E. Aboke Girls: Children Abducted in Northern Uganda, Fountain, 2001. ISBN 9970-02-256-3. (Originally published as De Temmerman, E. De meisjes van Aboke: Kindsoldaten in Noord-Oeganda. De Kern, 2000. ISBN 90-5312-146-3.)
  • Doom, R. and K. Vlassenroot. "Kony's message: a new koine? The Lord's Resistance Army in Northern Uganda," African Affairs 98 (390) 1999: 5 to 36
  • Eichstaedt, Peter. First Kill Your Family: Child Soldiers of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army. Lawrence Hill Books. 2008. ISBN 978-1-55652-799-9
  • Gingyera-Pincywa, A.G. "Is there a Northern Question?" in K. Rupesinghe, ed. Conflict Resolution in Uganda, International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, 1989.
  • Jackson, P. "The March of the Lord's Resistance Army: Greed or Grievance in Northern Uganda?" Small Wars and Insurgencies 13, no. 3 (Autumn 2002): 29 to 52.
  • Ofcansky, T. "Warfare and Instability Along the Sudan-Uganda Border: A Look at the Twentieth Century" in Spaulding, J. and S. Beswick, eds. White Nile, Black Blood: War, Leadership, and Ethnicity from Khartoum to Kampala. Red Sea Press, Lawrenceville, NJ: 195–210, 2000.
  • Pham PN, Vinck P, Stover E. "The Lord’s Resistance Army and Forced Conscription in Northern Uganda.", Human Rights Quarterly 30:404–411, 2008
  • Vinck P, Pham PN, Weinstein HM, Stover E. Exposure to War Crimes and its Implications for Peace Building in Northern Uganda. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 298 (5): 543–554, 2007
  • Ward, K. "'The Armies of the Lord': Christianity, Rebels and the State in Northern Uganda, 1986–1999", Journal of Religion in Africa 31 (2), 2001.

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