- Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland
Infobox Central bank
bank_name_in_local = Banc Ceannais agus Údarás Seirbhísí Airgeadais na hÉireann ga icon
image_1 = CBFSAI IRELAND.png
image_title_1 = Logo
image_width_1 = 249
president = John Hurley
leader_title = Governor
bank_of = IE
website = [http://www.centralbank.ie/ centralbank.ie]
preceded = Currency Commission (currency control)
Bank of Ireland(Government's banker)1
European Central Bank(1999)2
footnotes = 1 Even after establishement of the Central Bank, Bank of Ireland remained the government's banker for many years.
2 The Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland still exists but many of its central bank functions have been taken over by the ECB.The Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland ( _ga. Banc Ceannais agus Údarás Seirbhísí Airgeadais na hÉireann) is the financial services regulator of Ireland and historically the central bank. The bank was the issuer of
Irish poundbanknotes and coinage until the introduction of the eurocurrency, and currently the bank is an agent for the European Central Bank, leaving its name to be somewhat of a misnomer.
The bank was founded as the Central Bank of Ireland ("Banc Ceannais na hÉireann" in Irish) in 1943 and since
January 1, 1972has been the banker of the Irish Government in accordance with the [http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/1971_24.html Central Bank Act, 1971] , which saw the transition of the bank from a currency boardto a fully functional central bank. In 2003 the current name was adopted to reflect its new role in financial services and the economy.
Previously the commercial
Bank of Irelandwas the government's banker since independence, and is still one of the country's largest banks.
The bank's head office is located on
Dame Street, Dublin, where the public may exchange non-current Irish coinage and currency (both pre- and post-decimalization) for euros. The Currency Centreat Sandyfordis the currency manufacture, warehouse and distribution site of the bank.
Since the passing of the "Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland Act 2003", the bank has operated under two separate divisions, the existing "Central Bank", and the "Financial Regulator" — the latter was formally called the "Irish Financial Services Regulatory Authority".
The Central Bank
The Central Bank manages Irish monetary policy as part of the
European System of Central Banks, and is the Irish Government's banker. Since European Monetary Union, it exercises much of its functions in this regard in conjunction with the European Central Bankand the other Eurozonecentral banks.
The Financial Regulator
In 2003 a new separate division of the Central Bank, with its own Chairman, Chief Executive, and board, was established as the
Irish Financial Services Regulatory Authority. This was as a compromise between those who favoured a fully independent regulator and those who believed the Central Bank should maintain full control of regulation of the financial services industry. This division of the Bank regulates all financial institutions (including credit unions) in Ireland.
On the independence of the
Irish Free Statein 1922, the new state's trade was overwhelmingly with the United Kingdom(98% of Irish exports and 80% of imports in 1924), so the introduction of an independent currency was a low priority. British banknotes (British Treasury notes, Bank of Englandnotes), and notes issued by Irish banks circulated (but only the first were legal tender) and coins remained in circulation.
Under the terms of the "Coinage Act 1926", the Finance Minister was authorised to issue coins of silver, nickel, and bronze of the same denominations as the British coins already in circulation - however the Irish silver coins were to contain 75% silver as compared to the 50% silver coins issued by Britain at the time. These coins entered circulation on
12 December 1928.
Coin image box 2 singles
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footer = Series A (1928-1975) £5 note
position = right
margin = 0
Under the terms of the "Currency Act 1927", a new unit of currency, the "Saorstát Pound" "(Free State Pound)" was created, which was to be maintained at parity with the British
Pound Sterlingby a Currency Commission which would keep British government securities, sterling cash, and gold to keep a 1-1 relationship.
The Central Bank
The "Central Bank Act 1942" which came into effect on
1 February 1943renamed the Currency Commission the "Central Bank of Ireland", although the organisation did not at that time acquire many of the characteristics of a central bank:
*it was not given custody of the cash reserves of the commercial banks
*it had no statutory power to restrict credit, though it could promote it
Bank of Irelandremained the government's banker
*the conditions for influencing credit through open-market operations did not yet exist
*Ireland's external monetary reserves were largely held as external assets of the commercial banks
This seriously limited the banks' ability to run an independent monetary policy. The Central Bank broadened its activities over the decades, but it remained in effect a currency board until the 1970s.
Coin image box 2 singles
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footer = Series B (1976-1992) £5 note
position = right
margin = 0The 1970s were a decade of change, which began with the decimalisation of the currency which came into effect on
15 February 1971, when the decimal coinage was released into circulation (although 5p, 10p, and 50p coins were released a few years earlier, as they had exact equivalents in old currency units). Decimalisation would have provided an ideal opportunity to break the link with Sterling, but there was not much demand for this at that time. In 1972 however, the Bretton Woods systemof fixed exchange rates broke down, and in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis inflation in Britain increased dramatically, and economic theory would suggest that a smaller economy whose currency is pegged to a larger one will suffer the larger economy's inflation rate. At the same time moves to create a money market in Dublinand the transfer in 1968 of the commercial banks' sterling assets to the Central Bank made it possible to contemplate a break in the link. In the mid to late 1970s, opinion within the bank was moving toward breaking the link with sterling and devaluing the Irish currency in order to limit inflationary effects from abroad.
At this time, however, an alternative option became available. In April 1978, the
European Councilmeeting in Copenhagendecided to create a "zone of monetary stability" in Europe, and European Economic Communityinstitutions were invited to consider how to create such a zone. At the following Council meeting in Bremen, Germanyin June 1978 the basic features of the European Monetary Systemwere outlined, including the creation of the ECU - "European Currency Unit", a basket of the Community's currencies used to determine exchange rates, and the forerunner of the euro.
The European Monetary System
The Irish government had to decide whether or not to participate in the EMS. If the EMS had included all the European Community's currencies, it would have provided stability for 75% of Ireland's external trade, but in the event Britain, which still accounted for 50% of Ireland's external trade, decided to stay out of the EMS. Despite this, on
15 December 1978it was announced that Ireland would participate in the EMS. Countries were given the option of either a 2.25% or 6% margin of fluctuation within the EMS' Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), and Ireland took the narrower margin. The EMS started on 13 March 1979, and towards the end of the month Sterling started to gain in value against the EMS currencies because of rising oil prices, and by 30 MarchSterling breached the upper fluctuation band limit of the Belgian franc and the Irish currency could no longer track Sterling. After over 50 years, the parity of the Irish and British currencies was broken, and the Irish currency became known as the Irish pound(or Punt).
The initial experience of the EMS was disappointing. It had been expected that the Irish Pound would appreciate in value against Sterling, and hence reduce inflation in Ireland, but in practice Sterling appreciated considerably in value thanks to its status as a
petrocurrencyand to the tight monetary policies of the new British government of Margaret Thatcher. By late 1980 the Irish Pound had fallen in value to less than 80 British pence, and Irish inflation was higher than British. Economic policy in Ireland was inconsistent with a "hard currency" policy, and the Irish Pound also failed to hold its value against the central rate of the Deutschmark, although it did appreciate in value against some of the other EMS currencies.
Eventually the EMS settled down (notwithstanding a crisis in 1992 when the Irish Pound was devalued by 10%), and Irish inflation was consistently the same or lower than Britain's inflation rate from 1987 onwards.
Towards the Euro
The idea of a single European currency goes back to the
Schumann Planof 1950. The first blueprint for how to go about implementing the currency, the Werner Report of 1970 was not proceeded with, but the ultimate aim was always kept in mind. The "Delors Report" endorsed by the Madrid Summit of June 1989 envisaged a three-stage process to monetary union, and this was given legal authority by the Maastricht Treatyof 1992 (enacted into Irish law as the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution of Irelandby 70% of those voting in a referendum on 18 June 1992). This envisaged the start of monetary union on 1 January 1999and the introduction of notes and coins on 1 January 2002.
The Central Bank began production of euro coins in September 1999, producing over a billion coins, weighing about 5,000 tons, with a value of 230 million euro before the introduction into circulation of the euro coins in January 2002. Production of euro banknotes began in June 2000, with 300 million notes worth 4 billion euro being produced in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 euro. Euro banknotes produced for the Central Bank are identified by having the serial number begin with the letter T. The Bank did not initially issue €200 or €500 euro banknotes, but has since begun to do so. [cite web |url=http://www.rte.ie/news/2002/0111/euro.html|title=More euro in circulation than Irish pounds|accessdate=1 May|accessyear=2007|date=2002-01-11|publisher=RTÉ News]
Irish residential property market
The Central Bank has admitted (Nov. 2005) that estimates of overvaluation of 0% to 60% in the Irish residential property market exist. The "
Irish Times" has revealed minutes of a meeting with the OECDwhich indicate that
* Irish property is overvalued by 15%
* The Central Bank agrees with this estimate but is fearful of precipitating a crash by "putting a number on it".
List of Governors of the Bank
The Governor (Irish "An Gobharnóir") of the Bank is appointed by the
President of Irelandon advice of the Irish Government.
* Joseph Brennan
* J.J. McElligott
Maurice Gerard Moynihan
* C.H. Murray
* Tomás F. Ó Cofaigh
* M. Doyle
* Muiris S. Ó Conaill
* John Hurley (current governor)
Banknotes of the Republic of Ireland
Economy of the Republic of Ireland
* [http://www.centralbank.ie/ Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland]
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