- Independence Hall (United States)
Infobox_protected_area | name = Independence Hall
iucn_category = III
caption = Exterior view of Independence Hall (circa 1770s)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
lat_degrees = 39
lat_minutes = 56
lat_seconds = 56
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 75
long_minutes = 9
long_seconds = 0
long_direction = W
established = 1753
visitation_num = 645,564
visitation_year = 2005 [http://www.nps.gov/inde/management-documents.htm]
National Park ServiceIndependence Hall is a U.S. national landmarklocated inside Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniaon Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets. Known primarily as the location where the Declaration of Independence was debated and adopted, the building was completed in 1753 as the Pennsylvania State House for the Province of Pennsylvania. It became the principal meeting place of the Second Continental Congressfrom 1775 to 1783. The United States Declaration of Independenceand United States Constitutionwere both signed at Independence Hall. The building is now part of the larger Independence National Historical Parkand listed as a World Heritage Site. __TOC__Independence Hall is a red brick building, built between 1732 and 1753, designed in the Georgian style by Edmund Woolleyand Andrew Hamilton, and built by Woolley. Its building was commissioned by the Pennsylvania colonial legislature and it was initially inhabited by the colonial government of Pennsylvania as their State House. Two smaller buildings adjoin Independence Hall: Old City Hall to the east, and Congress Hallto the west. These three buildings are together on a city blockknown as Independence Square, along with Philosophical Hall, the original home of the American Philosophical Society.
bell towersteeple of Independence Hall was the original home of the " Liberty Bell" and today it holds a "Centennial Bell" that was created for the United States Centennial Expositionin 1876. The original Liberty Bell, with its distinctive crack, is now on display across the street in the Liberty Bell Center. In 1976 Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain visited Philadelphia and presented a gift to the American people of a replica "Bicentennial Bell", which was cast in the same British foundry as the original. This 1976 bell hangs in the modern bell tower located on 3rd Street near Independence Hall.
Declaration of Independence & Second Continental Congress
From 1775 to 1783, Independence Hall served as the principal meeting place of the
Second Continental Congress, a body of representatives from each of the thirteen British North American colonies. The United States Declaration of Independencewas approved there on July 4 1776, and the Declaration was read aloud to the public in the area now known as Independence Square. This document unified the colonies in North America who declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britainand explained their justifications for doing so. These historic events are celebrated annually with a national holiday for U.S. Independence Day.
June 14 1775, delegates of the Continental Congress nominated George Washingtonas commander of the Continental Armyin the Assembly Room of Independence Hall. The Congress appointed Benjamin Franklinto be the first Postmaster General of what would later become the United States Post Office Departmenton July 26.
In September 1777,
British Armyarrived to occupy Philadelphia, forcing the Continental Congress to abandon the State House and flee to York, Pennsylvania, where the Articles of Confederationwere approved in November 1777. The Congress returned on July 2 1778, after the end of the British occupation. However, as a result of the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Congress again moved from Philadelphia in June 1783.
U.S. Constitution and the Philadelphia Capitol Building
In September 1786, commissioners from five states met in the Annapolis Convention to discuss adjustments to the
Articles of Confederationthat would improve commerce. They invited state representatives to convene in Philadelphia to discuss improvements to the federal government. After debate, the Congress of the Confederationendorsed the plan to revise the Articles of Confederationon February 21, 1787. Twelve states, Rhode Islandbeing the exception, accepted this invitation and sent delegates to convene in June 1787 at Independence Hall.
The resolution calling the Convention specified its purpose as proposing amendments to the Articles, but the Convention decided to propose a rewritten Constitution. The
Philadelphia Conventionvoted to keep deliberations secret, and to keep the Hall's windows shut throughout the hot summer. The result was the drafting of a new fundamental government design. On September 17, 1787, the Constitution was completed, and took effect on March 4, 1789, when the new Congress met for the first time in New York's Federal Hall.
Article One, Section Eight, of the United States Constitution granted Congress the authority to create of a federal district to serve as the national capital. Following the ratification of the Constitution, the Congress, while meeting in New York, passed the
Residence Actof 1790, which established the District of Columbia as the new federal capital. However, a representative from Pennsylvania, Robert Morris, did manage to convince Congress to return to Philadelphia while the new permanent capital was being built. As a result, the Residence Act also declared Philadelphia to be the temporary capital for a period of ten years. The Congress moved back into Philadelphia on December 6, 1790 and met at Congress Hall, adjacent to Independence Hall.
Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Independence Hall
State Party =
Type = Cultural
Criteria = vi
ID = 78
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 1979
Session = 3rd
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/78On
October 26, 1918, Tomáš Masarykproclaimed the independence of Czechoslovakiaon the steps of Independence Hall.
In 1948, the building's interior was restored to its original appearance.
Independence National Historical Parkwas established by the 80th U.S. Congress later that year to preserve historical sites associated with the American Revolution. Independence National Historical Park comprises a landscaped area of four city blocks, as well as outlying sites that include: Independence Square, Carpenters' Hall (meeting place of the First Continental Congress), the site of Benjamin Franklin's home, the reconstructed Graff House(where Thomas Jeffersonwrote the Declaration of Independence), City Tavern (center of Revolutionary War activities), restored period residences, and several early banks. The park also holds the Liberty Bell, Franklin's desk, a portrait gallery, gardens, and libraries. A product of extensive documentary research and archaeology by the federal government, the restoration of Independence Hall and other buildings in the park set standards for other historic preservationand stimulated rejuvenation of old Philadelphia. The site, administered by the National Park Service, is listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO(joining only three other U.S. man-made monuments still in use, the others being the Statue of Liberty, Pueblo de Taos, and the combined site of the University of Virginiaand Monticello).
On Independence Day,
July 4, 1962, President John F. Kennedygave an address here. [ [http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/Speeches/JFK/003POF03IndependenceHall07041962.htm Address at Independence Hall] , President John F. Kennedy Philadelphia, July 4, 1962] Independence Hall has been used in more recent times as the staging ground for protests because of its symbolic history [" [http://www.oah.org/meetings/1997/mires.htm We the People: Defining Citizenship in the Shadow of Independence Hall] "] in support of democratic and civil rightsmovements. Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell are now protected in a secure zone with entry at security screening buildings. [ [http://www.nps.gov/inde/upload/park_map.pdf
] 141 kb PDF File]
September 11, 2001 attacks, as part of a national effort to safeguard historical monuments by the United States Department of Homeland Security, pedestrian traffic around Independence Square and part of Independence Mallwas restricted by temporary bicycle barriers and park rangers. In 2006, the National Park Service proposed installing a seven-foot security fence around Independence Hall and bisecting Independence Square, a plan that met with opposition from Philadelphia city officials, Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell, and Senator Arlen Specter. [ [http://travel.nytimes.com/2006/08/09/us/09fence.html?n=Top%2FReference%2FTimes%20Topics%2FPeople%2FS%2FStreet%2C%20John%20F ] New York Times] As of January 2007, the National Park Service plan was revised to eliminate the fence in favor of movable bollards and chains, and also to remove at least some of the temporary barriers to pedestrians and visitors. [ [http://www.kyw1060.com/pages/111903.php?contentType=4&contentId=227404 ] kyw1060.com] [ [http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/P/PA_BRF_PHILADELPHIA_INDEPENDENCE_HALL_SECURITY_PAOL-?SITE=PAPPA&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT ] kyw1060.com]
Independence Hall is pictured on the back of the U.S. $100 bill, as well as the bicentennial
Kennedy half dollar. The Assembly Room is pictured on the reverse of the U.S. two dollar bill, from the original painting by John Trumbullentitled "Declaration of Independence".
Founding Fathers of the United States
* [http://www.nps.gov/inde/ Independence National Historical Park]
* [http://www.nps.gov/archive/inde/archeology/archeology3.htm Archeology at the site]
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/132independence/132independence.htm "Independence Hall: International Symbol of Freedom," a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G_rAmG3D3lw Video of the Signing Room at Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]
* [http://www.quiz-tree.com/Declaration-of-Independence-Trumbull.html Interactive Flash Version of John Trumbull's "Declaration of Independence"]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Independence Hall — can refer to:*Independence Hall (United States), in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States *Independence Hall (Israel), in Tel Aviv, Israel *Independence Hall of Korea, a history museum in Cheonam, South Korea *Independence Commemoration Hall… … Wikipedia
United States military bands — There are many military bands in the United States military. Some are assigned to specific military bases or units; there are also bands at each of the service academies.Seven bands are considered to be premier, with members selected by screened… … Wikipedia
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA — UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, country in N. America. This article is arranged according to the following outline: introduction Colonial Era, 1654–1776 Early National Period, 1776–1820 German Jewish Period, 1820–1880 East European Jewish Period,… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
United States House of Representatives elections, 2002 — 2000 ← November 5, 2002 → 2004 … Wikipedia
United States Navy — USN Aufstellung 13. Oktober 1775 … Deutsch Wikipedia
United States House of Representatives elections, 2006 — 2004 ← November 7, 2006 → 2008 … Wikipedia
United States Senate election in New York, 2000 — 1994 ← November 7, 2000 → 2006 … Wikipedia
United States Department of the Interior — Seal Agency overview Headquarters … Wikipedia
United States Football League — Deporte Fútbol americano Fundación 1982 Número de equipos 23 en total País … Wikipedia Español
United States Navy Memorial — IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape) … Wikipedia