- 10th century
The 10th century is the period from
901to 1000in accordance with the Julian calendarin the Christian/ Common Era.
The tenth century is usually regarded as a low point in European history. In China it was also a period of political upheaval. In the
Muslim World, however, it was a cultural zenith, especially in Spain. Also it was the zenith for the Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires.
Medievalist and historian of technology Lynn White said that "to the modern eye, it is very nearly the darkest of the
Dark Ages", but concluded that ". . . if it was dark, it was the darkness of the womb." [Quoted in "The Tenth Century: How Dark the Dark Ages?", edited by Robert Sabatino Lopez. Holt, Reinhart and Winston: 1959.] Similarly, Helen Waddell wrote that the tenth century was that which "in the textbooks disputes with the seventh the bad eminence, the nadir of the human intellect." ["The Wandering Scholars". Constable and Co: London, 1927.] Even in the fifteenth century, Lorenzo Valladescribed it as the Century of Lead and Iron and later Cardinal Baroniusas the Leaden Century.
* The beginning of the
Medieval Warm Period
Byzantine empirereaches the height of its military and economic strength
Fatimiddynasty arises in eastern Algeria
980s- Al-Azhar Universityis established in Cairoby the Fatimiddynasty.
* The Christian
Nubian kingdom reaches its peak of prosperity and military power ( Early history of Sudan)
Nri Kingdomstarts in Southeastern Nigeria
* Collapse of the central lowland
Maya civilization. End of Classic Maya period, begin Post-Classic Maya.
* Rise of the
Toltecs in Mexico
* Golden age of the Ancestral Puebloans (Pueblo II)
Mississippian culturebegins in present day Southern United States
* Khazar kingdom is attacked and defeated by
Kievan Rus( 965)
Buddhisttemple construction commences at Bagan, Burma
919, the first use of gunpowderin battle occurred with the Chinese Battle of Lang-shan Jiang(Wolf Mountain River), where the naval fleet of the Wen-Mu-Kingdefeated Chien Yuan Kuanbecause Wen had used 'fire oil' (huo yóu, 火油) of gunpowder-fuse ignited flamethrowers to burn Chien's fleet.
Laguna Copperplate Inscription, Kaviscript, inscribed in Luzon, Philippines, dated "Saka year 822" ( 900)
910, Parantaka Iof the Chola Dynastydrove out the Pandyan from southern Indiainto Lanka (now Sri Lanka), which he also eventually conquered.
* Coastal cities on the
Malay Peninsulaare the seed for the first recorded Malay kingdoms
993— the Arab maritime captain Abu Himyaritefrom Yementoured Guangzhouport, and was an avid visitor to China
Vikinggroups settle in northern France— Norse become Normans
* Foundation of
Cluny, first federated monastic order
917the Bulgariansdestroyed the Byzantine army in the Battle of Anchialus, one of the bloodiest battles in the Middle Ages
927, official recognition of the first independent national Church in Europe, the Bulgarian Patriarchate
* Incursions of Magyar (Hungarian) cavalry throughout Western Europe (47 expeditions in
Germany, Italyand France, 899– 970)
Mieszko I, first duke of Poland, baptised a Christian in 966
* Collapse of
medieval Croatian statebecomes a unified kingdom under Tomislav
* Twentieth century
Belgian astronomer Jean Meeusasserts that the positions of the eight planetsand Plutowere within the same 90° arc of the solar systemon 1 February, 949. It is predicted this would next occur on 6 May, 1492.
* Swedish influence extends to the
* Vladimir I, Prince of
Kievan Rus, baptised a Christian in 988
Reindeerbecome extinct in Scotland
Lions become extinct in Europe by this date, with the last dying in Caucasus.
* Formation of the
Tu'i Tonga Empireand of the Tuʻi Tongadynasty in Tonga
Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, founder of the Fatamiddynasty of Egypt in 909
Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl, semi-legendaric Toltecruler, (exact years of his life are unknown)
Eurasia and Eastern Roman Empire
Nicephorus II, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire(lived 912– 969, reigned 963– 969)
John I Tzimisces, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire(lived 925– 976, reigned 969– 976)
Basil II, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, (lived 958– 1025, reigned 976– 1025)
Adikavi Pampaan early Kannada languagepoet (born in 902)
Ranna, an early Kannada languagepoet from India, (born in 949)
Huyan Zan, Chinese general (died in 1000)
Li Cheng, Chinese landscape painter
Tailapa II, re-established the Western Chalukya Empireof India (reigned 973- 997)
Zhang Sixun, Chinese astronomerand mechanical engineer
Li Fang, Chinese scholar and encyclopedist ( 925- 996)
Emperor Taizu of Song, founder of the Chinese Song Dynasty(lived March 21, 927– November 14, 976, reigned 960- 976)
Parantaka I, ruler of the Chola Dynastyof India (reigned 907- 950)
Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, united Norway in 872and remained its ruler until 933. One of the most powerful lords of Europeat the time.
*Vladimir I (real name Valdemar), Prince of
Kievan Rus(lived 958– 1015)
Tomislav, king of Croatia,united the medieval Croatian stateinto the Kingdom of Croatia, crowned in 925
Abd-ar-rahman IIIof Cordoba
*Simeon the Great, Emperor of
Bulgaria(reigned 893– 927)
Otto I the Great, Holy Roman Emperor(lived 912– 973, reigned 936– 973)
Edmund I of England(lived 921– 946, reigned 939– 946)
Hugh Capet(lived 938– 996), first Capetian King of France
Géza of Hungary, ruler of the Magyars(lived 940– 997, reigned 970– 997)
Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor(lived 955– 983, reigned 973– 983)
Theophanu, wife of Otto II, mother and Regentof Otto III, (lived 956– 991, reigned 983– 991)
Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria(lived 958– 1014, reigned 976– 1014)
Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor(lived 980– 1002, reigned 983– 1002)
Erik the Red, Norwegian explorer, founded Greenland
Leif Eiriksson, Norwegian explorer, son of Erik the Red, made the first European attempt to settle in America.
Olav Tryggvasonbecomes the first king to try to Christianize Norway, dies at the Battle of Svolderin 1000.
'Aho'eitu(early 10th century), first king of the Tuʻi Tonga
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
*List of 9th-10th centuries inventions
Hop (plant)first mentioned in connection with beerbrewing
Zhang Sixunof Chinauses for the first time liquid mercury (element)instead of water to power the escapementmechanism rotating an armillary sphere, since liquid mercury does not freeze easily like water during winter, and does not rust metal parts
Fire Arrowsare invented by the Chinese, along with the use of the first blackpowderimpregnated fuses for igniting the blast of double-piston flamethrowers which employed Greek Fire, an imported good from Arabiain the early part of the century.
*Construction begins on the
Brihadeeswarar Templeof India, during the reign of Rajaraja Chola I
pound lockis invented by the Chinese engineer Qiao Weiyo, improving the canal lock system.
*Three of the "
Four Great Books of Song" are published (the last one in 1013), which were enormous Chinese encyclopedias having millions of written Chinese characters each.
Decades and years
Heinrich Fichtenau: "Living in the Tenth Century: Mentalities and Social Orders" (transl. Patrick J. Geary; Chicago cool London: 1991).
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