- Vedic Sanskrit
Iron Age India, Greater Iran
Classical Sanskritby the 6th century BC
Avestan alphabet, Brahmibased scripts
Vedic Sanskrit is an ancient
Indian language, the language of the " Vedas", the oldest shrutitexts of Hinduism. It is an archaic form of Sanskrit, an early descendant of Proto-Indo-Iranian. It is closely related to Avestan, the oldest preserved Iranian language. Vedic Sanskrit is the oldest attested language of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family.
From ca. 600 BC, in the classical period of Iron Age
Ancient India, Vedic Sanskrit gave way to Classical Sanskritas defined by the grammar of IAST| Pāṇini.
Five chronologically distinct strata can be identified within the Vedic language (Witzel 1989).
#IAST|Ṛgvedic. The IAST|Ṛgveda retains many common
Indo-Iranianelements, both in language and in content, that are not present in any other Vedic texts. Its creation must have taken place over several centuries, and apart from the youngest books (1 and 10), it must have been essentially complete by around 1200 BC.
#Mantra language. This period includes both the mantra and prose language of the
Atharvaveda(Paippalada and Shaunakiya), the Rigveda Khilani, the SamavedaSamhita (containing some 75 mantras not in the Rigveda), and the mantras of the Yajurveda. These texts are largely derived from the Rigveda, but have undergone certain changes, both by linguistic change and by reinterpretation. Conspicuous changes include change of "IAST|viśva" "all" to "IAST|sarva", and the spread of "IAST|kuru-" (for Rigvedic "IAST|kṛno-") as the present tense form of the verb "IAST|kar-" "make, do". This period corresponds to the early Iron Agein north-western India (iron is first mentioned in the Atharvaveda), and to the kingdom of the Kurus, dating from about the 12th century BC.
#Samhita prose (roughly
1100 BCto 800 BC). This period marks the beginning collection and codification of a Vedic canon. An important linguistic change is the complete loss of the injunctive and of the grammatical moods of the aorist. The commentary part of the Black Yajurveda(MS, KS) belongs to this period.
#Brahmana prose (roughly
900 BCto 600 BC). The Brahmanasproper of the four Vedas belong to this period, as well as the Aranyakas (IAST|Āraṇyakas) oldest of the Upanishads ( Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Chāndogya Upanishad, Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana).
#Sutra language. This is the last stratum of vedic Sanskrit leading up to
500 BC, comprising the bulk of the Shrauta and Grhya Sutras, and some Upanishads(E.g. Katha Upanishad, Maitrayaniya Upanishad. Younger Upanishads are post-Vedic).
Around 500 BC, cultural, political and linguistic factors all contribute to the end of the Vedic period. The codification of Vedic ritual reached its peak, and counter movements such as the
Vedantaand early Buddhismemerged, using the vernacular Pali, a Prakritdialect, rather than Sanskrit for their texts. Darius I of Persiainvaded the Indus valley and the political center of the Indo-Aryan kingdoms shifted eastward, to the Gangetic plain. Around this time ( 5th century BC), Panini fixes the grammar of Classical Sanskrit.
:"This section treats the distinguishing features of Vedic Sanskrit - see
Classical Sanskritfor a general account."
Sound changes between Proto-Indo-Iranian and Vedic Sanskrit include loss of the voiced sibilant "z".
Vedic Sanskrit had a bilabial fricative IPA| [ɸ] , called "IAST|upadhmānīya", and a velar fricative IPA| [x] , called "IAST|jihvamuliya". These are both allophones of
visarga: upadhmaniya occurs before "IAST|p" and "IAST|ph", jihvamuliya before "IAST|k" and "IAST|kh". Vedic also had a retroflex "l" for retroflex "l", an intervocalic allophone of "IAST|ḍ", represented in Devanagariwith the separate symbol Unicode|ळ and transliterated as "IAST|ḷ" or "IAST|ḷh". In order to disambiguate vocalic "l" from retroflex "l", ISO 15919transliterates vocalic "l" with a ring below the letter, "Unicode|l̥". (Vocalic "r" is then also represented with a ring, "Unicode|r̥", for consistency and to disambiguate it additionally from the retroflex "Unicode|ṛ" and "Unicode|ṛh" of some modern Indian languages.)
Vedic Sanskrit had a
pitch accent. Since a small number of words in the late pronunciation of Vedic carry the so-called "independent svarita" on a short vowel, one can argue that "late" Vedic was "marginally" a tonal language. Note however that in the metrically restored versions of the Rig Vedaalmost all of the syllables carrying an independent svaritamust revert to a sequence of two syllables, the first of which carries an udātta and the second a (so called) dependent svarita. Early Vedic was thus definitely not a tonal language but a pitch accent language. See Vedic accent.
IAST|Pāṇini gives accent rules for the spoken language of his (post-Vedic) time, though there is no extant post-Vedic text with accents.
plutivowels (trimoraic vowels) were on the verge of becoming phonological during middle Vedic, but disappeared again.
Vedic Sanskrit differs from Classical Sanskrit to an extent comparable to the difference between Homeric Greek and Classical Greek. Tiwari (  2005) lists the following principal differences between the two:
*Vedic Sanskrit had a
voiceless bilabial fricative(IPA|/ɸ/, called "upadhmānīya") and a voiceless velar fricative(IPA|/x/, called "jihvāmūlīya")—which used to occur when the breath "visarga" (अः) appeared before voiceless labial and velar consonants respectively. Both of them were lost in Classical Sanskrit to give way to the simple "visarga".
*Vedic Sanskrit had a
retroflex lateral approximant(IPA|/ɭ/) (ळ) as well as its aspirated counterpart IPA|/ɭʰ/ (ळ्ह), which were lost in Classical Sanskrit, to be replaced with the corresponding plosives IPA|/ɖ/ (ड) and IPA|/ɖʱ/ (ढ). ("Varies by region; vedic pronunciations are still in common use in some regions, e.g. southern India, including Maharashtra".)
*The pronunciations of syllabic IPA|/ɻ̩/ (ऋ), IPA|/l̩/ (लृ) and their long counterparts no longer retained their pure pronunciations, but had started to be pronounced as short and long IPA|/ɻi/ (रि) and IPA|/li/ (ल्रि).
*The vowels e (ए) and o (ओ) were actually realized in Vedic Sanskrit as
diphthongs IPA|/ai/ and IPA|/au/, but they became pure monophthongs IPA|/eː/ and IPA|/oː/ in Classical Sanskrit.
*The vowels ai (ऐ) and au (औ) were actually realized in Vedic Sanskrit as hiatus IPA|/aːi/ (आइ) and IPA|/aːu/ (आउ), but they became
diphthongs IPA|/ai/ (अइ) and IPA|/au/ (अउ) in Classical Sanskrit.
*The "Prātishākhyas" claim that the dental consonants were articulated from the root of the teeth ("dantamūlīya"), but they became pure dentals later. This included the IPA|/r/, which later became retroflex.Fact|date=December 2007
*Vedic Sanskrit had a pitch accent which could even change the meaning of the words, and was still in use in Panini's time, as we can infer by his use of devices to indicate its position. At some latter time, this was replaced by a stress accent limited to the second to fourth syllables from the end.
*Vedic Sanskrit often allowed two like vowels to come together without merger during
Vedic had a
subjunctiveabsent in Panini's grammar and generally believed to have disappeared by then at least in common sentence constructions. All tenses could be conjugated in the subjunctive and optativemoods, in contrast to Classical Sanskrit, with no subjunctive and only a present optative. (However, the old first-person subjunctive forms were used to complete the Classical Sanskrit imperative.) The three synthetic past tenses ( imperfect, perfect and aorist) were still clearly distinguished semantically in (at least the earliest) Vedic. A fifth mood, the injunctive, also existed.
Long-"i" stems differentiate the
Devi inflectionand the Vrkis inflection, a difference lost in Classical Sanskrit.
subjunctive moodof Vedic Sanskrit was also lost in Classical Sanskrit. Also, there was no fixed rule about the use of various tenses Unicode|("luṇ, laṇ" and "liṭ").
*There were more than 12 ways of forming
infinitives in Vedic Sanskrit, of which Classical Sanskrit retained only one form.
*Nominal declinations and verbal conjugation also changed pronunciation, although the spelling was mostly retained in Classical Sanskrit. E.g., along with the Classical Sanskrit's declension of "deva" as Unicode|"devaḥ"—"devau"—"devāḥ", Vedic Sanskrit additionally allowed the forms Unicode|"devaḥ"—"devā"—"devāsaḥ". Similarly Vedic Sanskrit has declined forms such as "asme", "tve", Unicode|"yuṣme", "tvā", etc. for the 1st and 2nd person pronouns, not found in Classical Sanskrit. The obvious reason is the attempt of Classical Sanskrit to regularize and standardize its grammar, which simultaneously led to a purge of Old Proto-Indo-European forms.
*To emphasize that Proto-Indo-European and its immediate daughters were essentially end-inflected languages, both Proto-Indo-European and Vedic Sanskrit had independent prefix-morphemes. Such prefixes (especially for verbs) could come anywhere in the sentence, but in Classical Sanskrit, it became mandatory to attach them immediately before the verb. There was a similar development from Homeric Greek to Classical Greek: see
Vedic Sanskrit has a number of phonetic, morphological and syntactical featuresshowing
substratuminfluence of non-Indo-European sources, variously traced to the Dravidian or Munda language families.
A Vedic Word Concordance"
* Ernst Wilhelm Oskar Windisch, Berthold Delbrück, "Die altindische Wortfolge aus dem Catapathabrahmana" [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0543940349&id=DoaWr78cxKQC&dq=Altindische]
* A. A. Macdonell, "Vedic Grammar" (1910)
* A. A: Macdonnell, "Vedic Grammar for Students"
*Bruno Lindner, "IAST|Altindische Nominalbildung: Nach den S̆amhitas dargestellt" (1878) [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC05275028&id=dVsIAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=Altindische]
Michael Witzel, "Tracing the Vedic dialects" in "Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes" ed. Caillat, Paris, 1989, 97–265.
* [http://titus.uni-frankfurt.de/indexe.htm?/texte/texte2.htm#ved index of Vedic texts] (TITUS)
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