Substance P


Substance P

protein
Name = tachykinin, precursor 1
caption = Spacefilling model of substance P


width = 180
HGNCid = 11517
Symbol = TAC1
AltSymbols = TAC2, NKNA
EntrezGene = 6863
OMIM = 162320
RefSeq = NM_003182
UniProt = P20366
PDB =
ECnumber =
Chromosome = 7
Arm = q
Band = 21
LocusSupplementaryData = -q22
Chembox new
ImageFile=Substance P.svg
ImageSize=275px
IUPACName=
OtherNames=
Section1= Chembox Identifiers
CASNo=33507-63-0
PubChem=36511
SMILES=
MeSHName=Substance+P

Section2= Chembox Properties
Formula=C63H98N18O13S
MolarMass=1347.63 g/mol
Appearance=
Density=
MeltingPt=
BoilingPt=
Solubility=

Section3= Chembox Hazards
MainHazards=
FlashPt=
Autoignition=
In neuroscience, Substance P is a neuropeptide: a short-chain polypeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. It belongs to the tachykinin neuropeptide family.

It is an 11-amino acid polypeptide with the sequence: Arg Pro Lys Pro Gln Gln Phe Phe Gly Leu Met

History

It was discovered by Ulf von Euler and John H. Gaddum in 1931.

Receptor

The endogenous receptor for Substance P is neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1-receptor, NK1R). It belongs to the tachykinin receptor sub-family of GPCRs.

Functions

In the central nervous system, substance P has been associated in the regulation of mood disorders, anxiety, stress, reinforcement, neurogenesis, respiratory rhythm, neurotoxicity, nausea/emesis, pain and nociception.

Vomiting

The vomiting center in the brainstem contains high concentrations of substance P and its receptor, in addition to other neurotransmitters such as choline, histamine, dopamine, serotonin, and opioids. Their activation stimulates the vomiting reflex. Different emetic pathways exist, and substance P/NK1R appears to be within the final common pathway to regulate vomiting. [ Hornby PJ. Central neurocircuitry associated with emesis. Am J Med 2001;111:106S-12S]

Substance P antagonist (SPA) aprepitant is available in the market in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea / emesis.

Pain

Substance P is involved in nociception, transmitting information about tissue damage from peripheral receptors to the central nervous system to be converted to the sensation of pain. It has been theorized that it plays a part in fibromyalgia. Capsaicin has been shown to reduce the levels of Substance P probably by reducing the number of C-fibre nerves or causing these nerves to be more tolerant. Thus Capsaicin is clinically used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent to relieve pain associated with arthritis and many types of neuralgia.

timulating cellular growth

Substance P has been shown to stimulate cellular growth in cell culture [ Reid TW, Murphy C, Iwahashi C, Foster B, and Mannis M. Stimulation of epithelial cell growth by the neuropeptide substance P. J Cell Biochem 1993; 52:476-485] , and it was shown that Substance P could promote wound healing of non-healing ulcers in humans. [ Brown S, Lamberts D, Reid TW, Nishida T, Murphy C. Neurophilic and Anhidrotric Keratopathy Treated with Substance P and Insulinlike Growth Factor 1. Arch Ophthalmol 1997; 115:926-927] It has also been shown to reverse diabetes in mice. [cite web |url=http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn10812-breakthrough-sheds-light-on-cause-of-diabetes.html |title=Breakthrough sheds light on cause of diabetes - health - 15 December 2006 - New Scientist |accessdate=2007-05-08 |format= |work=]

Vasodilation

It also has effects as a potent vasodilator. This is caused by the release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. Its release can cause hypotension.

Eczema

High levels of BDNF and Substance P have been found associated with increased itching in eczema ['Blood chemicals link' to eczema [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/6962450.stm] ] .

ubstance P in gastrointestinal infection

"Entamoeba histolytica" is a single-celled parasitic protozoan that infects the lower gastrointestinal tract of humans, producing symptoms of diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain. [cite journal |author=Steinitz H |title= [Chronic recurrent intestinal amebiasis in Israel (author's transl)] |language=German |journal=Leber, Magen, Darm |volume=9 |issue=4 |pages=175–9 |year=1979 |pmid=491812 |doi=] cite journal |author=Stark D, van Hal S, Marriott D, Ellis J, Harkness J |title=Irritable bowel syndrome: a review on the role of intestinal protozoa and the importance of their detection and diagnosis |journal=Int. J. Parasitol. |volume=37 |issue=1 |pages=11–20 |year=2007 |pmid=17070814 |doi=10.1016/j.ijpara.2006.09.009] This protozoan was found to secrete serotonin [cite journal |author=McGowan K, Kane A, Asarkof N, "et al" |title=Entamoeba histolytica causes intestinal secretion: role of serotonin |journal=Science |volume=221 |issue=4612 |pages=762–4 |year=1983 |pmid=6308760|doi=10.1126/science.6308760] , as well as substance P and neurotensin. [cite journal |author=McGowan K, Guerina V, Wicks J, Donowitz M |title=Secretory hormones of Entamoeba histolytica |journal=Ciba Found. Symp. |volume=112 |issue= |pages=139–54 |year=1985 |pmid=2861068 |doi=]

Animals without Substance P

Naked mole rats lack Substance P and do not feel pain when painful stimuli are administered to the skin. [cite journal |author=Park TJ, Comer C, Carol A, Lu Y, Hong HS, Rice FL |title=Somatosensory organization and behavior in naked mole-rats: II. Peripheral structures, innervation, and selective lack of neuropeptides associated with thermoregulation and pain |journal=J Comp Neurol |volume=465 |issue=1 |pages=104–20 |year=2003 |pmid=12926019 |doi=10.1002/cne.10824] [cite web | url = http://pubs.acs.org/cen/critter/8202molerats.html | title = Ugly Ducklings | date = January 7 2004 | accessdate = 2007-08-14 | last = Pepling | first = Rachel Sheremeta | publisher = "Chemical & Engineering News"]

References

External links

*http://www.fibromyalgiasupport.com/library/showarticle.cfm/id/3097 Dr. Jon Russell, M.D., Ph.D., Substance P is Key to Understanding Pain Process


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