1863


1863

Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).

Events of 1863

January - March


* January 1
**Abraham Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation during the second year of the American Civil War, making the abolition of slavery in the rebel states an official war goal.
**The first claim under the Homestead Act is made for a farm in Nebraska.
* January 8
**Ground is broken in Sacramento, CA on the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States.
**The Yorkshire County Cricket Club is founded at the Adelphi Hotel in Sheffield, England.

* January 9 - The first section of the London Underground Railway (Paddington to Farringdon Street) opens.
* January 11 - American Civil War - Battle of Arkansas Post: General John McClernand and Admiral David Dixon Porter capture the Arkansas River for the Union.
* January 21 - Adam Opel founds Opel AG.
* January 22 - The January Uprising breaks out in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. The aim of the national movement is to liberate the Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth from Russian occupation.

* February 7 - The "HMS Orpheus" sinks attempting to enter Manukau Harbour in New Zealand, with the loss of 189 lives.
* February 10
**The world-famous midgets General Tom Thumb and Lavinia Warren get married in New York City; P. T. Barnum takes an entrance fee.
**Alanson Crane patents the fire extinguisher.
* February 16 - Kansas State Agricultural College is established, as the first land grant college created under the 1862 Morrill Act.
* February 24 - Arizona is organized as a United States territory.
* February 26 - Abraham Lincoln signs the National Banking Act into law.
* March 3
**Idaho Territory is organized by the U.S. Congress.
**The U.S. National Conscription Act is signed, leading to the week-long New York Draft Riots.
* March 10 - Albert Edward, Prince of Wales marries Princess Alexandra of Denmark.
* March 19 - The "S.S. Georgiana" is destroyed on her maiden voyage while attempting to run the blockade into Charleston, South Carolina. Lost to history, the wreck is discovered March 19, 1965, (exactly 102 years later) by E. Lee Spence.
* March 30 - Prince Wilhelm George of Denmark is chosen as King George I of Greece.

April - June


* April 20 - American Civil War - The Battle of Washington ends inconclusively in Beaufort County, North Carolina.
* April 21
**Bahá'u'lláh declares His station as "He whom God shall make manifest". This date is celebrated in the Bahá'í Faith as The Festival of Ridván.
**Quantrill's Raiders launch a reprisal raid Lawrence, Kansas in the Battle of Lawrence, killing a number of civilians.
* April 30 - Battle of Camarón in Mexico: 65 soldiers of the French Foreign Legion fight 2,000 Mexicans; 3 of them survive the battle.
* May 1 - 4 - American Civil War - Battle of Chancellorsville: General Robert E. Lee defeats Union forces with 13,000 Confederate casualties, among them Stonewall Jackson (lost to friendly fire), and 17,500 Union casualties.
* May 14 - American Civil War - Battle of Jackson (MS): Union General Ulysses S. Grant defeats Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston, opening the way for the Siege of Vicksburg.
* May 17 - After a 2-month siege, the French army of Bazaine takes Puebla, Mexico.
* May 18 - American Civil War: The Siege of Vicksburg begins (ends Saturday, July 4, when 30,189 Confederate men surrender).
* May 21
**American Civil War: The Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana by Union forces begins.
**The General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists is formed in Battle Creek, Michigan.
* May 23
**Ferdinand Lassalle founds the "Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein" (General German Workers' Association, ADAV), the first socialist workers party in Germany.
* May 26 - American Civil War - The Siege of Vicksburg starts.
* May 28 - American Civil War - The 54th Massachusetts, the first African-American regiment, leaves Boston, Massachusetts to fight for the Union.
* May 31 - The first Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe horse race is held.
* June 9 - American Civil War - The Battle of Brandy Station, Virginia ends inconclusively.
* June 14 - American Civil War - Second Battle of Winchester: A Union garrison is defeated by the Army of Northern Virginia in the Shenandoah Valley town of Winchester, Virginia.
* June 17 - American Civil War - The Battle of Aldie in the Gettysburg Campaign ends inconclusively.
* June 20 - West Virginia is admitted as the 35th U.S. state.

July - September


* July 1 - 3 - American Civil War: Union forces under George G. Meade turn back a Confederate invasion by Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg, the largest battle of the war (28,000 Confederate casualties, 23,000 Union).
* July 4 - American Civil War: Battle of Vicksburg - Ulysses S. Grant and the Union army capture the Confederate city Vicksburg, Mississippi, after the town surrendered. The siege lasted 47 days.
* July 9 - The Siege of Port Hudson ends and the Union controls the entire Mississippi River for the first time.
* July 13 - American Civil War - (New York Draft Riots): In New York City, opponents of conscription begin 3 days of violent rioting, which would later be regarded as the worst in the history of the United States.
* July 18 - American Civil War: The first formal African American military unit, the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, unsuccessfully assaults Confederate-held Fort Wagner but their valiant fighting still proves the worth of African American soldiers during the war. Their colonel is shot leading attack and was buried with his men (450 Union, 175 Confederate).
* July 26 - American Civil War - Morgan's Raid: At Salineville, Ohio, Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and 375 of his volunteers are captured by Union forces.
* July 30 - Indian Wars: Chief Pocatello of the Shoshone tribe signs the Treaty of Box Elder, promising to stop harassing the emigrant trails in southern Idaho and northern Utah.
* August 8 - American Civil War: Following his defeat in the Battle of Gettysburg, General Robert E. Lee sends a letter of resignation to Confederate President Jefferson Davis (Davis refuses the request upon receipt).
* August 17 - American Civil War: In Charleston, South Carolina, Union batteries and ships bombard Confederate-held Fort Sumter (the bombardment does not end until Thursday, December 31).
* August 21 - American Civil War - Battle of Lawrence: Lawrence, Kansas is attacked by William Quantrill's raiders, who kill an estimated 200 men and boys. The raid becomes notorious in the North as one of the most vicious atrocities of the Civil War.
* September 6 - American Civil War: Confederates evacuate Battery Wagner and Morris Island in South Carolina.
* September 16 - Robert College of Istanbul-Turkey, the first American educational institution outside the United States, is founded by Christopher Robert, an American philanthropist.

October - December


* October 5 - The Brooklyn, Bath and Coney Island Rail Road starts operations in Brooklyn, New York; this is now the oldest right-of-way on the New York City Subway, the largest rapid transit system in the United States and one of the largest in the world.
* October 14 - American Civil War: Battle of Bristoe Station - Confederate General Robert E. Lee forces fail to drive the Union army out of Virginia.
* October 15 - American Civil War: The first successful submarine, the CSS "Hunley" sinks during a test, killing Horace Lawson Hunley (its inventor) and a crew of seven.
* October 26 - The Football Association is formed.
* October 26 - 29 - The Resolutions of the Geneva International Conference are signed.
* October 29
**Sixteen countries meeting in Geneva agree to form the International Red Cross.
**American Civil War - Battle of Wauhatchie: Forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant ward-off a Confederate attack led by General James Longstreet. Union forces thus open a supply line into Chattanooga, Tennessee.
* November 15 - The death of King Frederick VII of Denmark and his succession by his distant cousin Christian IX marks the beginning of the Second Schleswig-Holstein crisis.
* November 16 - American Civil War - Battle of Campbell's Station: Near Knoxville, Tennessee, Confederate troops led by General James Longstreet unsuccessfully attack Union forces under General Ambrose Burnside.
* November 17 - American Civil War - The Siege of Knoxville begins: Confederate forces led by General James Longstreet place Knoxville, Tennessee under siege (the 2-week-long siege and 1 failed attack are unsuccessful).
* November 18 - King Christian IX of Denmark decided to sign the november constitution, which declared Schleswig as part of Denmark, what was seen by the German Confederation as a violation of the London Protocol and lead to the German–Danish war of 1864.
* November 19 - American Civil War: Union President Abraham Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address at the military cemetery dedication ceremony in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
* November 23 - American Civil War - The Battle of Chattanooga III begins: Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant reinforce troops at Chattanooga, Tennessee and counter-attack Confederate troops.
* November 24 - American Civil War - Battle of Lookout Mountain: Near Chattanooga, Tennessee, Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant capture Lookout Mountain and begin to break the Confederate siege of the city led by General Braxton Bragg.
* November 25 - American Civil War - Battle of Missionary Ridge: At Missionary Ridge in Tennessee, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant break the Siege of Chattanooga by routing Confederate troops under General Braxton Bragg.
* November 26 - American Civil War - Mine Run: Union forces under General George Meade position against troops led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee (Meade's forces can not find any weaknesses in the Confederate lines and give up trying after 5 days).
* November 27 - American Civil War: Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and several of his men escape the Ohio state prison and return safely to the South.
* December 15 - Romania uses for the first time a mountain railway (from Anina to Oravita).
* Amasa Leland Stanford, the 8th Governor of California, is succeeded by Frederick Ferdinand Low.

Undated

* Bartolomé Mitre secretly backs the revolt of Venancio Flores against the Uruguayan Blanco government
* Thomas Nast draws the modern Santa Claus for "Harper's Weekly," although Santa existed previously.
* Douglas becomes the capital of the Isle of Man, after its parliament (Tynwald) moves their chambers from Castletown.

Ongoing Events

* American Civil War (1861-1865)
* Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864)

Births

January - June


* January 1 - Pierre de Coubertin, French founder of the modern Olympic Games (d. 1937)
* January 12 - Swami Vivekananda, Indian religious leader (d. 1902)
* January 15 - Wilhelm Marx, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1946)
* January 17 - David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1945)
* January 17 - Constantin Stanislavski, Russian theatre practitioner and founder of modern realistic acting (d. 1938)
* January 28 - Ernest William Christmas, Australian painter (d. 1918)
* March 11 - Andrew Stoddart, English cricketer (d. 1915)
* March 12 - Gabriele D'Annunzio, Italian writer, war hero, and politician (d. 1938)
* March 25 - Simon Flexner, American pathologist (d. 1946)
* May 21 - Archduke Eugen of Austria, Austrian field marshal (d. 1954)
* March 27 - Henry Royce, English automobile pioneer (d. 1933)
* April 18 - Leopold Graf Berchtold, Austro-Hungarian foreign minister (d. 1942)
* May 24 - George Grey Barnard, American sculptor (d. 1938)
* May 29 - Arthur Mold, English cricketer (d. 1921)
* June 2 - Felix Weingartner, Yugoslavian conductor (d. 1942)
* June 13 - Lady Lucy Duff Gordon, English fashion designer (d. 1942)
* June 17 - Duke Charles Michael of Mecklenburg, head of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1934)

July - December


* July 1 - William Grant Stairs, Canadian explorer (d. 1892)
* July 6 - Reginald McKenna, British Chancellor of the Exchequer 1915–1916 (d. 1943)
* July 21 - C. Aubrey Smith, English actor (d. 1948)
* July 30 - Henry Ford, American automobile manufacturer and industrialist (d. 1947)
* August 3 - Géza Gárdonyi, Hungarian author (d. 1922)
* August 17 - Gene Stratton-Porter, American author, screenwriter and naturalist (d. 1924)
* September 13 - Arthur Henderson, Scottish politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1935)
* September 21 - John Bunny, American film comedian (d. 1915)
* October 11 - Louis Cyr, Canadian strongman (d. 1912)
* October 16 - Austen Chamberlain, English statesman, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1937)
* October 18 - Tommy Tucker, 19th century baseball pioneer (d. 1935)
* December 5 - Pattillo Higgins, oil pioneer and businessman, known as the "Prophet of Spindletop" (d. 1955)
* December 7 - Felix Calonder
* December 7 - Pietro Mascagni, Italian composer (d. 1945)
* December 11 - Annie Jump Cannon, American astronomer (d. 1941)
* December 12 - Edvard Munch, Norwegian painter (d. 1944)
* December 18 - Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria (d. 1914)"Unknown date"
* Aaron S. Watkins, American Presidential candidate (d. 1941)
* Andres Bonifacio, Filipino revolutionary (d. 1897)
* Qasim Amin, writer (d. 1908)

Deaths

January - June


* April 1 - Jakob Steiner, Swiss mathematician (b. 1796)
* May 10 - Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, American Confederate general (b. 1824)
* June 9 - Dost Mohammad Khan, Emir of Kabul, King of Kandahar (b. 1793)

July - December


* July 1 - John F. Reynolds, Major General in the Union Army
* July 26 - Sam Houston, first President of the Republic of Texas (b. 1793)
* August 13 - Eugène Delacroix, French painter (b. 1798)
* September 17 - Alfred de Vigny, French author (b. 1797)
* September 20 - Jakob Grimm, German folklorist (b. 1785)
* October 13 - Philippe Antoine d’Ornano, Marshal of France (b. 1784)
* November 2 - Theodore Judah, American railroad engineer (b. 1826)
* November 15 - King Frederick VII of Denmark (b. 1808)
* December 13 - Christian Friedrich Hebbel, German writer (b. 1813)
* December 24 - William Makepeace Thackeray, British novelist (b. 1811)

: "See also ."

External links

* [http://www.familytales.org/results.php?year=1863 Historic Letters of 1863]

1863 in film

*The film "Glory" (starring Morgan Freeman, Denzel Washington, and Matthew Broderick), shows events of 1863, notably the assault on Fort Wagner. See above, July 18.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • 1863 — Années : 1860 1861 1862  1863  1864 1865 1866 Décennies : 1830 1840 1850  1860  1870 1880 1890 Siècles : XVIIIe siècle  XIXe …   Wikipédia en Français

  • 1863 — Años: 1860 1861 1862 – 1863 – 1864 1865 1866 Décadas: Años 1830 Años 1840 Años 1850 – Años 1860 – Años 1870 Años 1880 Años 1890 Siglos: Siglo XVIII – …   Wikipedia Español

  • 1863 — Portal Geschichte | Portal Biografien | Aktuelle Ereignisse | Jahreskalender ◄ | 18. Jahrhundert | 19. Jahrhundert | 20. Jahrhundert | ► ◄ | 1830er | 1840er | 1850er | 1860er | 1870er | 1880er | 1890er | ► ◄◄ | ◄ | 1859 | 1860 | 1861 | 18 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • 1863 — …   Википедия

  • 1863 — Создание Международного Красного Креста в Щвейцарии …   Хронология всемирной истории: словарь

  • 1863.01.01 — Вступление в действие в США закона об освобождении рабов …   Хронология всемирной истории: словарь

  • 1863.01.22 — Избрание нового короля Греции Георга I …   Хронология всемирной истории: словарь

  • 1863.06 — Захват французами Мехико. Провозглашение Мексики империей. Императором стал брат австрийского императора Максимилиан. Президент Мексики Гарсия начал партизанскую войну …   Хронология всемирной истории: словарь

  • 1863.07.01-03 — Битва при Геттисберге. Победа северян над Конфедерацией …   Хронология всемирной истории: словарь

  • 1863.09.19 — США. Битва при Чикамоге …   Хронология всемирной истории: словарь


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