- 14th century
As a means of recording the passage of
time, the 14th century was that centurywhich lasted from 1301to 1400.
* The transition from the
Medieval Warm Periodto the Little Ice Age
* Beginning of the
Ottoman Empire, early expansion into the early Balkans
Avignon papacytransfers the seat of the Popes from Italyto France
Great Famine of 1315-1317kills millions of people in Europe
* Being forced out of previous locations, the Mexica found the city of
Battle of Kosovoin 1389 between Serbs and Ottoman Turks, Prince Lazar, sultan Murat Iand Miloš Obilićwere killed
Vijayanagara Empireis founded in South Indiaby Hariharain 1336
Hundred Years' Warbegins when Edward III of Englandlays claim to the French throne in 1337.
* French recruit troops and ships in
Genoa, Monacoand Nice. ( 1345- 1346)
Black Deathkills around a third of the population of Europe. ( 1347- 1351)
Battle of Lake Poyang, a naval conflict between Chinese rebel groups led by Chen Youliangand Zhu Yuanzhang, took place in August to October of 1363, and was one of the largest naval battles in history.
* The end of
Mongol Yuan Dynastyin Chinaand the beginning of the Ming Dynasty( 1368)
* The heresy of
Lollardyrises in England
* The Great Schism of the West begins in
1378, eventually leading to 3 simultaneous popes.
* An account of Buddha's life, translated earlier into Greek by
St John of Damascusand widely circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaamand Josaphat, became so popular Buddha (under the name Josaphat) was made a Catholic saint.
Singaporeemerges for the first time as a fortified city and trading centre of some importance.
* Reunification of
Polandunder Ladislaus I of Poland
Ciompi Revoltin Florence
Peasants' Revoltin England
Islamreaches Terengganu, on the Malay Peninsula.
* The Hausa found several
city-states in the south of modern Niger.
Mali Empireexpands westward and conquers Tekrur.
* The poet
Petrarchcoins the term Dark Agesto describe the preceding 900 years in Europe, beginning with the fall of the Western Roman Empirein 476through to the renewal embodied in the Renaissance.
* The Scots win the
Scottish Wars of Independence.
Union of Krewobetween Polandand Lithuania.
* Work begins on the Great Enclosure at
Great Zimbabwe, built of uncemented, dressed stone. The city's population is now between 10,000 and 40,000.
* Beginning of the
* The English word "
abacus" used to describe the calculating device from China.
Wang Dayuan, the first Chinese to sail into the Mediterraneanwhile visiting Egyptand North Africafrom 1334- 1339.
Kalmar Unionis established in 1397, uniting Norway, Swedenand Denmarkinto one kingdom.
* Foundation of
Tenochtitlan, Azteccapital city, in the valley of Mexico.
Osman I( 1258– 1326, "Osman Gazi" or "Osman Bey" or "I.Osman" or "Osman Sayed II") leader of the Ottoman Turks, founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire.
Giotto di Bondone, Italian painter of the late Middle Ages, early Renaissance (c. 1267– 1337)
Simone Martini, Italian painter of the late Middle Ages, early Renaissance 1284– c. 1344
*Edward II (
1284– 1327?) of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327.
* Robert the Bruce,
King of Scotland, victor in the First War of Scottish Independenceagainst invasion by the Kingdom of England( 1274- 1329).
David II of Scotland( 1324– 1371) King of Scots, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh(d. 1327), was born at DunfermlinePalace, Fife. [ Richardson, Douglas, "Plantagenet Ancestry", Baltimore, Md., 2004, p.23, ISBN 0-8063-1750-7 ]
Joan of the Toweraka Joan of England ( 1321– 1362), was the first wife and Queen consort of David II of Scotland. She was born at the Tower of Londonand was the youngest daughter of Edward II of Englandand Isabella of France.
Juan Manuel, Duke of Penafiel, Spanish author ( 1282- 1349).
William of Ockham, English Franciscan friar and philosopher (c. 1285- 1347).
*Charles V (
1338– 1380), called the Wise, was King of France from 1364 to his death and a member of the House of Valois.
Charles I of Hungary, military, diplomatic and financial reformer, restoring the Kingdom of Hungaryto power ( 1288- 1342).
Chen Youliang, Chinese rebel leader and arch nemesis to Zhu Yuanzhang(aka Emperor Hongwu)
Isabella of France, queen consort and regent of the Kingdom of England(c. 1295- 1358).
Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March( 1287– 1330), an English nobleman, was for three years "de facto" ruler of England, after leading a successful rebellion against Edward II.
*Richard II (
1367– 1400) was the King of Englandfrom 1377until he was deposed in 1399.
Ibn Battuta, Arab Muslim traveler ( 1304- 1368/ 1377).
Jiao Yu, Chinese general and author of the " Huolongjing" military treatise
Liu Ji, a Chinese general, court advisor, philosopher, and co-editor of the " Huolongjing"
Casimir III of Poland, expansionist and financial reformer ( 1310- 1370).
* Edward III, King of England. His claim to the throne of France resulted in the
Hundred Years' War( 1312- 1377).
Edward, the Black Princeor Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG ( 1330– 1376), was the eldest son of King Edward III of Englandand Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England.
Timur, Central Asian warlord and founder of the Timurid Dynasty( 1336- 1405).
Mansa Musa(d. 1347), King of the Mali Empirewhile it was the source of almost half the world's gold.
Hongwu Emperor, founder of the Ming Dynastyin China ( 1328- 1398)
Dante Alighieri, Italian poet and writer ( 1265- 1321).
Giovanni Boccaccio, Italian author ( 1313- 1375).
Geoffrey Chaucer(c. 1343– 1400?) was an English author, poet, philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and diplomat.
HafezPersian poet (c. 1310- 1379.
William Langland(ca. 1332- ca. 1386) is the conjectured authorof the English dream-vision" Piers Plowman".
Guillaume de Machaut, French composer and poet (c. 1300- 1377).
Petrarch, Italian poet and writer ( 1304- 1374).
Christine de Pizan, French writer ( 1364- 1430).
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
*List of 14th century inventions
* First real handgun in the world invented in
Florence11 Feb 1326. [http://riv.co.nz/rnza/hist/gun/firstgun.htm]
* music of the
* The technique of
* Foundation of the
University of Cracow
* Chinese text the "
Huolongjing" by Jiao Yudescribes fire lances, fire arrows ( rockets), rocket launchers, land mines, naval mines, bombards, cannons, and hollow cast ironcannonballs filled with gunpowder, and their use to set ablaze enemy camps.
Decades and years
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