- Sindhu Kingdom
Sindhu was a kingdom mentioned in the epic
Mahabharata. It strached along the banks of river Sindhu in Pakistan. According to the epic, Jayadratha(the husband of Duryodhana's sister) was the king of Sindhus, Sauviras and Sivis. Probably Sauvira and Sivi were two kingdoms close to the Sindhu kingdom and Jayadratha conquered them. Sindhu and Sauvira seems to be two warring states fighting each other but united by Jayadratha for some period of time.
References in Mahabharata
Sindhu (..the Bhojas, the Sindhus, the Pulindakas..) is mentioned as a separate kingdom of Bharata Varsha at (6:9). The Kasmiras, the Sindhu Sauviras, the Gandharas ( or Gandharvas) were mentioned as kingdoms of Bharata Varsha at (6:9). Sindhu and Sauvira are mentioned as a united country at many places like (5:19, 6:51,56, 7:107, 8:40, 11:22)
Culturally Sindhus were mentioned as similar to the Madras as per
Karna:- The Prasthalas, the Madras, the Gandharas, the Arattas, those called Khasas, the Vasatis, the Sindhus and the Sauviras are almost as blamable in their practices (8:44). One should always avoid the Vahikas, those impure people that are out of the pale of virtue, and that live away from the Himavat and the Gangaand Saraswati and Yamunaand Kurukshetraand the Sindhu and its five tributary rivers.
The Gandharas (or Gandharvas), the Sindhus, and the Sauviras fight best with their nails and lances. They are brave and endued with great strength. Their armies are capable of vanquishing all forces, The Usinaras are possessed of great strength and skilled in all kinds of weapons. The Easterners are skilled in fighting from the backs of
war elephantsand are conversant with all the ways of unfair fight. The Yavanas, the Kamvojas, and those that dwell around Mathuraare well skilled in fighting with bare arms. The Southerners are skilled in fighting sword in hand (12:100).
Battles between Sindhu and Sauvira
At (5:133) we find
Kuntitelling the story of Vidula who persuaded her son, who was the king of Sauvira but banished by the Sindhu king, to fight against the Sindhus and take back his kingdom from them:- The princess Vidula, one day, rebuked her own son, who, after his defeat by the king of the Sindhus, lay prostrate with heart depressed by despair (5:133). It is true, the king of the Sindhus hath many followers. They are, however, all discounted. Rejoice, O son, and make thyself happy in the possession of wealth in the company of the daughters of the Sauviras and do not, in weakness of heart, be ruled over by the daughters of the Saindhavas (5:134). Pierced by the wordy arrows of his mother, the son roused himself like a steed of proud mettle and achieved (defeating the Sindhus) all that his mother had pointed out. (5:136).
Jayadratha the King of Sindhu
At (3:262) Jayadratha is mentioned as the son of Vriddhakshatra. Jayadratha is mentioned as the son of Sindhu at (1:188). Jayadratha is mentioned as of Sindhu’s race at (5:142). Jayadratha is mentioned as the king of Sindhu, Sauvira and other countries at (3:265). The warriors of the Sivi, Sauvira and Sindhu tribes were under the command of Jayadratha (3:269). At (11:22) Jayadradha is mentioned as the king of Sindhu and Saivira. Apart from
Dussala(1:117) (the sister of Duryodhana), Jayadradha had two other wives, one from Gandhara and the other from Kamboja (11:22) .
Jayadratha is mentioned as the sole ruler, governing with justice the rich countries of Saivya, Sivi, Sindhu and others at (3:265).
Jayadrathahad under his sway ten kingdoms, having Sindhu as the manin kingdom (8:5).
indhu in Kurukshetra War
Kurukshetra War, Sindhu sided with the Kauravasunder their ruler Jayadratha. (6:71), (7:10,136)" Jayadrathaof the country of the Sindhu, and the kings of the southern and the western countries and of the hilly regions, and Sakuni, the ruler of the Gandharas, and all the chiefs of the eastern and the northern regions, and the Sakas, the Kiratas, and Yavanas, the Sivis and the Vasatis with their Maharathas at the heads of their respective divisions joined the Kauravaarmy(5:198). A silver boar adorned the standard-top of the ruler of the Sindhus. Decked with golden chains, it was of the splendour of a white crystal (7:102)
Bhishma’s division were all the sons of Dhritarashtra, and also Sala who was a countryman of the Valhikas, and also all those Kshatriyascalled Amvastas, and those called Sindhus, and those also that are called Sauviras, and the heroic dwellers of the country of the five rivers (6:20).
Those warriors that are opposed to
Arjuna, viz., the Sauvirakas, the Sindhava-Pauravas, headed by Karna, are regarded as foremost of car-warriors (7:108). Many combatants belonging to the Nishadas, the Sauviras, the Valhikas, the Daradas, the Westerners, the Northerners, the Malavas, the Abhighatas, the Surasenas, the Sivis, the Vasatis, the Salwas, the Sakas, the Trigartas, the Amvashthas, and the Kekayas, similarly fell upon Arjuna(6:118). Bhishmaprotected by the warriors headed by Saindhava and by the combatants of the East and the Sauviras and the Kekayas, fought with great impetuosity (6:52).
Arjuna's words, when Jayadrathaand others together attacked and killed his son Abhimanyu, during the Kurukshetra War:-"
Thou shalt in tomorrow’s battle, O Kesava, behold the earth strewn by me with the heads of kings cut off by the force, of my shafts! (Tomorrow) I shall gratify all cannibals, rout the foe, gladden my friends, and crush the ruler of the Sindhus, viz.
Jayadratha! A great offender, one who hath not acted like a relative, born in a sinful country, the ruler of the Sindhu, slain by me, will sadden his own. Thou shalt behold that ruler of the Sindhus, of sinful behaviour, and brought up in every luxury, pierced by me with my shafts!
Sindhu breed of horses
Horses belonging to Sindhu breed were used in
Kurukshetra Warexensively (7:24). The steeds consisting of the best of the Kamvoja breed as also of those born in the country of the Rivers, and of those belonging to Arattaand Mahi and Sindhu, and of those of Vanayu also that were white in hue, and lastly those of hilly countries were the different types of horses employed in this war (6:91).
Steeds born in (the country of) Sindhu were lean-fleshed, yet strong and capable of a long journey and endued with energy and strength of high breed and docility, free from inauspicious marks, with wide nostrils and swelling cheeks, free from faults as regards the ten hairy curls and were fleet as the winds (3:71).
The river Sindhu (Indus) too is flowing with a current of fresh blood (3:223). The seven large rivers including the Sindhu (Indus) though flowing eastwards then flowed in opposite directions. The very directions seemed to be reversed and nothing could be distinguished. Fires blazed up everywhere and the earth trembled repeatedly. (5:84). The spot where the Sindhu mingleth with the sea, is that tirtha of Varuna (3:82).
*There is a celebrated tirtha of the name of Sindhuttama (3:82)
*Samvarana a king in the like of
Puruwith his wife and ministers, sons and relatives, fled in fear, and took shelter in the forest on the banks of the Sindhu extending to the foot of the mountains (1:94)
*A sage maned Sindhudwipa is mentioned at (9:39,40, 13:4) as attaining
History of Pakistan
Mahabharataof Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa, translated to English by Kisari Mohan Ganguli
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Sivi Kingdom — Sivi (alias Sibi, Shibi, Shivi) is mentioned as a kingdom and as the name of a king in the epic Mahabharata. Probably there was a Sivi king who became famous as Sivi or the kingdom itself may be named after him. Sivi (alias Sibi, Saivya) king was … Wikipedia
Sauvira Kingdom — Sauvira was a kingdom mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. According to the epic, Jayadratha was the king of Sindhus, Sauviras and Sivis. Probably Sauvira and Sivi were two kingdoms close to the Sindhu kingdom and Jayadratha conquered them.… … Wikipedia
Kamboja Kingdom — Kamboja or Kamvoja is one of the western kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata. Western kingdoms were cold countries and people used blankets. They also reared sheep and drank sheep milk. Kamboja Horses were of excellent quality. Their horses and even … Wikipedia
Panchala Kingdom — This article is about the kingdom of Panchala during the epic ages. For the historical kingdom, see Panchala. Panchala Kingdom extended from Himalayas in the north to river Charmanwati in the south during the period of Mahabharata. It had Kuru,… … Wikipedia
Kalinga Kingdom — Kalinga forms the sea shore of Orissa state in India. Kuru king Duryodhana s wife was from Kalinga. Kalingas sided with Duryodhana in the Kurukshetra War. The founders of five eastern kingdoms, which included: Angas (east, central Bihar), Vangas… … Wikipedia
History of the Indo-Greek Kingdom — The History of the Indo Greek Kingdom covers a period from the 2nd century BCE to the beginning of the 1st century CE in northern and northwestern India. There were over 30 Indo Greek kings, often in competition on different territories. Many of… … Wikipedia
Kuru Kingdom — The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. The Pandavas and Kauravas were Kurus. Other than these Kurus of India, there was another kingdom called Uttara Kurus to the north of Himalayas. The Kuru kingdom of India lay between Saraswati… … Wikipedia
Bahlika Kingdom — All the western Indian kingdoms were known by the general name Bahlika (Vahika, Vahlika and Valhika are variations of the name) meaning outsider . Thus these people were considered as outsiders of the Vedic culture. However, the name Bahlika is… … Wikipedia
Madra Kingdom — was a kingdom grouped among the western kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata. Its capital was Sagala, modern Sialkot (in the Punjab province of Pakistan). The Kuru king Pandu s second wife was from Madra kingdom and was called Madri. The Pandava… … Wikipedia
Yavana Kingdom — This article is about the kingdom of Yavana in Indian epic literature. For the historical kingdoms, see Greco Bactrian Kingdom and Indo Greek Kingdom. Yavana or Yona is grouped under western countries along with Sindhu, Madra, Kekeya, Gandhara… … Wikipedia