- History of quilting
In the article, [http://www.historyofquilts.com/precolonial.html Medieval & Renaissance Quilting] , quilt historian Lisa Evans wrote, "Quilted garments padded Crusader mail, quilted linens adorned Renaissance bedchambers, and quilted Evangelists were treasured at 15th century monasteries."
Quilting(stitching together layers of padding and fabric) is as old as ancient Egyptif not older and wholecloth quilts were very common trade goods in wealthy circles in Europeand Asiagoing back as far as the 15th century.
Piecing fabric together is also very old. It was more often used for clothing but also occasionally for decorative objects like this exquisite [http://www.chiantimusei.it/cgi-bin/en/pub_det_lun.cgi?id=35. pieced pillow] from the 15th century.
The making of pieced quilts made up of cut pieces of fabric sewn in block form with the blocks then sewn together to make the quilt is a more recent development. Pieced block quilts, often called
patchwork quilt, did not become the dominant form of quilt making until the mid- 19th century, and still is not the traditional form in Provence, Wales, and parts of India.
In this article "piecing" refers to the sewing together of fabric to create the quilt top. "Quilting" refers to stitching the three layers of fabric together; the quilt top, batting (also called wadding) in the center, and the fabric backing.
Quilting at the dawn of the nineteenth century
Quilt making was uncommon in America in the late eighteenth century and early years of the nineteenth. Most women were busy spinning,
weavingand sewing in order to clothe their family. Commercial blankets or woven coverlets were a more economical bedcovering for most people. Only the wealthy had the leisure time for quilt making so [http://www.womenfolk.com/quilting_history/colonial.htm Colonial Quilting] was done by only a few.
Obviously quilts were not made of left over scraps or worn clothing as a humble bedcovering during this period. Instead they were decorative items that displayed the fine
needleworkof the maker.
Whole cloth quilts,
broderie perseand medallion quilts were the styles of quilts made during the early 1800s.
Whole cloth quilt
Quilts made of a solid piece of fabric are referred to as Whole Cloth Quilts. The three layers of top, batting and backing were quilted together. The quilting itself became the decoration.
Both wool and cotton [http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/quilts/10.htm solid color] quilts and [http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/quilts/13.htm white quilts] were made during this period. The white ones are sometimes called "whitework".
A few were made with a simple overall quilting design but many were works of art with beautiful quilting including feathers, flowers and other natural motifs. Some were made even more exquisite by a method called trapunto. Trapunto is the technique of slipping extra stuffing into certain areas of a quilt to bring out the quilting in that area. For example trapunto can make the area inside a feather or flower making that part of the quilt a little thicker. Women were proud of fine and even quilt stitches in these quilts
Broderie perse quilts
Broderie perserefers to the appliqueof cut out motifs from printed fabric onto a solid background. This form of quilt making has been done since the 18th century. The popular printed fabric during this period was chintz imported from India.
Printed fabric was expensive even for those who were well off. By cutting out birds, flowers and other motifs from printed fabric and sewing them onto a large homespun cloth a beautiful bedspread could be made. The technique was also used on some early medallion quilts as in the example linked below.
Broderie Perse bedcoverings were usually used on the best bed or sometimes only when guests were staying in the home. See a beautiful example of broderie perse at the [http://www.quiltindex.org/fulldisplay.php?pbd=kentuckytest-a0a2q1-a Quilt Index]
[http://www.womenfolk.com/quilting_history/medallion.htm Medallion quilts] are made around a center. The center was sometimes a solid piece of large scale fabric like a
toileor a Tree of Life, an appliqued motif or a large pieced star or other pieced pattern. The central area was surrounded by two or more borders. Although some borders were solid, many were pieced or appliqued.
View an example of a framed medallion style quilt at the [http://www.quiltindex.org/basicdisplay.php?pbd=kentuckytest-a0a2q3-a Quilt Index] and another medallion quilt also from the [http://www.quiltindex.org/basicdisplay.php?pbd=quiltdata-a0a0b6-b Quilt Index] . Be sure to click on the pictures for a more detailed view.
Changes in quiltmaking during the mid nineteenth century
Progress in technology deeply affected the number and styles of quilts made during the middle years of the 1800s.
industrial revolutionbrought about the most dramatic change as textiles came to be manufactured on a broad scale. This meant women no longer had to spend time spinning and weaving to provide fabric for their family’s needs. By the 1840s the textile industry had grown to the point that commercial fabrics were affordable to almost every family. As a result quilt making became widespread.
A great variety of cotton prints could be bought for the making of clothing and even specifically for making a quilt. Although scraps left over from dressmaking and other sewing projects were used in quilt making, it is a myth that quilts were always made from scraps and worn out clothing. Examining pictures of quilts found in museums we quickly see that many quilts were made with fabric bought specifically for that quilt.
Another major shift was in the style of quilts made. Although a few earlier quilts were made in the block style, quilts made up of blocks were uncommon until around the 1840s. With so many fabrics being manufactured quilters could create their blocks with a delightful variety of fabrics.
Some [http://www.womenfolk.com/quilting_history/pieced.htm block style quilts] were made of a set of identical pieced blocks while others contained a variety of blocks made with different patterns. The blocks were sewn together and a border may or may not have been added.
During this period the invention and availability of the
sewing machinecontributed to quilt making. In 1856 The Singer company started the installment plan so that more families could afford a sewing machine. By the 1870s a good many households owned a sewing machine.
This affected quilt making in two ways. First of all women could make clothing for their family in much less time leaving more time for quilt making and secondly they could use their sewing machines to make all or part of their quilts. More often the sewing machine was used to piece quilts but occasionally the quilting was done with the sewing machine.
Two types of signature quilts
One significant type of quilt made during this period were [http://www.quilt.co.uk/quilting-articles.asp?idNo=20 signature quilts] . Indelible ink was available after 1840 making it possible to not only sign a quilt but to add inscriptions including poetry, personal messages or other information. The more elaborate autographs and inscriptions are seen most often in quilts made before the Civil War.
We refer to quilts in which all the blocks were the same pattern as friendship quilts. Often each person made a block and signed it. Other times one person made the quilt then each person signed a block. Sometimes a person with exceptional handwriting inscribed all the signatures. There was no single way that friendship quilts were made.
Friendship quilts had special meaning for those who were traveling westward as they could look at the quilt and remember friends and family left behind.
The other kind of autograph quilt was the album quilt that consisted of several unique quilt blocks. More often these album blocks were appliquéd while the friendship quilts were usually made up of pieced blocks. The most elegant of thes album autograph quilts were Baltimore album quilts.
Baltimore album quiltsoriginated in Baltimore, Marylandin the 1840s. These album quilts of lovely appliquéd blocks were sometimes designed by the maker though in time patterns by accomplished designers were used as the popularity of this quilt style spread. They reflected the prosperous community of Baltimore as most were made not with scraps but with new fab
Quilting for the cause in the United States during the Civil War era
There were many years and events leading up to the
American Civil War. First quilts were made to raise funds to support the abolitionist movement then during the Civil War quilts were made to earn money for the war effort and to give warmth and comfort to soldiers. The patterns were much like those made mid-century but the purpose was different. Quilts connected to the abolitionist movement and the Civil War were made for a cause.
The movement to free the slaves and the role of quilts
Even before 1830
abolitionistswere working hard to end slavery. One way they did this was to hold grand fairs to raise both awareness and money for the abolitionist cause. Quilts were one of many craft pieces sold at these fairs. These quilts were usually fine quilts often with beautiful appliqué. Women sometimes put anti-slavery poems and sayings on the quilts they made for fairs as well as for friends and family. The goal was to show the terrible plight of the slaves. Some abolitionists were active in the Underground Railroadhelping runaway slaves get to safety. There are stories that certain quilts were used as signals to help the slaves in their flight to freedom. The idea that a log cabin quilt would be hung on the line of a safe house was one. More recent stories tell of certain quilts being used to tell the slaves what they needed to do to get to safety. This all sounds quite romantic but there is no historic evidence that quilts were ever used in this way. But we do know that a valiant effort was made by both whites and free slaves to help these slaves to their destination. Quilt historians have written about the lack of evidence that Quilts of the Underground Railroadwere any more than stories that have caught our imagination.
Quilts to warm the soldiers and quilts to raise money for the war
Women on both sides were very active in raising money for the war effort and making quilts and other bed coverings for soldiers. In the north quilts were still made for fairs but now these fairs earned money to support needs that came about because of the war. In the south lovely quilts called [http://www.quiltersmuse.com/gunboat_quilts.htm gun boat quilts] were made to pay for much needed gun boats. But it wasn't long before it was obvious that soldiers on both sides would need blankets and quilts to give them warmth. In the north women either made quilts or remade quilts from bed coverings. Since the cots were narrow two bedspreads could be made into three quilts for soldiers. The
United States Sanitary Commissionwas in charge of collecting these quilts and distributing them. In the south it was more difficult. Even though cotton was grown in the south it was manufactured into fabric in the north. Before long fabric was almost impossible to obtain so women had to spin and weave before they could sew together a bed covering. Needless to say most of the quilts made for soldiers on either side were made with practical patterns and fabric. Very few have survived to this day.
Quilting During the last decades of the 19th century, the Victorian Era
Quilt making continued to be a popular craft during the latter part of the 1800s. The Victorian influence was a bit delayed in the United States because of the Civil War and it's aftermath.
The Crazy Quilting Fad
In terms of quilts the latter years of the nineteenth century the best know quilt style was the Crazy Quilt. Crazy quilts were made of abstract shapes sewn together. Usually the quilt maker then used embroidery to embellish the quilt. First fancy stitches were sewn along the seams. Often the maker also added embroidered motifs including flowers, birds and sometimes a spider and web for good luck.
Crazy quiltingwas quite the fad during this period. Magazines encouraged making crazies. Young women were particularly eager to make them. These quilts were seldom used as bedcoverings. Instead they were made smaller and without batting to be used as decorative throws.
Traditional Quilts Were Still Made
Because the crazy quilting craze was so popular during this period one might overlook the fact that many traditional quilts were also made. Utilitarian quilts were pieced and tied or simply quilted for everyday bed coverings while beautiful pieced and/or appliquéd quilts were created for special events like a wedding or when a beloved minister was transferred to a new location. These were more often elaborately quilted.
ources and further reading
*  Celia Eddy: "Quilted Planet A Source Book of Quilts from Around the World".
2004: Roderick Kiracofe, Mary Elizabeth Johnson. "The American Quilt: A History of Cloth and Comfort 1750-1950". Clarkson Potter. ISBN 1-4000-8096-7.
1994: Laurel Horton (Editor). "Quiltmaking in America: Beyond the Myths". Rutledge Hill Press. ISBN 1-55853-319-2.
1995: by Sandi Fox. "For Purpose and Pleasure: Quilting Together in Nineteenth-Century America". Rutledge Hill Press. ISBN 1-55853-337-0.
1989: Barbara Brackman. "Clues in the Calico: A Guide to Identifying and Dating Antique Quilts". Howell Press Inc. ISBN 0-939009-27-7 .
* [http://www.mdhs.org/quiltprj/quilthom.html Baltimore Album quilts at the Maryland Historical Society] .
* [http://www.quiltalliance.org/index1.html The Alliance For American Quilts]
* [http://www.h-net.org/~aqsg/ The American Quilt Study Group]
* [http://www.womenfolk.com/historyofquilts/ America's Quilting History]
* [http://www.antiquequiltdating.com/ New Pathways Into Quilt History]
* [http://www.quilthistory.com The Quilt History Website]
* [http://www.quiltindex.org/ The Quilt Index]
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