- Wigmore, Herefordshire
infobox UK place
country = England
region= West Midlands
postcode_district = HR6 9U
Wigmore is a
villageand parishin the northwest part of the countyof Herefordshire, England. It is located on the A4110 road, about 8 miles west of the town of Ludlow, in the Welsh Marches. In earlier times it was also an administrative district called a hundred.
Origins of the name
Several alternative explanations have been offered for the origin of the village's name, which was originally written "Wigingamere" and later "Wigemore" or Wigmore:
# From "Wicga's Moor". "Wicga" may refer to a person or may indicate a specialised term for an unstable
marshin which "blister" bogs appear and disappear.
# From the
Old English"Wicga", meaning a beetleor something which wriggles (as in earwig) and "Mōr", meaning marsh. This is believed to refer to the nature of the marsh close by.
# From the Welsh "Gwig Maur", meaning "Big Wood".
The origins of human habitation in the area of the present village of Wigmore seem to be lost in the mists of time. However, it is known that an early settlement on a hill close by the location of the present village seems to have been called "Merestone" or "Merestun" (from the Old English "Mersc", meaning
mereor marsh and "Tūn", meaning enclosure, farmstead, village, manor or estate - thus literally "village by the marsh"). The name of the marsh itself seems to have been applied to the later village.
It should be noted that, although Roman remains have been found in the area (near Bury Farm, to the east) on the western branch of
Watling Street(which crosses Wigmore Moor), the town was not sited in relation to the road and thus it probably owes its existence more to the Norman castleon the hill above the church and village.
It is sometimes suggested that Wigmore is associated with Winingamere, a fortification built by king
Edward the Elderin 921, but recent research has shown that Winingamere was, in fact, in Newport, Essex.
The Mortimer period
At the time of the reign of
Edward the Confessor, the baronyof Wigmore belonged to Edric Sylvaticus, the Saxon Earl of Shrewsbury. However, he refused to submit after the Norman conquestand was defeated in battle and taken prisoner. His possessions were subsequently granted to William FitzOsbern, the Earl of Herefordunder William I from 1068to 1072, as a reward for his services.
Wigmore Castle, as it became known. Although it was probably initially only built of earth and timber, it was to become one of the main English border castles along the Welsh Marchesduring the 13th and 14th centuries.
However, FitzOsbern's son Roger de Breteuil took part in the
Revolt of the Earls; after the Earl's subsequent defeat William I seized the castle and gave it to another of his supporters, Ranulph de Mortimer. From this time on Wigmore became the head of the barony of the Mortimers, Earls of March.
Wigmore is one of very few Herefordshire
boroughs recorded in the Domesday Book. Although Herefordwas the only borough in the county in 1066, boroughs were attached to the castles of Clifford (also built by FitzOsbern) and Wigmore by 1086.
Wigmore, at the time situated in the
Hazeltreehundred, is mentioned three times in the Domesday Book. The first entry is under the lands held by Ranulph Mortimer and records that he holds Wigmore Castle, which Earl William built on wasteland that was called "Merestun", which Gunfrid held before 1066. It also records that there were two hides that paid tax, two ploughsin lordship and four slaves. The borough of Wigmore is recorded to have paid £ 7 - "bergu qd ibi est redd vii lib". Secondly, in the section recording the lands of the king, Merestone is recorded as being a part of the manor of Kingsland which Ranulph Mortimer held for the king. A third section mentions that Ranulph Mortimer holds Wigmore, which Alfward held, and that there is half a hide, which Wigmore Castle is situated upon. If a rental of 12 d per burgage(as was customary with other rental properties at the time), the money paid by the borough may represent about 140 burgages.
Although it is not considered to have been a failed borough, as it was a fairly prosperous small market town during the 13th and early 14th centuries, Wigmore does not seem to have flourished as much as others in the region, such as
There are two 14th-century extents (assessments or valuations of land for taxation purposes) preserved in the
Public Record Officewhich include the settlement. In the one of 1304it was recorded that there were 102 tenants who held 140 and a quarter burgages. It was also recorded that there was a weekly market and a fair, which was held on the feast of St Andrew.
The importance of Wigmore as a market town was at least partly due to the influence of the Mortimer family and their castle, which probably attracted much local and regional business to the town. However, Wigmore's prosperity probably waned somewhat in the mid-14th century when the Mortimer family moved its administrative centre to
Ludlow Castle, which they had inherited through marriage in 1314.
However, Wigmore Castle still remained the family's official seat for the next 250 years, until the demise of their house; when the male line of the Mortimers died out in
1424, the castle passed to the crown. It was maintained throughout the 16th century, partly as a prison, although the castle was already in decay. The town of Wigmore shared the fate of the castle and it declined to village status by the 16th century. The castle was finally dismantled in 1643to prevent it being garrisoned during the English Civil War.
Wigmore was one of the first areas in England to have an
Enclosure Act. Dating from 1772, this act affected the moor and woods nearby. The dividing earth banks still survive.
In 1870 - 1872 it was recorded in the "
Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales" that Wigmore village was a seat of petty-sessions and that it had a post office, a police station, two Methodist chapels and a national school. Fairs were held on 6 May and 5 August. The parish included part of Limebrookand was in the Ludlowdistrict. The size of the village was convert|3441|acre|km2, it had a population of 499 and 104 houses. Regarding the Wigmore hundred, it was recorded that it contained 14 parishes and 5 parts. It had a size of convert|47075|acre|km2, a population of 6,309 and contained 1,234 houses.
The "Gazetteer of the British Isles" of 1887 showed that the village of Wigmore had not changed much in fifteen years - indeed, the number of inhabitants had declined slightly: convert|3441|acre|km2 contained a population of 417. Similarly, the Wigmore hundred's convert|46354|acre|km2 contained a population of 5,665.
The village has one primary school and one
secondary schoolwhich have a catchment area of North Herefordshire although some pupils attend from South Shropshireand from across the border in Wales. The High School is notable as an extremely well-performing comprehensive schoolnationally. The schools are currently in a consultation period as they prepare to amalgamate to help share resources. [ [http://www.wigmorehigh.hereford.sch.uk/federation.htm Wigmore High School - Federation consultation ] ]
Places of interest
Wigmore Abbey, an Augustinian abbeyand grangeabout a mile (2 km) north of Wigmore was founded by Ranulph de Mortimer and his son, Hugh de Mortimerin 1179. In the abbey church many of the Mortimers were buried, among them five holders of the title Earl of March. The abbey continued to flourish until the period of the dissolution of the monasteries, when it was destroyed.
St James Churchis also a landmark in the village and surrounding areas, as it stands on the pinnacle of a hill overlooking the village. It was built as a collegiate churchin the 11th century by the Mortimer family and lies on the site of an earlier Saxon building. The church has a very early Norman naveand herringbone opus spicatum masonryis still visible on the outside of the north wall. Little, apart from detail, has been added to the church since the 1330s.
* [http://www.archenfield.com Archenfield Archaeology]
* "Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales", 1870-72
* "Littlebury's Directory and Gazetteer of Herefordshire", 1876-77 [http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/HEF/Wigmore/History1876.html]
* "Gazetteer of the British Isles", 1887
* [http://www.geograph.org.uk/search.php?i=3855272 Photos of Wigmore and surrounding area on geograph]
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