1st Infantry Regiment (United States)


1st Infantry Regiment (United States)

:"This article deals with the history of the current 1st Infantry Regiment of the United States Army. For the history of an earlier 1st Infantry Regiment, see 3rd US Infantry"Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=1st Infantry Regiment


caption=1st Infantry Regiment coat of arms
dates=Constituted 1791-03-03
1st Consolidation 1815
2nd Consolidation 1869
Inactivated 1949-01-10
Reactivated 1950-10-04-Present.
country=USA
allegiance=Federal
branch=Regular Army
type=Infantry
role=Light Infantry
size=
command_structure=
current_commander=1st Battalion: LTC Thomas M. Bischof
2nd Battalion: LTC Demaree
garrison=1st Battalion - United States Military Academy
2nd Battalion: Fort Lewis, WA
ceremonial_chief=
colonel_of_the_regiment=
nickname=
patron=
motto="Semper Primus"
"Always First"
colors=Blue and White
march=
mascot=
battles=War of 1812
Indian Wars
Mexican War
War with Spain
Philippine Insurrection
World War II
Vietnam War
notable_commanders=Josiah Harmar
Arthur St. Clair
James Wilkinson
Zachary Taylor
{William Clark nominated as Lt Col of Regiment but not confirmed by Senate}
2nd Lt Jefferson Davis
anniversaries=
identification_symbol=
identification_symbol_label=Distinctive Unit Insignia
identification_symbol_2=
identification_symbol_2_label=
US Regiments
previous=
next=2nd Infantry Regiment
The 1st Infantry Regiment draws its lineage from a distinguished line of post Revolutionary War Infantry Regiments and is credited with thirty-nine campaign streamers.
*1st Battalion, 1st Infantry Regiment's mission is to support the United States Military Academy and to furnish the enlisted garrison for West Point and Stewart Army Subpost.
*2nd Battalion, 1st Infantry Regiment's mission is to deploy worldwide, secure a lodgment, and conduct combat operations in support of U.S. national interests.

Origins

On March 3, 1791, Congress added to the Army "The Second Regiment of Infantry" of which today's First Infantry draws its heritage. In September of that year, both it and the original 1st Infantry Regiment (today’s 3d United States Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard)), with some militia, all under command of General Arthur St. Clair, were sent against the Miami Indians. St. Clair served as a Major General in the Revolutionary Army and was now appointed "General in Chief," superseding the first commander of the Regiment, Josiah Hamar. Fighting against the Miamis, St. Clair's Soldiers were untrained, ill equipped, underfed, and sickly. This resulted in a disastrous defeat, suffering a loss in killed and wounded of nearly 900 out of a total strength of 1400.

Legion of the United States

In 1792, Congress created the Legion of the United States, which was a combined Arms Force of Infantry, Cavalry, and Artillery under the Command of Major General Anthony Wayne. MG Wayne had become a hero of the Revolutionary War when he led a small force against a larger British Force to regain control of Stony Point, a crucial point on the Hudson River just south of West Point, New York. This Legion in which the Second Infantry became the "Infantry of the Second Sub-Legion," crushed the Miami Nation during 1792 to 1795, and finally defeated the Indians in a decisive manner at Fallen Timbers in the Old Northwest (Ohio) on August 20, 1794.

War of 1812

In the War of 1812 the 2nd Infantry Regiment, as well as the 7th and 44th Infantry Regiments, fought in the southern theater to include the Battle of New Orleans with General Andrew Jackson.

First Indian War Period

The 2nd Infantry was Consolidated May-October 1815 with the 3rd and 7th Infantry (both constituted 12 April 1808), and 44th Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813) to form the 1st Infantry Regiment. In the ensuing years the Regiment was primarily concerned with Indian conflicts and the 1st was involved in the Black Hawk War of 1832 and the Second Seminole War from 1839 to 1842. During this time the Regiment was commanded by one of its most famous commanders - Colonel Zachary Taylor, who would later become the 12th President of the United States.

War With Mexico

When War broke out with Mexico in 1846 the 1st Infantry Regiment was sent across the border with General Zachary Taylor's Army and participated in the storming of Monterrey where the Regiment fought house to house in savage hand to hand combat. From Monterrey the Regiment was transferred to General Winfield Scott's command and participated in the first modern amphibious landing in American history at Vera Cruz in 1847.

econd Indian War Period and Civil War

Following the Mexican-American War, the Regiment campaigned in the Texas area against the Comanches until the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861. After escaping from rebel forces in Texas the Regiment returned to the Mid-west and fought in the Mississippi area of operations. The Regiment fought in one of the first battles of the Civil War at Wilson's Creek, Missouri, in August 1861. The 1st Infantry then campaigned with General Grant against Vicksburg in 1863. The end of the War found the Regiment occupying New Orleans, Louisiana.

Third Indian War Period

After the Civil War the Regiment was sent West to fight the Indians once again. The 1st Infantry was Consolidated in April 1869 with the 43d Infantry Regiment, Veteran Reserve Corps (constituted September 21, 1865) and consolidated unit designated as the 1st Infantry Regiment. 1st Infantry Regiment campaigned against the Sioux in the 1870s and 1890s and against the Apache, led by Geronimo, from 1882 to 1886.

California Labor Disputes

After the end of the Indian wars the Regiment was occupied with quelling labor disputes in California.

panish-American War

War was declared with Spain in 1898 following the sinking of the USS "Maine". The First was quickly sent to Florida where it embarked on ships and was sent to Cuba. While in Cuba the Regiment took part in the storming of the San Juan Heights and the capture of Santiago.

Philippine-American War

In 1900, following occupation duty in Cuba, the Regiment was preparing for shipment to China to participate in the Boxer Rebellion. Instead, the Regiment was detoured to deal with the rebellion on the Philippine Islands which had also been captured by the United States in the Spanish-American War. The Regiment would fight in this guerrilla war in the Philippines from 1900-1902 and again from 1906-1908.

World War I

1st Infantry Regiment was Assigned on September 11, 1918 to the 13th Division at Fort Lewis. 13th ID never left Fort Lewis, and demobilized there on March 8, 1919. 1st IR was Relieved on March 8, 1919 from assignment to the 13th Division. and resumed Separate Regiment status. The regiment was again Assigned July 27, 1921, this time to the 2nd Division, which was headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, and assigned to the U.S. VIII Corps.

World War II

The regiment was Relieved October 16, 1939 from assignment to the 2nd Division and assigned to the 6th Division. The 1st IR participated in the destruction of Japanese forces on New Guinea in 1943 winning a Presidential Unit Citation for its action at Maffin Bay. The Regiment then participated in MacArthur's celebrated return to the Philippines in January 1945. After the war the Regiment was sent to Korea for occupation duty.

Korean War and Reactivation

On January 10, 1949 1st IR was inactivated in Korea, and then was reactivated on October 4, 1950 at Fort Ord, California as a training regiment for units being sent to the fight in Korea. On April 3, 1956, the Regiment was Relieved from Assignment to the 6th Infantry Division, and then was Assigned on May 15, 1956 to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. On May 15, 1958 the Regiment was reorganized under the Combat Arms Regimental System as HHC, 1st Battle Group, 1st Infantry Regiment.

In 1960, the 1st Battle Group, 1st Infantry was reorganized under a concept that provided sufficient tactics instructors in the permanent party for continuity, but called for outside augmentation for the summer training program. This left the Battle Group with a Headquarters, Headquarters and Training Company, Service Company, Airborne Detachment, the 2nd Aviation Detachment, the USMA Band, Detachment 1 and 2 United States Army Hospital, and saw the attachment of the 50th Engineer Battalion (Construction) and the 57th Military Police Company. The old Military Police Detachment personnel formed the nucleus of the newly attached 57th Military Police Company. On May 16. 1961, the mission of providing tactical instruction for the Corps of Cadets along with the personnel involved, was transferred to a newly created Office of Military Instruction in the Department of Tactics. All enlisted personnel remained assigned to the Battle Group. On February 1, 1962, Service Company was eliminated and its personnel absorbed into Headquarters Company.

On January 1, 1965, the 1st Battle Group, 1st Infantry was redesigned as the 1st Battalion, 1st Infantry." With the exception of transferring tactical instruction to the Office of Military Instruction (now DMI) in 1961. The 2nd Battalion was then assigned to Fort Benning, Georgia.

Vietnam War

In 1966 the regiment was Deployed to Vietnam where it would fight for the next six years. During this time the regiment fought in 14 campaigns to include the Tet Offensive. 2nd Battalion, 1st Infantry was assigned to the 196th Light Infantry Brigade during its duty in VN

Following its tour of duty in Vietnam the battalion was sent to Fort Lewis, Washington, where it became part of the 9th Infantry Division. In January 1991 the battalion became part of the 199th Infantry Brigade at Fort Polk, Louisiana, where it remained until inactivation in 1994.

Reactivation

On 16 December 16, 1995 the 2nd Battalion was reactivated at Fort Wainwright as part of the 6th Infantry Division (Light), which was redesignated as the 172nd Infantry Brigade (Separate) in April 1998.

Lineage

*Constituted 1791-03-03 in the Regular Army as the 2d Infantry
*Organized in March 1791 in New England
*Redesignated in 1792 as the Infantry of the 2d Sub-Legion
*Redesignated 1796-10-31 as the 2d Infantry
*Consolidated May-October 1815 with the 3d and 7th Infantry (both constituted 1808-04-12)
and the 44th Infantry (constituted 1813-01-29) to form the 1st Infantry.
*Consolidated in April 1869 with the 43d Infantry, Veteran Reserve Corps (constituted 1866-09-21),
and consolidated unit designated as the 1st Infantry
*Assigned 1918-09-11 to the 13th Division
*Relieved 1919-03-08 from assignment to the 13th Division
*Assigned 1921-07-27 to the 2d Division
*Relieved 1939-10-16 from assignment to the 2d Division
and assigned to the 6th Division (later redesignated as the 6th Infantry Division)
*Inactivated 1949-01-10 in Korea
*Activated 1950-10-04 at Fort Ord, California
*Relieved 1956-04-03 from assignment to the 6th Infantry Division
*Assigned 1956-05-15 to the United States Military Academy
*Relieved 1958-05-15 from assignment to the United States Military Academy
and reorganized as a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System
*Withdrawn 1985-03-16 from the Combat Arms Regimental System
and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System
*Redesignated 2005-10-01 as the 1st Infantry Regiment

Honors

Campaign Participation Credit

*War of 1812:
#Canada;
#Lundy's Lane;
#New Orleans;
#Alabama 1814;
#Florida 1814;
#Alabama 1815;
#Louisiana 1815

*Mexican-American War:
#Monterey;
#Vera Cruz

*Civil War:
#Mississippi River;
#Vicksburg;
#Missouri 1861;
#Texas 1861;
#Mississippi 1862

*Indian Wars:
#Miami;
#Creeks;
#Seminoles;
#Black Hawk;
#Apaches;
#Pine Ridge;
#Texas 1850

*Spanish-American War:
#Santiago

*Philippine-American War:
#Samar 1901

*World War II:
#New Guinea (with arrowhead);
#Luzon (with arrowhead)

*Vietnam:
#Counteroffensive, Phase II;
#Counteroffensive, Phase III;
#Tet Counteroffensive;
#Counteroffensive, Phase IV;
#Counteroffensive, Phase V;
#Counteroffensive, Phase VI;
#Tet 69/Counteroffensive;
#Summer-Fall 1969;
#Winter-Spring 1970;
#Sanctuary Counteroffensive;
#Counteroffensive, Phase VII;
#Consolidation I;
#Consolidation II;
#Cease-Fire

*War on Terrorism:
#Iraq

Decorations

*Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for MAFFIN BAY
*Philippine Presidential Unit Citation for 17 OCTOBER 1944 TO 4 JULY 1945
*Valorous Unit Award
#for QUANG TIN PROVINCE
#for IRAQ 15 AUGUST 2005 TO 15 DECEMBER 2006


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