- Land-grant university
Land-grant universities (also called land-grant colleges or land grant institutions) are institutions of higher education in the
United Statesthat have been designated by each state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890.
The Morrill Acts funded educational institutions by granting federally controlled land to the states. The mission of these institutions, as set forth in the 1862 Act, is to teach
agriculture, military tactics, the mechanic arts, and home economics, not to the exclusion of classical studies, so that members of the working classes might obtain a practical college education. [7 U.S.C. § 304.]
The Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, the predecessor to
Michigan State University, was chartered February 12 1855as the nation’s first land-grant institution, receiving a 14,000-acre appropriation of state-owned land. Its charter served as a model for the Morrill Act of 1862. The first land-grant university newly "created" under the Morrill Act of 1862 was Kansas State University, established on February 16 1863. The "oldest" land-grant university is Rutgers University, which was founded in 1766.
The mission of the land-grant universities was subsequently expanded by the
Hatch Act of 1887, which provided federal funds to states to establish a series of agricultural experiment stations under the direction of each state's land-grant college, as well as pass along new information, especially in the areas of soil minerals and plant growth. The outreach mission was further expanded by the Smith-Lever Act of 1914to include cooperative extension — the sending of agents into rural areas to help bring the results of agricultural research to the end users. Beyond the original land grants, each land-grant college receives annual Federal appropriations for research and extension work on the condition that those funds are matched by state funds.
Land-grant universities are not to be confused with
sea grant colleges(a program instituted in 1966), space grant colleges(instituted in 1988), urban-grant universities or sun grant colleges(instituted in 2003). In some states, the land-grant missions for agricultural research and extension have been relegated to a statewide agency of the university system rather than the original land-grant campus; an example is the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture.
The universities were initially known as land-grant
colleges. Today, only a small handful of the seventy-some institutions which evolved from the Morrill Acts still have "College" in their official names.
University of the District of Columbiareceived land-grant status and a $7.24 million endowment (USD), in lieu of a land grant, in 1967. In a 1972 Special Education Amendment, American Samoa, Guam, Micronesia, Northern Marianas, and the Virgin Islands each received $3 million.
In 1994, 29 tribal colleges and universities became land grant institutions under the Elementary and Secondary Education Reauthorization Act. In 2008, 32 tribal colleges and universities have land grant status. Most of these are two-year degree granting colleges. However, six are four-year institutions, and two offer a master's degree.
Morrill Act of 1862
Hatch Act of 1887
Morrill Act of 1890
Adams Act- 1906
Nelson Act- 1907
Smith-Lever Act of 1914
Chapter 79- May 8, 1914
Smith-Hughes Act- 1917
Parnell Act- 1925
Copper-Ketcham Act- 1928
Bankhead-Jones Act of 1935
Bankhead-Flannegan Act- 1945
Research Marketing Act- 1946
Smith-Lever Act- 1953, 1955, 1961, 1962, 1968
Hatch Act- 1955
McIntire-Stennis Act- 1962
Research Facilities Act- 1965
Public Law 89-106- 1965
National Sea Grant College and Program Act- 1966
Rural Development Act- 1972
Food and Agriculture Act- 1977
National Agricultural Research Extension and Teaching Act- Title XIV - 1977
Resource Extension Act- 1978
Title XIV- 1981
Agriculture and Food Act- 1981
Title XIV of Food Security Act- 1985
Elementary and Secondary Education Reauthorization Act.- 1994
List of land-grant universities
National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges
Sea Grant Colleges
Space Grant Colleges
Sun Grant Colleges
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Land-grant University — Justin Smith Morrill (1810−1898), auf den die Gesetzgebung zurückgeht, die zur Gründung der Land grant Universities führte Als Land grant Universities werden in den Vereinigten Staaten staatliche Universitäten bezeichnet, deren Gründung… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Land-grant university — Les Land grant universities (ou land grant colleges, land grant institutions) sont des institutions américaines de haute éducation, désignées par chaque état pour recevoir le bénéfice du Morrill Land Grant Colleges Act. Portail des États Unis… … Wikipédia en Français
land-grant university — noun see land grant college … Useful english dictionary
land-grant college — /land grant , grahnt / a U.S. college or university (land grant university) entitled to support from the federal government under the provisions of the Morrill Acts. [1885 90, Amer.] * * * ▪ American education any of numerous American… … Universalium
Land grant — A land grant is a gift of real estate land or privileges made by a government or other authority as a reward for services to an individual, especially as rewards for military service. Grants of land are also awarded to individuals and companies… … Wikipedia
land-grant college — ˈ ̷ ̷ˌ ̷ ̷ noun or land grant university : one of certain institutions for higher education receiving federal aid under the Morrill acts of 1862 and 1890 * * * /land grant , grahnt / a U.S. college or university (land grant university) entitled… … Useful english dictionary
Land Grant Trophy — The Land Grant Trophy is presented to the winner of each football game between Michigan State and Penn State.HistorySince Penn State joined the Big Ten Conference in 1993, the Nittany Lions and Spartans have played each other for the trophy in… … Wikipedia
land grant — noun Land grant is used before these nouns: ↑university … Collocations dictionary
land grant — tract of land granted by the government for the establishment of roads/highways or railroads or educational institution (such as college, university) … English contemporary dictionary
sea grant university — sea grant college or sea grant university, U.S. an institution that receives a grant of money from the government to engage in oceanographic study and research. ╂[patterned after land grant college or university] … Useful english dictionary