- F-86 Sabre
caption=A North American F-86 during the Oshkosh Air Show
North American Aviation
1 October 1947
United States Air Force
more users =
Pakistan Air Force Portuguese Air Force
unit cost=US$219,457 (F-86E)Knaack 1978 ] US$343,839 (F-86D)
variants with their own articles=
Canadair Sabre CAC SabreFJ-2/3/4 Fury North American YF-93
The North American F-86 Sabre (sometimes called the Sabrejet) was an American
transonicjet fighter aircraft. The Sabre is best known for its Korean Warrole where it was pitted against the Soviet MiG-15and obtained UN air superiority. Although developed in the late 1940s and outdated by the end of the 1950s, the Sabre proved adaptable and continued as a front line fighter in air forces until the last active front line examples were retired by the Bolivian Air Force in 1994.
Its success led to an extended production run of over 7,800 aircraft between 1946 and 1956, in the United States, Japan and Italy. It was by far the most-produced Western jet fighter, with total production of all variants at 9,860 units.
Variants were built in
Canadaand Australia. The Canadair Sabreadded another 1,815 airframes and the significantly re-designed CAC Sabre(sometimes known as the Avon Sabre or CAC CA-27), had a production run of 112.
Design and development
Initial proposals to meet a USAAF requirement for a single-seat high-altitude day
fighter aircraft/ escort fighter/ fighter bomberwere made in late 1944, and were originally to be derived from the design of the straight wing FJ-1 Furybeing developed for the U.S. Navy. [ [http://f-86.tripod.com/fj1.html The FJ-1 Fury] ] Performance requirements were met by incorporating a 35 degree swept-back wing with automatic slats into the design. Manufacturing was not begun until after World War IIas a result. The XP-86 prototype, which would become the F-86 Sabre, first flew on 1 October 1947[ [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=2297 North American F-86 Sabre (Day-Fighter A, E and F Models)] ] from Muroc Dry Lake, California. [ [http://www.aviation-history.com/north-american/f86.html Aviation History On-line Museum] ]
USAF Strategic Air Commandhad F-86 Sabres in service from 1949 through 1950. The F-86s were assigned to the 22nd Bomb Wing, the 1st Fighter Wing and the 1st Fighter Interceptor Wing. [ [http://www.perrinairforcebase.net/p-f86.htm Planes of Perrin, North American F-86L "Dog Sabre"] ]
The F-86 was produced as both a fighter-interceptor and fighter-bomber. Several variants were introduced over its production life, with improvements and different armament implemented (see below). The XP-86 (eXperimental Pursuit) was fitted with a J35-C-3 jet engine that produced convert|4000|lbf|kN|abbr=on of thrust. This engine was built by GM's
Chevroletdivision until production was turned over to Allison. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=V0SnFt8JGokC The History of North American Small Gas Turbine Aircraft Engines By Richard A. Leyes, William A. Fleming] ] The J47-GE-7 engine was used in the F-86A-1 producing a thrust of 5,200 lbf (23 kN) while the General Electric J73-GE-3 engine of the F-86H produced 9,250 lbf of thrust. [ [http://www.faqs.org/docs/air/avf862.html F-86E Through F-86L] ] The F-86 was the primary U.S. air combat fighter during the Korean War, with significant numbers of the first three production models seeing combat.
The fighter-bomber version (F-86H) could carry up to 2,000 pounds (900 kg) of bombs, including an external fuel-type tank that could carry
napalm. [ [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=2299 North American F-86H Sabre (Fighter-Bomber)] ]
Both the interceptor and fighter versions carried six Browning M2 .50 in (12.7 mm)
caliber machine guns in the nose (later versions of the F-86H carried four 20 mm cannons instead of machine guns). Guns were harmonized to converge at 1,000 ft (300 m) in front of the aircraft with one tracer bullet for every five rounds. Most rounds used during the Korean Warwere API (armor-piercing incendiary) bullets containing magnesium, which were designed to ignite upon impact but performed poorly above convert|35000|ft|m|abbr=on as the oxygen levels are insufficient to sustain combustion at that height. Initially fitted with the Mark 18 manual-ranging computing gun sight, later models used A-1CM radar ranging gunsight which used radarto compute the range of a target. This would later to prove a significant advantage against MiG opponents over Korea, and fitted to later supersonic fighters such as the F-100 and F-105.Fact|date=December 2007
Unguided 2.75 inch (70 mm)
rocketswere used on some of the fighters in target practice, but 5 inch (127 mm) rocketswere later used in combat operations. The F-86 could also be fitted with a pair of external jettisonable fueltanks (four on the F-86F beginning in 1953) that extended the range of the aircraft.
The F-86 Sabre was also license produced by
CanadairLimited in Montrealas the Canadair Sabre. The final variant of the Canadian Sabres, the Mk 6, is generally rated as being one of the most capable of all Sabre variants built anywhere. [Joos 1971, p. 3. Quote: "The Canadair Sabre Mk 6 was the last variant and considered to be the 'best' production Sabre ever built."] The last Sabre to be manufactured by CanadairLtd. (Sabre #"1815") now resides at the Western Canada Aviation Museum(WCAM)'s permanent collection in Winnipeg, Canadaafter being donated by the Pakistan Air Force. [http://www.pakdef.info/pakmilitary/airforce/ac/sabre.html Pakistan Air Force - The Canadair Sabre Goes to War] ]
Breaking sound barrier and other records
The F-86A set its first official world speed record of convert|570|mi/h|km/h|abbr=on in September 1948. [ [http://www.boeing.com/history/bna/f86.htm History of the F-86 Sabre Jet on Boeing's website] ]
Several people involved with the development of the F-86, including the chief
aerodynamicistfor the project and one of its other test pilots, claimed that North American test pilotGeorge Welch dove the XP-86 through the sound barrierwhile on a test flight 1 October 1947. [Wagner 1963, p. 17.] ( Chuck Yeagerwent supersonic on 14 October 1947in the rocket powered Bell X-1, the first aircraft to sustain supersonic speeds in level flight, making it the first "true" supersonic aircraft.) [ [http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/Timeline/1945-49.html Aeronautics and Astronautics Chronology, 1945-1949] ]
18 November 1952, F-86D-20-NA (SNc."51-2945") set a speed record of convert|698.505|mi/h|km/h|abbr=on. Captain J. Slade Nash flew over a three km course at the Salton Sea in California at a height of only convert|125|ft|m|abbr=on. Another F-86D broke this world record on 16 July 1953, when Lt. Col. William Barnes flying the first F-86D-35-NA ("51-6145") in the same path of the previous flight, achieved convert|715.697|mi/h|km/h|abbr=on.
The F-86 entered service with the United States Air Force in 1949, joining the
1st Fighter Wing's 94th Fighter Squadron"Hat-in-the-Ring" and became the primary air-to-air jet fighter used in the Korean War. With the introduction of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15into air combat in November 1950, which out-performed all aircraft then assigned to the United Nations, three squadrons of F-86s were rushed to the Far East in December. [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3897/is_200212/ai_n9149844 Sabre: The F-86 in Korea] ] The F-86 could out-turn and out-dive the MiG-15, but the MiG-15 was superior to the F-86 in ceiling, acceleration, rate of climb, and zoom (especially until the introduction of the F-86F in 1953); MiGs flown from bases in Manchuriaby Chinese, Korean, and Soviet VVS pilots, were pitted against two squadrons of the 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing forward-based at K-14, Kimpo, Korea.
Many of the American pilots were experienced World War II veterans while the
North Koreans and the Chinese lacked combat experience, thus accounting for much of the F-86's success. [http://korea50.army.mil/history/factsheets/air_f_fs.shtml Fact Sheet: The United States Air Force in Korea] ] However, whatever the actual results may be, it is clear that the F-86 pilots did not have as much success over the better trained Soviet piloted MiG-15s. Although Soviets piloted the majority of MiG-15s that fought in Korea, North Korean and Chinese pilots increased their activity as the war went on. [http://www.acepilots.com/korea_mahurin2.html "Bud" Mahurin] ] [ [http://www.acepilots.com/korea/george.html Lt.Col. George Andrew Davis] ] The Soviets and their allies periodically contested air superiority in MiG Alley, an area near the mouth of the Yalu River (the boundary between Koreaand China) over which the most intense air-to-air combat took place. The F-86E's all-moving tailplane has been credited with giving the Sabre an important advantage over the MiG-15. Far greater emphasis has been given to the training, aggressiveness and experience of the F-86 pilots. Despite rules-of-engagement to the contrary, F-86 units frequently initiated combat over MiG bases in the Manchurian "sanctuary."
The needs of combat operation balanced against the need to maintain an adequate force structure in Western Europe led to the conversion of the 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing from the F-80 to the F-86 in December 1951. Two fighter-bomber wings, the 8th and 18th, converted to the F-86F in the spring of 1953. [ [http://afhra.maxwell.af.mil/korean_war/usaf_organizations_korea/fighter_interceptor.html USAF Organizations in Korea, Fighter-Interceptor 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing] ] No. 2 Squadron,
South African Air Forcealso distinguished itself flying F-86s in Korea as part of the 18 FBW. [ [http://rapidttp.com/milhist/vol043pm.html The History of No 2 Squadron, SAAF, in the Korean War] ]
By the end of hostilities, F-86 pilots were credited with shooting down 792 MiGs for a loss of only 78 Sabres, a victory ratio of 10 to 1. [Thompson, Warren E. and McLaren, David R. "MiG Alley: Sabres Vs. MiGs Over Korea." North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58007-058-2.] Postwar totals officially credited by the USAF are 379 kills for 103 Sabres lost, [ [http://www.b-29s-over-korea.com/MIG-15/Perf_Mig-15_Combat_3.html The war continues] ] amounting to a ratio of nearly 4 to 1. Modern research by Dorr, Lake and Thompson has claimed the actual ratio is closer to 2 to 1. [Dorr, Robert F., Lake, Jon and Thompson, Warren E. "Korean War Aces." London: Osprey Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-85532-501-2.]
The Soviet claims of downing over 600 Sabres [ [http://www.korean-war.com/sovietunion.html Russian Claims from the Korean War 1950-53] ] together with the Chinese claims [Zhang, Xiaoming. "Red Wings over the Yalu: China, the Soviet Union, and the Air War in Korea". College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58544-201-1.] are considered exaggerated by the USAF.Fact|date=February 2007. Recent USAF records show that 224 F-86s were lost to all causes, including non-combat losses. But direct comparison of Sabre and MiG losses seem irrelevant, since primary targets for MiGs were heavy B-29 bombers and ground-attack aircraft, while the primary targets for Sabres were MiG-15s.
RANDreport [ [http://reporter.kro.nl/downloads/rand_pacific_view.pdf Rand. Project Air Force. "Air Combat Past, Present and Future". John Stillion, Scott Perdue. August 2008.] ] made reference to "recent scholarship" of F-86 vs. MiG-15 combat over Korea and concluded that the actual kill:loss ratio for the F-86 was 1.8:1 overall, and likely 1.3:1 against MiGs flown by Soviet pilots; however, the report has been under fire for various misrepresentations. [Stillion, J. and S. Purdue (August, 2008) [http://www.flightglobal.com/blogs/the-dewline/2008/09/download-infamous-rand-air-pow.html Air Combat, Past Present and Future] . Rand Project Air Force. Retrieved on: September 30, 2008.]
Of the 40 American pilots who earned the designation of ace during the Korean war, all but one flew the F-86 Sabre. (The other was a Navy
F4U Corsairnight fighter pilot.)
1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis
Republic of China Air Forceof Taiwanwas one of the first recipients of surplus USAF Sabres. From December 1954 to June 1956, the ROC Air Force received 160 ex-USAF F-86F-1-NA through F-86F-30-NA fighters. By June 1958, the Nationalist Chinese had built up an impressive fighter force, with 320 F-86Fs and seven RF-86Fs having been delivered.Fact|date=February 2007
Sabres and MiGs were shortly to battle each other in the skies of Asia once again in the
Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. In August 1958, the Chinese Communistsof the People's Republic of Chinaattempted to force the Nationalists off of the islands of Quemoyand Matsuby shelling and blockade. Nationalist F-86Fs flying CAP over the islands found themselves confronted by Communist MiG-15s and MiG-17s, and there were numerous dogfights.
During these battles, the Nationalist Sabres introduced a new element into aerial warfare — under a secret effort designated
Operation Black Magic, the US Navy had provided the ROC with the AIM-9 Sidewinder, its first infrared-homing air-to-air missile, which was just entering service with the United States. A small team from VMF-323, a Marine FJ-4 Fury squadron with later assistance from China Lakeand North American initially modified 20 of the F-86 Sabres to carry a pair of Sidewinders on underwing launch rails and instructed the ROC pilots in their use flying profiles with USAF F-100s simulating the MiG-17. The MiGs enjoyed an altitude advantage over the Sabres as they had in Korea and Communist Chinese MiGs routinely cruised over the Nationalist Sabres, only engaging when they had a favorable position. The Sidewinder took away that advantage and proved to be devastatingly effective against the MiGs. [ [http://home.inreach.com/tc/page7.html 323 Death Rattlers] ]
The combat introduction of the Sidewinder took place in a battle on
24 September 1958when ROC Sabres succeeded in destroying 10 MiGs and scoring two probables without loss to themselves.Fact|date=February 2007 In one month of air battles over Quemoy and Matsu, Nationalist pilots tallied a score of no less than 29 MiGs destroyed and eight probables, against a loss of two F-84Gs and no Sabres.Fact|date=February 2007
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
The F-86 entered service with the
Pakistan Air Force(PAF) in 1954 with the first batch of 120 aircraft. Most of the aircraft were of the F-86F-40 configuration except for a few F-86F-35s. The F-86 was operated by nine PAF squadrons at various times.During the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965the F-86 became the mainstay of the PAF and provided a qualitative edge against a larger Indian Air Force(IAF). [ [http://www.defencejournal.com/2002/april/combat.htm Pakistan's Defence Journal] ]
In the air-to-air combat of the
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, the PAF Sabres claimed to have shot down 15 IAF aircraft, comprising of nine Hunters, four Vampires and two Gnats. [http://www.pakdef.info/pakmilitary/airforce/war/claims.html Claims and Counter Claims- PakDef.Info] ] India however, admitted a loss of 14 combat aircraft to the PAF's F-86s. [http://bharat-rakshak.com/IAF/History/Misc/Loss1965.html 1965 Losses] ] The F-86s of the PAF had the advantage of being armed with AIM-9B/GAR-8 Sidewinder missiles whereas none of its Indian adversaries had this capability. Despite this, the IAF claimed to have shot down 13 PAF Sabres in air-to-air combat. [http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/IAF/History/Misc/Kill1965.html IAF Kills in 1965] ] This claim is disputed by the PAF who admit to having lost 13 F-86s Sabres during the whole 23 days but only seven of them during air-to-air battles. The PAF Sabres performed well in ground attack with claims of destroying around 36 aircraft on the ground at Indian airfields at Halwara, Kalaikunda, Baghdogra, Srinagar and Pathankot. [ [http://www.defencejournal.com/feb-mar99/hero-fades.htm Defence Journal: A Hero Fades Away Feb-Mar. 1999] ] [ [http://www.defencejournal.com/dec98/tailchoppers.htm Defence Journal: Tail Choppers - Birth of a Legend, December 1998] ] [ [http://www.defencejournal.com/2000/sept/pathankot.htm Defence Journal: Devastation of Pathankot, September 2000] ] India only acknowledges 22 aircraft lost on the ground to strikes partly attributed to the PAF's F-86s and its bomber B-57 Canberra.
Pakistani F-86s were also used against advancing columns of the Indian army when No. 19 Squadron Sabres engaged the
Indian Armyusing five inch (127 mm) rockets along with their six Browning M3 .50 in (12.7 mm) caliber machine guns. According to Pakistan reports, Indian armor bore the brunt of this particular attack at Wagah. [ [http://www.defencejournal.com/2000/sept/pathankot.htm Devastation of Pathankot] ] The Number 14 PAF Squadron earned the nickname "Tailchoppers" in PAF for their F-86 operations and actions during the 1965 war. [ [http://www.defencejournal.com/dec98/tailchoppers.htm Tailchoppers] ]
During the war, United States barred the sales of the F-86 to Pakistan. Nonetheless, Pakistan maintained its F-86 fleet through sales of around 90
Iranian Sabres and Sabre Mk 6 CL-13s ( Canadian-made F-86 Sabres) which formed the backbone of the operations during the Bangladesh Liberation War, 1971. Despite its formidable performance, the F-86 proved vulnerable to the diminutive Folland Gnat, which proved to be fast, nimble and hard to see. The IAF Gnats, given the nickname "Sabre Slayer," claimed to have downed seven PAF Sabres. [ [http://ww.aycsnetwork.com/USAMFOLLANDGNATPAGE.htm Folland FO-141 Gnat] Note: The Pakistan Air Forcedisputes this claim and accepts the loss of only three F-86 Sabres at the hands of the Gnats.]
Pakistan Air Force F-86
Flying AceSqn Ldr Muhammad Mahmood Alam, officially credited with five kills in air-to-air combat, [ [http://www.paf.gov.pk/Airwarriors.htm Pakistan Air Force official website] ] three of them in less than a minute. [ [http://www.defencejournal.com/2001/september/alam.htm Alam’s Speed-shooting Classic] ]
Bangladesh Liberation War 1971
The Canadair Sabres (Mark 6) acquired from ex-Luftwaffe stocks via Iran, were the mainstay of the PAF's day fighter operations during the
Bangladesh Liberation War1971, and had the challenge of dealing with the threat from IAF.Fact|date=February 2007Despite having acquired newer fighter types such as the Mirage IIIand the Shenyang F-6, the Sabre Mark 6 (widely regarded as the best "dog-fighter" of its era [ [http://www.rcaf.com/aircraft/fighters/sabre/index.php Canadair CL-13 Sabre] - Royal Canadian Air Force] ) along with the older PAF F-86Fs, were tasked with the majority of operations during the war, due to the small numbers of the Mirages and combat unreadiness of the Shenyang F-6.In East Pakistanonly one PAF F-86 squadron (14th Squadron) was deployed to face the formidable IAF Soviet MiG-21s and the Sukhoi SU-7 and the numerical superiority of the IAF. At the beginning of the war, PAF had eight squadrons of F-86 Sabres." [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,910155-4,00.html India and Pakistan: Over the Edge] " 13 December 1971, TIME]
Despite these challenges, the PAF F-86s performed well with Pakistani claims of downing 31 Indian aircraft in air-to-air combat including 17
Hawker Hunters, eight Sukhoi SU 7 "Fitters", one MiG 21s and three Gnats [http://www.pakdef.info/pakmilitary/airforce/1971war/pafkills71.html PAF Kills and claims in 1971] - Pakdef.info] while losing seven F-86s. [http://www.pakdef.info/pakmilitary/airforce/war/airloses.html PAF Losses in 1971] Pakdef.info] India however claims to have shot down 11 PAF Sabres for the loss of 11 combat aircraft to the PAF F-86s. [http://bharat-rakshak.com/IAF/History/Misc/Loss1971.html IAF Losses in 1971] - Bharat Rakshak.com] The IAF numerical superiority overwhelmed the sole East Pakistan Sabres squadron (and other military aircraft) [ [http://www.aeronautics.ru/archive/vif2_project/indo_pak_war_1971.htm Military losses in the 1971 Indo-Pakistani war] ] [ [http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+bd0140) Bangladesh, The Liberation War] ] which were either shot down, or grounded by Pakistani Fratricideas they could not hold out, enabling complete Air superiorityfor the Indian Air Force. [Singh et al 2004, p. 30.]
Battle of Boyra, the first notable air engagement over East Pakistan, India claimed four Gnats downed three Sabres while Pakistan acknowledges only two Sabres were lost while one Gnat was shot down.. As per official Pakistan accounts, 24 Sabres were lost in the war: 13 due to enemy action and 11 disabled by PAF forces to keep them out of enemy hands, while 28 Sabres were lost per Indian accounts: 17 due to IAF action and 11 disabled by the PAF on the ground to keep them out of enemy hands. [http://bharat-rakshak.com/IAF/History/1971War/Appendix3.html Aircraft Losses in Pakistan -1971 War] ] . Five of these Sabres, however, were recovered in working condition and flown again by the Bangladesh Air Force. [ [http://www.bdmilitary.com/main/military/air/airforce/background/baf_history.htm Bangladesh Air Force History] ] [ [http://www.virtualbangladesh.com/defense/airforce.html Virtual Bangladesh:Defense:Airforce] ]
After this war, Pakistan slowly phased out its F-86 Sabres and replaced them with Chinese F-6 (Russian
MiG-19based) fighters. The last of the Sabres were withdrawn from service in PAF in 1980. F-86 Sabres nevertheless remain a legend in Pakistan and are seen as a symbol of pride.Fact|date=July 2007 They are now displayed in Pakistan Air Force Museumand in the cities to which their pilots lived.
Based at AB2-Bissau/Bissalanca in 1961-1964, some F-86Fs were deployed in Guinea in 1961 where they were used in ground attack and close support operations. These aircraft formed “Detachment 52”, equipped with eight F-86Fs (serials: 5307, 5314, 5322, 5326, 5354, 5356, 5361 and 5362) of the Esquadra 51, based at the Base Aerea 5, in Monte Real, Portugal. In August 1962, 5314 overshot the runway during emergency landing with bombs still attached on underwing hardpoints and burned out. F-86 5322 was shot down by enemy ground fire on
31 May 1963; the pilot ejected safely and was recovered. Several other aircraft suffered combat damage, but were repaired.
In 1964, 16 F-86Fs based at Bissalanca returned to mainland due to U.S. pressure. They had flew 577 combat sorties, of which 430 were ground attack and close air support missions. During these operations, one FAP Sabre was shot down and other crashed.
North American F-86
;XF-86: three prototypes, originally designated XP-86, North American model NA-140;YF-86A: this was the first prototype fitted with a General Electric J47 turbojet engine.;F-86A: 554 built, North American model NA-151 (F-86A-1 block and first order of A-5 block) and NA-161 (second F-86A-5 block);DF-86A: A few F-86A conversions as drone directors;RF-86A: 11 F-86A conversions with three cameras for reconnaissance;F-86B: 188 ordered as upgraded A-model with wider fuselage and larger tires but delivered as F-86A-5, North American model NA-152;F-86C: original designation for the YF-93A, two built (S/N 48-317 & 48-318), [ [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=2384 North American YF-93A Fact Sheet] ] order for 118 cancelled, North American model NA-157;YF-86D: prototype all-weather interceptor originally ordered as YF-95A, two built but designation changed to YF-86D, North American model NA-164;F-86D: Production interceptor originally designated F-95A, 2,506 built: North American model NA-165 (F-86D-1 through D-15 blocks), NA-177 (F-86D-20 and first order of D-25 blocks), NA-173 (second order of F-86D-25 and D-30 through D-35 blocks), NA-190 (F-86D-45 and D-50 blocks) and NA-201 (F-86D-55 and D-60 blocks). The F-86D had only 25 percent commonality with other Sabre variants, marked by a larger fuselage to house a radome and larger afterburning engine. It had, for the first time for a Sabre, a full control system with an AN/APG-36,15 in. antenna and a J47-GE-17 with A/B. Armament was 24 FFAR convert|2.75|in|mm|sing=on 'Mighty Mouse' with 7.55-pound explosive warhead, convert|2500|ft/s|m/s|abbr=on at burnout, a range of convert|4500|yd|m. Navigation set was AN/ARN-14. Last F-86Ds had J47-GE-17B with 5425/7500 lbf thrust.;F-86E: Improved flight control system and an "all-flying tail" (This system changed to a full power-operated control with an "artificial feel" built into the aircraft's controls to give the pilot forces on the stick that were still conventional, but light enough for superior combat control. It improved high speed maneuverability); 456 built, North American model NA-170 (F-86E-1 and E-5 blocks), NA-172, essentially the F-86F airframe with the F-86E engine (F-86E-10 and E-15 blocks); 60 of these built by
Canadairfor USAF (F-86E-6);F-86E(M): Designation for ex-RAF Sabres diverted to other NATOair forces;QF-86E: Designation for surplus RCAFSabre Mk. Vs modified to target drones;F-86F: Uprated engine and larger "6-3" wing without leading edge slats, 2,239 built; North American model NA-172 (F-86F-1 through F-15 blocks), NA-176 (F-86F-20 and -25 blocks), NA-191 (F-86F-30 and -35 blocks), NA-193 (F-86F-26 block), NA-202 (F-86F-35 block), NA-227 (first two orders of F-86F-40 blocks comprising 280 aircraft which reverted to leading edge wing slats of an improved design), NA-231 (70 in third F-40 block order), NA-238 (110 in fourth F-40 block order), and NA-256 (120 in final F-40 block order); 300 additional airframes in this series assembled by Mitsubishiin Japanfor Japanese Air Self-Defense Force. Sabre Fs had much improved high speed agility, coupled with a higher landing speed of over convert|145|mi/h|km/h|abbr=on. The F-35 block had provisions for a new task: the nuclear tactical attack with one of the new small "nukes" ("second generation" nuclear ordnance). The F-40 had a new slatted wing, with a slight decrease of speed, but also a much better agility at high and low speed with a landing speed reduced to convert|124|mi/h|km/h|abbr=on. The USAF upgraded many of previous F versions to the F-40 standard.;QF-86F: About 50 former JASDF F-86F airframes converted to drones for use as targets by the U.S. Navy;RF-86F: Some F-86F-30s converted with three cameras for reconnaissance; also eighteen JASDF aircraft similarly converted;TF-86F: Two F-86F converted to two-seat training configuration with lengthened fuselage and slatted wings under North American model NA-204
;F-86G: Provisional designation for F-86D variant with uprated engine and equipment changes, 406 built as F-86D models;YF-86H: Extensively redesigned fighter-bomber model with deeper fuselage, uprated engine, longer wings and power-boosted tailplane, two built as North American model NA-187;F-86H: Production model, 473 built, with
Low Altitude Bombing System(LABS) and provision for nuclear weapon, North American model NA-187 (F-86H-1 and H-5 blocks) and NA-203 (F-86H-10 block);QF-86H: Target conversion of 29 airframes for use at United States Naval Weapons Center;F-86J: Single F-86A-5-NA, serial 49-1069, flown with Orendaturbojet under North American model NA-167 - same designation reserved for A-models flown with the Canadian engines but project not proceeded with;YF-86K: Basic version of F-86D intended for export with rockettray replaced by four 20 mm cannon and simplified fire control system, two conversions;F-86K: NATOversion of F-86D with 120 built by North American and 221 kits for assembly by Fiat, North American model NA-222 (first 50 as F-86K-NF), NA-213 (F-86K-13 through K-19 blocks) and NA-221 (125 F-86K-NF assembled by Fiat) and NA-242 (final 45 F-86K-NF assembled by Fiat). Since the rockets were powerful, but really inaccurate, except for a short range firing against bombers, the NATO night interceptor units needed a different machine. It had MG-4 fire control system coupled with four 20 mm M-24A1, with 132 rpg each. It retained, despite being simpler, the same APG-37 "Sabre-dog" radar;F-86L: Upgrade conversion of F-86D with new electronics, extended wingtips and wing leading edges, revised cockpit layout and uprated engine with reheat, 981 converted
North American FJ Fury
FJ Furyfor production figures of U.S. Navyversions."
CAC Sabre (Australia)
Two types based on the US F-86F were built under licence by the
Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation(CAC) in Australia, for the Royal Australian Air Force. as the CA-26 (one prototype) and CA-27 (production variant).
The CAC Sabres included a 60% fuselage redesign, to accommodate the
Rolls-Royce AvonMk 26 engine, which had roughly 50% more thrust than the J47, as well as 30 mm Aden cannons and AIM-9 Sidewindermissiles. As a consequence of its powerplant, the Australian-built Sabres are commonly referred to as the Avon Sabre. CAC manufactured 112 of these aircraft.
*Mk 30: 21 built, wing slats, Avon 20 engine
*Mk 31: 21 built, 6-3 wing, Avon 20 engine
*Mk 32: 69 built, four wing pylons, F-86F fuel capacity, Avon 26 engine
The RAAF operated the CA-27 from 1956 to 1971. [http://www.defence.gov.au/RAAF/raafmuseum/research/aircraft/series2/A94.htm RAAF Museum page on Sabre] ] Ex-RAAF Avon Sabres were operated by the
Royal Malaysian Air Force("TUDM") between 1969 and 1972. From 1973 to 1975, 23 Avon Sabres were donated to the Indonesian Air Force ("TNI-AU"); five of these were ex-Malaysian aircraft.
The F-86 was also manufactured by
Canadairin Canadaas the CL-13 Sabre to replace its de Havilland Vampires, with the following production models: ;Sabre Mk 1: one built, prototype F-86A;Sabre Mk 2: 350 built, F-86E-type, 60 to USAF, three to RAF, 287 to RCAF;Sabre Mk 3: one built in Canada, test-bed for the Orenda jet engine;Sabre Mk 4: 438 built, production Mk 3, 10 to RCAF, 428 to RAF as Sabre F 4;Sabre Mk 5: 370 built, F-86F-type with Orenda engine, 295 to RCAF, 75 to Luftwaffe;Sabre Mk 6: 655 built, 390 to RCAF, 225 to Luftwaffe, six to Colombiaand 34 to South Africa
* NAA built a total of 6,297 F-86s and 1,115 FJs,
* Canadair built 1,815,
* Australian CAC built 112,
* Fiat built 221, and
* Mitsubishi built 300;
* for a total Sabre/Fury production of 9,860.
: "Source: Dorr"Dorr 1993, pp. 65–96.]
Argentine Air Force: Acquired 26 F-86Fs, 26 September 1960, FAA s/n CA-101 through CA-128. Sabres not used in Falklands War
Royal Australian Air Force[ [http://www.adf-serials.com/2a94.shtml adf-serials.com, 2007, "A94-RAAF Sabre Mk. 30/31/32 Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation CA-26/CA-27"] . Retrieved: 14 December 2007. ]
No. 3 Squadron RAAF
No. 75 Squadron RAAF
No. 76 Squadron RAAF
No. 77 Squadron RAAF
No. 79 Squadron RAAF.
No. 2 Operational Training Unit RAAF
No. 5 Operational Training Unit RAAF
A total of 42
CAC CA-27Avon Sabre Mark 30/31 and 69 CA-27 Mk 32, during 1956-1971.
*: : Acquired 5 Pakistan Air Force Canadair Sabre 6s, s/n 1608, 1609,1617, 1669, 1723; December 1971
Belgian Air Force: 5 F-86F Sabres delivered, s/n 51-13202, 52-5305, 52-5362, 52-53-67, 52-5402; no operational unit
Bolivian Air Force: Acquired 10 F-86Fs from Venezuelan Air Force October 1973, assigned to Brigada Aerea 21, Grupo Aera de Caza 32, they were reported to have finally been retired from service in 1994, making them the last Sabres on active front line service anywhere in the world.
Burma Air Force(now Myanmar Air Force): Acquired 12 Canadair Sabre Mark 6s from Pakistani Air Force in the 70s
Royal Canadian Air Force(RCAF): Canadair Ltd. produced 60 F-86E-6s for the USAF during the Korean War. Also, produced another 60 F-86Es for allied countries, 230 CL-13 Sabre (E-model) Mark 2s for RCAF, 438 CL-13 Mark 4s (428 for Britain), 370 CL-13A Mark 5s (75 to West Germany), 292 CL-13B Mark 6s (six for Colombia and 34 for South Africa), and another 315 Mark 6s (225 for West Germany)
Colombian Air Force: Acquired six CL-13Bs (s/n 2021-2026) from Canadair 8 June 1956, and two F-86Fs from Spanish Air Force (s/n 2027/2028), and one USAF F-86F (s/n 51-13226); assigned to Escuadron de Caza-Bombardero.
Royal Danish Air Force: Received 58 ex-USAF F-86Ds 1958-1960; assigned to 723, 726 and 728 Squadrons.
Ethiopian Air Force: Acquired 14 F-86Fs in 1960. [http://home.att.net/~jbaugher1/p86_12.html Baugher's: "F-86 Foreign Service"] ]
French Air Force: Fiatbuilt 62 F-86Ks for France (1956-1957), assigned to EC 1/13 Artois, EC 2/13 Alpes, and EC 3/13 Squadrons. (s/n: 55-4814/4844), 55-4846/4865, 55-4872/4874, 55-4876/4879)
Luftwaffe(West German Air Force): Acquired 75 Canadair CL-13A Sabre Mark 5s January 1957, and 225 Mark 6s in 1959. Also, acquired 88 U.S. F-86Ks 22 July 1957- 23 June 1958. The Ks were assigned to Jagdgeschwader (JG) 74 and 75 Groups.
Greek Air Force: Acquired at leasr 100 (another source 110) used Canadair CL-13 Mark 2s from the RCAF from July 1954; assigned to three squadrons. Also, some U.S. F-86Ds were received in 1961 (no details).
Honduran Air Force: Acquired eight Canadair CL-13 Mark 4s, formerly Yugoslavian, l4 U.S. F-86Fs and five Venezuelan F-86Ks in 1969.
Indonesian Air Force(Tentera Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Udara - (TNI-AU)): Acquired 18 used CAC CA-27 Sabres in 1973; assigned to No. 14 Squadron. Five ex-Malaysian CA-27s were obtained in 1976.
Imperial Iranian Air Force: Acquired unknown number of F-86Fs
Iraqi Air Force: Acquired five F-86Fs
Italian Air Force: Fiat produced 121 F-86Ks for Italy, 1955-1958. Also, 120 U.S. F-86Ks were acquired. F-86s were assigned to the AMI air groups: 6 Gruppo COT/1 Stormo, 17 Gruppo/1 Stormo, 23 Gruppo/1 Stormo, 21 Gruppo/51 Aerobrigata, 22 Gruppo/51 Aerobrigata and 12 Gruppo/4 Aerobrigata.
Japanese Air Self-Defense Force: Acquired 180 U.S. F-86Fs, 1955-1957. Mitsubishibuilt 300 F-86Fs, 1956-1961, and were assigned to 10 fighter hikotai or squadrons, and their Blue Impulse Aerobatic Team. A total of 18 F-models were converted to reconnaissance version in 1962. Some aircraft were returned to the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, California, as drones. Finally, 122 US F-86Ds were delivered, 1958-1961; assigned to four all-weather interceptor hikotai, and Air Proving Ground at Gifu.
Royal Malaysian Air Force: Acquired 18 CAC CA-27s in October 1969. Assigned to No. 11 and 12 Squadrons.
Royal Netherlands Air Force(Koninklijke Luchtmacht) (KLu): Acquired 57 U.S.-built and six Fiat-built F-86K Sabres, 1955-1956; and assigned to three squadrons, No. 700, 701 and 702.
Royal Norwegian Air Force: Acquired 60 U.S.-built F-86K Sabres, 1955-1956, and another 115 F-86Fs, 1957-1958; and assigned to seven Norwegian Squadrons, No.s 331, 332, 334, 336, 337, 338 and 339. Also, acquired four Italian-assembled Fiat K-models.
Pakistani Air Force: Acquired 102 U.S.-built F-86F-35-NA and F-86F-40-NAs (last of North American Aviation's production line, 1954-1960s. Also, 90 former Luftwaffe Canadair CL-13B Mark 6s were acquired in the late 1960s. They were assigned to PAF's Squadrons: No.s 14 through 19 and 26.
Peruvian Air Force: Acquired 26 US-built F-86Fs, 1 July 1955; and assigned to at least two squadrons.
Philippine Air Force: Acquired 36-40 (not confirmed) U.S.-built F-86Fs and 20 F-86Ds, beginning 1957; and assigned to the 6th and 7th Tactical Fighter Squadrons (TFS) of the 5th Fighter Wing (FW), and 8th and 9th TFS of the 6th FW, part of the U.S. military assistance package.
Portuguese Air Force: Acquired 50 U.S.-built F-86Fs, 1958, including some from USAF's 531st Fighter Bomber Squadron, Chambley, Portugal. Also, acquired 15 CL-13Bs Mark 6s, from West Germany, and spares from Norway.
** 201 Squadron "Falcões" (Falcons) (formerly designated as 50 Sqn. and later 51 Sqn., before being renamed in 1978), based at Air Base No. 5 (BA5), in
** 52 Squadron "Galos" (Roosters), based at Air Base No. 5 (BA5), in Monte Real
Republic of China Air Force
Royal Saudi Air Force: Acquired 16 U.S.-built F-86Fs in 1958, and 3 Fs from Norway in 1966; and assigned to RSAF No. 7 Squadron at Dharhran.
South African Air Force: Acquired on loan 22 U.S.-built F-86F-30s during the Korean War and saw action with 2 Squadron SAAF. In October 1956, the SAAF acquired 34 Canadair CL-13Bs Mark 6, which were assigned to 1 Squadron SAAF: 16 were later transferred to the USAF.
Republic of Korea Air Force: Acquired 122 US-built F-86Fs and RF-86Fs, and 40 F-86-Ds, beginning 20 June 1955; and assigned to ROKAF 10th Wing.
Spanish Air Force: Acquired 270 U.S.-built F-86Fs, 1955-1958; designated C.5s and assigned to 5 wings: Ala de Caza 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6. Retired 1972.
Royal Thai Air Force: Acquired 40 U.S.-built F-86Fs, 1962, and unknown number of the only exported F-86Ls; and assigned to RTAF Squadrons, No.s 12 (Ls), 13, and 43.
Tunisian Air Force: Acquired 15 used U.S.-built F-86F in 1969.
Turkish Air Force: Acquired 102 Canadair CL-13 Mark 2s, 1954-1958; and assigned to THK Squadrons, No.s 141, 142 and 143. Also, acquired 12 U.S.-built F-86Fs and 50 F-86Ds, and finally 40 F-86Ks.
Royal Air Force: Acquired three Canadair CL-13 Mark 2s and 428 Mark 4s, 8 December 1952- 19 December 1953; assigned to RAF Sabre Squadrons 3, 4, 20, 26, 66, 67, 71, 92, 93, 112, 130, 147 and 234. During 1956-1958, 302 RAF Sabres were overhauled/modified in the UK and returned to the USAF (who had supplied the aircraft under MDAP)) in camouflage colors with RCAF serials and redesignated as F-86E(M); of which 121 were then sent to Yugoslavia and 179 to Italy.
US Air Force
Venezuelan Air Force: Acquired 30 U.S.-built F-86Fs and 74 Fiat-built F-86Ks, October 1955 - December 1960; and assigned to one group, Grupo Aerea De Caza No. 12, three other squadrons. Finally, the FAV acquired 51 US-built F-86Ks from West Germany.
SFR Yugoslav Air Force: Acquired 121 modified Canadair CL-13 Mark 4s, 1956, from Britain. Unknown number of F-86Ds were purchased.
Notable F-86 pilots
Joseph C. McConnell(16 victories), USAF 51 FIW, who later died in a crash at Edwards Air Force Basetesting the F-86H
James Jabara(15 victories), USAF 4 FIW
Manuel "Pete" Fernandez, (14.5 victories), USAF 4 FIW
*Major George Davis (14 victories), USAF 4 FIW, awarded the
Medal of Honorposthumously
Royal Baker(13 credits), USAF 4 FIW group commander, 540 combat missions flown in three wars
Frederick Blesse(10 victories), USAF 4 FIW, noted air tactics author
James Robinson Risner(eight victories), USAF awarded the Air Force Cross, later Vietnam WarPOW
Francis S. "Gabby" Gabreski(six and one-half victories), USAF 51 FIW commander, top European U.S. ace in World War II
Iven Kincheloe(five victories) USAF 51 FIW, test pilot selected to fly the X-15
*Colonel Harrison R. Thyng (five victories), USAF 4 FIW commander
John Glenn, a Marine Corps exchange pilot with the USAF 51 FIW
* Colonel Walker "Bud" Mahurin, USAF 51st Fighter Group commander and World War II ace
Andy Mackenzie, DFC. RCAFWWII fighter ace (8.5 victories); taken POW when his F-86 was shot down while flying with the USAF 51 FIW in Korea in 1952. [ [http://sabre-pilots.org/classics/v101radar.htm S/L ANDY MacKENZIE, RCAF (Ret)] . "Sabre Jet Classics" Volume 10 Number 1 Winter 2003]
* Captain James Horowitz, USAF 4 FIW, novelist and author of "
The Hunters" under the pen nameJames Salter
* Squadron Leader
Graham HulseRAF, exchange pilot with the USAF 4 FIW.Fact|date=February 2007
Many Sabres of several different Marks are preserved around the world, some examples being:
*CA-27 Sabre Mk 30 (A94-922), Czech Air Force Museum, Kbely, near Prague (marked as 'A94-923')
*CA-27 Sabre Mk 32 (A94-982),
Wagga Wagga RAAF Museum, Forest Hill, New South Wales, Australia
*CA-27 Sabre Mk 32 (A94-983),
Temora Aviation Museum, Temora, New South Wales, Australia[ [http://www.aviationmuseum.com.au/aircraft/raafsabre.cfm RAAF CA-27 Sabre] , Temora Aviation Museum]
*CL-13 Sabre, Canadian Mk. IV XB812/RCAF 19666
Royal Air Force Museum Cosford
*CL-13 Sabre, Canadian Mk. V
Atlantic Canada Aviation Museum, Enfield, Nova Scotia, Canada[ [http://acam.ednet.ns.ca/sabre/sabre2.htm Atlantic Canada Aviation Museum: "F-86/CL-13 Sabre Mk. V"] ]
*CL-13 Sabre, Canadian Mk. V
RCAF Memorial Museum, [ [http://www.airforcemuseum.ca/ac_sabre.htm RCAF Museum: "CL-13 Sabre Mk. V"] ] Trenton, Ontario
*CL-13 Sabre, Canadian Mk.IV (Yugoslav AF serial :11025/ex RCAF 19856; manufacturers number :756) at
Yugoslav Aeronautical Museum, Nikola Tesla Airport, Belgrade, Serbia. [ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Museum_of_Aviation_in_Belgrade] ]
*CL-13 Sabre, Canadian Mk.IV (Yugoslav AF serial :11054/ex RCAF 19539; manufacturers number:439) at
Yugoslav Aeronautical Museum, Nikola Tesla Airport, Belgrade] , Serbia. [ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Museum_of_Aviation_in_Belgrade] ]
*CL-13 Sabre, Canadian Mk.IV (Yugoslav AF serial :11088/ex RCAF 19738; manufacturers number:638) at
Yugoslav Aeronautical Museum, Nikola Tesla Airport, Belgrade] , Serbia. [ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Museum_of_Aviation_in_Belgrade] ]
* [http://www.aero-web.org/locator/manufact/northam/f-86.htm Aeroweb's F-86 Sabrejets on Display at Museums] USA locations.
*F-86A Sabre, 48-0242
Midland Air Museum, Coventry, England. [ [http://www.midlandairmuseum.co.uk/aircraftlist.php Midland Air Museum: "F-86A Sabre"] ]
*F-86D Sabre, 51-8453 Danish F-453, Danish AF,
Copenhagen, Denmark. [Dorr 1993, p.72.]
*F-86D Sabre, 52-10023 Yugoslav 14102, YUAF, manufacturers number 190-748; at
Yugoslav Aeronautical Museum, Nikola Tesla Airport, Belgrade, Serbia.
*F-86D, 52-3669, McChord Air Museum,
McChord Air Force Base, Washington[ [http://www.mcchordairmuseum.org/REV%20B%20MAM%20COLLECTION%20F-86%20BORDER.htm] ]
*F-86E Sabre, 50-0600
Pima Air Museum, Tucson Arizona
*F-86F Sabre, 55-3966 Spanish C.5-82, Torrejón,
Spain.Dorr 1993, p. 91.]
*F-86F Sabre, 52-5307 Spanish C.5-231,
*F-86F Sabre, 52-5372 United States, Sembach Annex, Germany.
*F-86F Sabre, Malvinas War Memorial Monument,
*F-86H Sabre, 53-1525
Pima Air Museum, Tucson Arizona
*F-86L Sabre, 53-0965
Pima Air Museum, Tucson Arizona
*F-86 Sabre, Greenup County War Memorial Monument, Greenup, Kentucky, USA (restoration beginning 9/1/08)Several Sabres are still owned by private owners (most notably actor
Michael Dorn[ [http://memory-alpha.org/en/wiki/Michael_Dorn Michael Dorn] ] ), including a handful that still fly at air shows and aviation events. The first privately registered Canadair Sabre was an ex-Golden Hawk MK.VI, registered in 1966 as CF-AMH. It was owned by Milt Harradenceand Lynn Garrison.
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=jet
ref= "The North American Sabre" [Wagner 1963, p. 145.]
span main=37 ft 0 in
span alt=11.3 m
length main=37 ft 1 in
length alt=11.4 m
height main=14 ft 1 in
height alt=4.5 m
area main= 313.4 sq ft
area alt= 29.11 m²
empty weight main= 11,125 lb
empty weight alt= 5,046 kg
loaded weight main=15,198 lb
loaded weight alt=6,894 kg
max takeoff weight main=18,152 lb
max takeoff weight alt=8,234 kg
more general=Fuel provisions Internal fuel load: 437 gallons (1,650 l), Drop tanks: 2 x 200 gallons (756 l) JP-4 fuel
* Basic mission wing loading: 58 lb/sq ft
Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0132
* Drag area: 3.8 sq ft (0.35 m²)
* Aspect ratio: 4.78
engine (jet)=General Electric J47-GE-27
type of jet=
number of jets=1
thrust main=5,910 lbf (maximum thrust at 7.950 rpm for five min)
thrust alt=26.3 kN
max speed main=687
mphat sea level at 14,212 lb (6,447 kg) combat weightalso reported convert|678|mi/h|km/h|abbr=on and 599 at convert|35000|ft|m at 15,352 pounds (6,960 kg).
max speed alt=597 knots, 1,105 km/h at 6446 m, 1,091 and 964 km/h at 6,960 m.
range main=1,525 mi,
range alt=1,753 NM, 2,454 km
ceiling main=49,600 ft at combat weight
ceiling alt=15,100 m
climb rate main=8,100 ft/min at sea level
climb rate alt=41 m/s
* Stalling speed (power off): 124 mph (108 kt, 200 km/h)
* Landing ground roll: 2,330 ft, (710 m)
Lift-to-drag ratio: 15.1
* Time to altitude: 5.2 min (clean) to 30,000 ft (9,100 m)
guns=6× 0.50 in (12.7 mm)
M2 Browning machine guns (1,602 rounds in total)
rockets=variety of rocket launchers; e.g: 2× Matra rocket pods with 18×
SNEB68 mm rockets each
bombs=5,300 lb (2,400 kg) of payload on four external
hardpoints, bombs are usually mounted on outer two pylons as the inner pairs are wet-plumbed pylons for 2× 200 gallons drop tanks to give the Sabre a useful range. A wide variety of bombs can be carried (max standard loadout being 2 x 1,000 lb bombs plus 2 drop tanks), napalmbomb canisters and can include a tactical nuclear weapon.
* FJ-2/3/4 Fury
North American YF-93
F-100 Super Sabre
FMA IAe 33 Pulqui II
Saab 29 Tunnan
List of military aircraft of the United States
List of fighter aircraft
List of airshow accidents
Tactical Air Command
Semi-Automatic Ground Environment
* Allward, Maurice. "F-86 Sabre". London: Ian Allen, 1978. ISBN 0-71100-860-4.
* Curtis, Duncan. "North American F-86 Sabre". Ramsbury, UK: Crowood, 2000. ISBN 1-86126-358-9.
* Dorr, Robert F."F-86 Sabre Jet: History of the Sabre and FJ Fury". St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International Publishers, 1993. ISBN 0-87938-748-3.
* Joos, Gerhard W. "Canadair Sabre Mk 1-6, Commonwealth Sabre Mk 30-32 in RCAF, RAF, RAAF, SAAF, Luftwaffe & Foreign Service". Kent, UK: Osprey Publications Limited, 1971. ISBN 0-85045-024-1.
* Käsmann, Ferdinand C.W. "Die schnellsten Jets der Welt: Weltrekord- Flugzeuge" (in German). Oberhaching, Germany: Aviatic Verlag-GmbH, 1994. ISBN 3-925505-26-1.
* Knaack, Marcelle Size. "Encyclopedia of US Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems, Volume 1, Post-World War Two Fighters, 1945-1973". Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1978. ISBN 0-912799-59-5.
* Singh, Sarina, et al. "Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway". London: Lonely Planet Publications, 2004. ISBN 0-86442-709-3.
* Swanborough, F. Gordon. "United States Military Aircraft Since 1909". London: Putnam, 1963. ISBN 0-87474-880-1.
* Wagner, Ray. "American Combat Planes - Second Edition". Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1968. ISBN 0-370-00094-3.
* Wagner, Ray. "The North American Sabre". London: Macdonald, 1963. No ISBN.
* Werrell, Kenneth P. "Sabres Over MiG Alley". Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2005. ISBN 1-59114-933-9.
* Westrum, Ron. "Sidewinder". Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1999. ISBN 1-55750-951-4.
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/f-86.htm Globalsecurity.org profile of the F-86 Sabre]
* [http://www.wingweb.co.uk/aircraft/F-86_Sabre_Part1.html Four part series about the F-86 Sabre – Extended F-86 Sabre article set]
* [http://www.warbirdalley.com/f86.htm Warbird Alley: F-86 Sabre page – Information about F-86s still flying today]
* [http://www.aviation-history.com/north-american/f86.html Sabre site]
* [http://home.att.net/~jbaugher1/p86.html F-86 in Joe Baugher's U.S. aircraft site]
* [http://www.airaffair.com/Library/museums.html Aviation Museums of the World]
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