- EOKA B
Infobox militant organization
name = EOKA B
dates = 1971–1974
motives = The union of Cyprus with Greece (Enosis)
area = Cyprus
ideology = Nationalism
EOKA-B was a Greek Cypriot paramilitary organisation formed in 1971. It followed a
right-wing nationalisticideology and had the ultimate goal of achieving the enosisof Cypruswith Greece. During its short history, the organisation’s chief assassination target was the elected president of Cyprus, Makarios III. The organisation dissolved following a failed Coup d’etatattempt in 1974 and the subsequent Turkish Invasion of Cyprus.
A key factor that led to the formation of EOKA-B was the ascent to power of the Greek military junta in 1967 which overthrew the legitimate and elected Greek government of
Panayiotis Kanellopoulos. General George Grivaswho had been living in enforced residence in Athens, returned under cover to Cyprus in 1971. [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=The Survivor | date= February 28, 1972| publisher= | url =http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,905841,00.html | work = Time Magazine| pages = | accessdate = 2008-07-30 | language = ] With the help of the junta regime in Athens, he created EOKA-B in response to President Archbishop Makarios' deviation from the policy of " enosis". Nationalistic elements had been angered by Makarios' rejection of "enosis" in 1959 and were further incensed when he had reaffirmed this position on his re-election in 1968.
The organization is commonly referred as a
terrorist organizationin countries such as the United Kingdom [ [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199900/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds05/text/50221w06.htm "Middle East: Missing Persons"] , Accessed June 17, 2006.] because EOKA-B was engaged in the murder of civilians. This terminology was shared by President Makarioson his speech at the UN following the coup. [ [http://www.cypnet.co.uk/ncyprus/history/republic/makarios-speech.html#speech "Speech by Makarios"] , Accessed June 17, 2006.] When George Grivasreturned to Cyprus in 1971, he created EOKA-B in response to President Archbishop Makarios' deviation from the policy of " enosis". He was angered by Makarios' rejection of "enosis" in 1959 and was further riled when the President reaffirmed this position on his re-election in 1968. Grivas took the reins of EOKA-B and attempted to overthrow Makarios in order to achieve "enosis" through violent means.
EOKA(1955-59) were seen by the majority of the Greek Cypriots as anti-colonialist freedom fighters, the EOKA-B did not have the overwhelming support of the Greek Cypriot population, who were skeptical over the organisation's involvement with the unpopular Greek dictatorship.Fact|date=February 2007 They did not want to swap their newly found independence for direct rule from Athens. The organisations unpopularity increased after attacks on Greek Cypriot socialists and supporters of independence, while public outrage followed the murder of government minister Polycarpos Georgadjisand a botched assassination attempt on Makarios.
When Grivas Digenis died from heart failure in January 1974, the new leadership of EOKA-B increasingly came under the direct control and influence of the military junta in Athens. On
July 15 1974, the EOKA-B with approval of the Greek Dictator Dimitrios Ioannidesand the help of the National Guard, launched a military coup, overthrowing Makarios and installing Nikos Sampsonas the dictator of Cyprus. This action served only to provoke a Turkish military invasion on July 20 1974, leading to the subsequent "de facto" division of the island.
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