- Vernacular literature
Vernacular literature is
literaturewritten in the vernacular- the speech of the "common people".
European tradition, this effectively means literature not written in Latin. In this context, vernacular literature appeared during the Middle Ages; among the earliest European vernacular literature include Irish literature, Welsh literature, Anglo-Saxon literatureand Gothic literature.
The Italian poet
Dante Alighieri, in his " De vulgari eloquentia", was possibly the first European writer to argue cogently for the promotion of literature in the vernacular. Important early vernacular works include Dante's " Divine Comedy", Giovanni Boccaccio's " Decameron" (both written in Italian) and Geoffrey Chaucer's " Canterbury Tales" (written in English). Indeed Dante's work actually created in part the Italian language.
By extension, the term is also used to describe, for example,
Chinese literaturenot written in classical Chinese and Indian literature after Sanskrit.
Hinduculture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Sanskritlong after its use as a spoken language. With the rise of the bhakti movementfrom the 1100s onwards, religious works started being created in Tamil, Hindi, Kannada, Telugu and many other Indian languages thorought the different regions of India. For example, the Ramayana, one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit had vernacular versions such as Ramacharitamanasa", a Hindiversion of the Ramayana by the 16th century poet Tulsidasand Kambaramayanamby the poet, Kamban in Tamil.
The term is applied to works not written in the standard and/or prestige language of their time and place. For example, many authors in Scotland, such as
James Kelmanand Edwin Morganhave used Scots, even though English is now the prestige language of publishing in Scotland. Ngugi wa Thiongowrites in his native Gikuyu languagethough he previously wrote in English.
Philippines, the term basically any written literature in a language other than Filipino ("or Tagalog") or English. At present, it forms the second largest corpus of literature, following the literature in Tagalog. During the HispanicColonisation, when Filipino was not yet existing as a national lingua franca, literature in this type flourished. Aside from religious literature, such as the Passiong Mahal (the Passion of Our Lord), zarzuelaswere also produced using the vernacular languages
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