Local gigantism


Local gigantism

s, where it is termed macrodactyly. However, sometimes an entire limb may be enlarged.

Causes

Local gigantism may be caused by a heterogeneous group of both congenital and acquired conditions.

Congenital

Congenital causes include:
*Klippel Trenaunay Weber syndrome
*Maffucci syndrome
*macrodystrophia lipomatosa [ [http://www.ijri.org/articles/archives/20001002/letter3.htm Letter to the Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging] ]
*neurofibromatosis, [cite journal |author=Lassmann H, Gebhart W, Mamoli B, Niebauer G |title=Nervous lesions in a case of local gigantism |journal=Acta Neuropathol. |volume=38 |issue=2 |pages=109–15 |year=1977 |pmid=878849 |doi=] [cite journal |author=Chung IH, Kim NH, Choi IY |title=Macrodactylism associated with neurofibroma of the median nerve. A case report |journal=Yonsei Med. J. |volume=14 |issue= |pages=49–52 |year=1973 |pmid=4804132 |doi=]
*lipoatrophic diabetes. [ [http://www.ijri.org/articles/current_issue/gyn_349.asp Some case reports] ]
*Proteus syndrome, which affected the Elephant Man

Acquired

There are a number of acquired causes of local gigantism. A body part can attain bigger size from causes as common as the following:
*inflammation, due to trauma or infection
*tumors like osteoid osteoma, melorheostosis, and lipofibromatous hamartoma [cite journal |author=Razzaghi A, Anastakis DJ |title=Lipofibromatous hamartoma: review of early diagnosis and treatment |journal=Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie |volume=48 |issue=5 |pages=394–9 |year=2005 |pmid=16248139 |doi=]
*Arteriovenous malformations occurring on a limb, before the closure of epiphyses in long bones [ [http://indianheartjournal.com/SeptOctober2001/abstact/659-662/265_focal_gigantism.htm Case report] ]
*Elephantiasis, which is quite common in south-east asia due to prevalence of filariasis.
*Still's disease
*amyloidosis
*acromegaly

Treatment

As the causes of local gigantism are varied, treatment depends on the particular condition. Treatment may range from antibiotics and other medical therapy, to surgery in order to correct the anatomical anomaly.

References

External links

* [http://www.medcyclopaedia.com/library/topics/volume_iii_1/g/GIGANTISM.aspx Medcyclopedia article]


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