- Yevgeny Zamyatin
Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin [His last name is often
transliteratedas "Zamiatin" or "Zamjatin". His first name is sometimes translated as "Eugene".] ( _ru. Евге́ний Ива́нович Замя́тин, IPA-ru|jɪvˈgʲenʲɪj ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ zɐˈmʲætʲɪn) ( February 1, 1884– March 10, 1937) was a Russian author, most famous for his 1921 novel "We", a story of dystopian future which influenced George Orwell's " Nineteen Eighty-Four", Ayn Rand's "Anthem", Ursula Le Guin’s " The Dispossessed" and, indirectly, Kurt Vonnegut's "Player Piano".
Zamyatin was born in
Lebedyan, two hundred miles south of Moscow. His father was a Russian Orthodoxpriest and schoolmaster, and his mother a musician. He may have had synesthesiaas he gave letters and sounds qualities. To Zamyatin "L" was pale, cold and light blue. [Introduction to Randall's translation of "We".] He studied naval engineering in Saint Petersburgfrom 1902 until 1908, during which time he joined the Bolsheviks. He was arrested during the Russian Revolution of 1905and exiled, but returned to Saint Petersburg where he lived illegally before moving to Finlandin 1906 to finish his studies. Returning to Russia, he began to write fiction as a hobby. He was arrested and exiled a second time in 1911, but amnestied in 1913. His "Ujezdnoje" ("A Provincial Tale") in 1913, which satirized life in a small Russian town, brought him a degree of fame. The next year he was tried for maligning the military in his story "Na Kulichkakh". He continued to contribute articles to various socialistnewspapers. After graduating as a naval engineer, he worked professionally at home and abroad. In 1916 he was sent to England to supervise the construction of icebreakers at the shipyards in Walker and Wallsendwhile living in Newcastle upon Tyne. He wrote "The Islanders", satirizing English life, and its pendant "A Fisher of Men", both published after his return to Russiain late 1917.
Russian Revolution of 1917he edited several journals, lectured on writing, and edited Russian translations of works by Jack London, O. Henry, H. G. Wells, and others.
Zamyatin supported the
October Revolution, but opposed the system of censorshipunder the Bolsheviks. His works were increasingly critical of the regime. He boldly stated: "True literature can only exist when it is created, not by diligent and reliable officials, but by madmen, hermits, heretics, dreamers, rebels and skeptics". This attitude caused his position to become increasingly difficult as the 1920s wore on. Ultimately, his works were banned and he wasn't permitted to publish, particularly after the publication of "We" in a Russian émigré journal in 1927.
In addition to "We", Zamyatin also wrote a number of short stories, in fairy tale form, that constituted satirical criticism of the
Communistregime in Russia, such as in a story about a city where the mayor decides that to make everyone happy he should make everyone equal. He starts by forcing everyone, himself included, to live in a big barrack, then to shave heads to be equal to the bald, and then to become mentally disabled to equate intelligence downward. This plot is very similar to that of " [http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:UH1OHt9jSe0J:www.libertarian.co.uk/lapubs/cultn/cultn014.pdf+The+New+Utopia+(jerome)&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us The New Utopia] " (1891) by Jerome K. Jeromewhose collected works were published three times in Russia before 1917.
Zamyatin was eventually given permission to leave Russia by
Joseph Stalinin 1931, after the intercession of Maxim Gorky. He settled, impoverished, in Pariswith his wife, where he died of a heart attack in 1937. During his time in France, he notably worked with Jean Renoir, co-writing the script of his film "Les Bas-fonds".
He is buried in
Thiais, France, at a cemetery on Rue de Stalingrad.
*cite journal |quotes= |last=Fischer |first=Peter A. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1971 |month=Autumn |title=Review of The Life and Works of Evgenij Zamjatin by Alex M. Shane |journal=Slavic and East European Journal |volume=15 |issue=3 |pages=388–390 |id= |url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0037-6752(197123)1%3A15%3A3%3C388%3ATLAWOE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-9 |accessdate=
*cite journal |quotes= |last=Myers |first=Alan |authorlink=Alan Myers (translator) |coauthors= |year=1993 |month= |title=Zamiatin in Newcastle: The Green Wall and The Pink Ticket |journal=
The Slavonic and East European review|volume=71 |issue=3 |pages=417–427 |url=http://www.seaham.i12.com/myers/zamyatin.html
*cite book |last=Shane |first=Alex M. |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=The life and works of Evgenij Zamjatin |year=1968 |publisher=University of California Press |location= |id=
*cite book |last=Zamiatin |first=Evgenii Ivanovich |authorlink= |coauthors= |others=sostaviteli T.V. Gromova, M.O. Chudakova, avtor stati M.O. Chudakova, kommentarii Evg. Barabanova |title=Selections |year=1988 |publisher=Kniga |location=Moskva |id=ISBN 5-212-00084-X ru icon [http://orbis.uoregon.edu/record=b1791001 (bibrec)] [http://www.nlr.ru/e-case/expand_bme.php?id=45668&cn=3 (bibrec ru icon)] :"We" was first published in the USSR in this collection of Zamyatin's works.
*cite book |last=Zamyatin |first=Yevgeny |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=A Soviet heretic : essays |year=1994 |publisher=Quartet Books Ltd |location= |id= |others=Mirra Ginsburg (editor and translator)
*cite book |last=Zamyatin |first=Yevgeny |authorlink= |coauthors= |others=Natasha Randall (trans.) |title=We |year=2006 |publisher=Modern Library |location= |id=ISBN 0-8129-7462-X
*Zamyatin, Yevgeny. "We". List of translations.
*Zamyatin, Yevgeny. [http://az.lib.ru/z/zamjatin_e_i/ Collected works] ru icon including his Autobiography (1929) and Letter to Stalin (1931)
* [http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/zamyatin.htm Biography] of Yevgeny Zamyatin
* [http://orwell.ru/people/zamyatin/zei_en Biography] from a website on
* [http://www.sovlit.com/bios/zamyatin.html Encyclopedia of Soviet Writers] biography of Yevgeny Zamyatin
*isfdb name|name=Yevgeny Zamyatin|id=Yevgeny_Zamyatin
* [http://www.sovlit.com/rasskazy/lion.html The Lion] complete text of the short story by Zamyatin. (1935)
* [http://www.seaham.i12.com/myers/zamyatin.html "Zamyatin in Newcastle"] updates articles by Alan Myers published in "
Slavonic and East European Review".
* [http://www.taleon.ru/taleonclub_ru/ProjectImages/2187/32_42.pdf The "twists and turns" of Yevgeny Zamiatin's Life] brief, illustrated biography by Tatyana Kukushkina
* [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSzamyatin.htm Yevgeny Zamyatin] Spartacus Educational website by
NAME= Zamyatin, Yevgeny
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Zamyatin, Yevgeny Ivanovich; Zamiatin, Yevgeny; Zamjatin, Eugene; Евге́ний Ива́нович Замя́тин
DATE OF BIRTH=
February 1, 1884
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=
March 10, 1937
PLACE OF DEATH=
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