Audio noise measurement


Audio noise measurement

Audio noise measurement is carried out when assessing the quality of audio equipment, such as is used in recording studios, broadcast studios, and in the home (Hi-Fi).

Noise in general refers to unwanted sound, often loud, but in audio systems it is the low-level hiss or buzz that intrudes on quiet passages that is of most interest. All recordings will contain some background noise that was picked up by microphones, such as the rumble of air conditioning, or the shuffling of an audience, but in addition to this every piece of equipment which the recorded signal subsequently passes through will add a certain amount of electronic noise, which ideally should be so low as to contribute insignificantly to what is heard.

Origins of noise - the need for Weighting

Microphones, amplifiers and recording systems all add some electronic noise to the signals passing through them, generally described as hum, buzz or hiss. All buildings have low-level magnetic and electrostatic fields in and around them emanating from mains supply wiring, and these can induce hum into signal paths, typically 50Hz or 60Hz (depending on the country's electrical supply standard) and lower harmonics. Shielded cables help to prevent this and—, on professional equipment where longer interconnections are common—, balanced signal connections (most often with XLR or TRS connectors) are usually employed. Hiss is the result of random signals, often arising from the random motion of electrons in transistors and other electronic components, or the random distribution of oxide particles on analog magnetic tape. It is predominantly heard at high frequencies, sounding like steam or compressed air.

Attempts to measure noise in audio equipment as RMS voltage, using a simple level meter or voltmeter, do not produce useful results; a special noise-measuring instrument is required. This is because noise contains energy spread over a wide range of frequencies and levels, and different sources of noise have different spectral content. For measurements to allow fair comparison of different systems they must be made using a measuring instrument that responds in a way that corresponds to how we hear sounds. From this, three requirements follow. Firstly, it is important that frequencies above or below those that can be heard by even the best ears are filtered out and ignored by bandwidth limiting (usually 22Hz to 22kHz). Secondly, the measuring instrument should give varying emphasis to different frequency components of the noise in the same way that our ears do, a process referred to as ‘weighting’. Thirdly, the rectifier or detector that is used to convert the varying alternating noise signal into a steady positive representation of level should take time to respond fully to brief peaks to the same extent that our ears do; it should have the correct ‘dynamics’.

The proper measurement of noise therefore requires the use of a specified method, with defined measurement bandwidth and weighting curve, and rectifier dynamics. The two main methods defined by current standards are A-weighting and ITU-R 468(formerly known as CCIR weighting).

A-weighting

A-weighting uses a weighting curve based on ‘equal-loudness contours’ that describe our hearing sensitivity to pure tones, but it turns out that the assumption that such contours would be valid for noise components was wrong. While the A-weighting curve peaks by about 2dB around 2kHz, it turns out that our sensitivity to noise peaks by some 12dB at 6kHz. Another weakness of A-weighting is that it is usually combined with an rms (root mean square) rectifier, which measures mean power, with no attempt made to account for proper hearing dynamics.

ITU-R 468 weighting

When measurements started to be used in reviews of consumer equipment in the late 1960’s it became apparent that they did not always correlate with what was heard. In particular, the introduction of Dolby B noise-reduction on cassette recorders was found to make them sound a full 10dB less noisy, yet they did not measure 10dB better. Various new methods were then devised, including one which used a harsher weighting filter and a quasi-peak rectifier, defined as part of the German DIN45 500 ‘Hi Fi’ standard. This standard, no longer in use, attempted to lay down minimum performance requirements in all areas for ‘High Fidelity’ reproduction.

The introduction of FM radio, which also generates predominantly high-frequency hiss, also showed up the unsatisfactory nature of A-weighting, and the BBC Research Department undertook a research project to determine which of several weighting filter and rectifier characteristics gave results that were most in line with the judgment of panel of listeners, using a wide variety of different types of noise. BBC Research Department Report EL-17 formed the basis of what became known as CCIR recommendation 468, which specified both a new weighting curve and a quasi-peak rectifier. This became the standard of choice for broadcasters worldwide, and it was also adopted by Dolby, for measurements on its noise-reduction systems which were rapidly becoming the standard in cinema sound, as well as in recording studios and the home.

Though they represent what we truly hear, ITU-R 468 noise weighting gives figures that are typically some 11dB worse than A-weighted, a fact that brought resistance from marketing departments reluctant to put worse specifications on their equipment than the public had been used to. Dolby tried to get round this by introducing a version of their own called CCIR-Dolby which incorporated a 6dB shift into the result (and a cheaper average reading rectifier), but this only confused matters, and was very much disapproved of by the CCIR.

With the demise of the CCIR, the 468 standard is now maintained as , by the International Telecommunications Union, and forms part of many national and international standards, in particular by the IEC (International Electrotechnical commission), and the BSI (British Standards Institute). It is the only way to measure noise, that allows fair comparisons; and yet the flawed A-weighting has made a comeback in the consumer field recently, for the simple reason that it gives the lower figures that are considered more impressive by marketing departments.

Signal to noise ratio and Dynamic range

Hi-fi equipment specifications tend to include the terms ‘signal to noise ratio’ and ‘dynamic range’, both of which are confusing and best avoided. Noise has to be measured with reference to something, but this should be ‘alignment level’. Signal to noise ratio has no real meaning as audio signals are constantly changing so there is no such thing as ‘signal level’. Dynamic range used to mean the difference between maximum level and noise level, but maximum level is often hard to define, for example on analog tape recordings, and the term has become corrupted by a tendency to refer to the dynamic range of CD players as meaning the noise level on a blank recording with no dither, in other words just the analog noise content at the output. This is not particularly useful; especially since many CD players incorporate automatic muting in the absence of signal to make them appear even quieter!

Since the early 1990s various writers such as Julian Dunn have suggested that dynamic range be measured in the presence of a test signal. Thus, any spurious signals caused by the test signal will degrade the signal-to-noise ratio. This also addresses concerns about the use of blank recordings.

In 1999 Dr. Steven Harris & Clif Sanchez Cirrus Logic published a white paper titled "Personal Computer Audio Quality Measurements" stating that "Dynamic Range is the ratio of the full scale signal level to the RMS noise floor, in the presence of ignal, expressed in dB FS. This specification is given as an absolute number and is sometimesreferred to as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) in the presence of a signal. The label SNR should not be used due to industry confusion over the exact definition. DR can be measured using the THD+N measurement with a -60 dB FS signal. This low amplitude is small enough to minimize any large signal non-linearity, but large enough to ensure that the system under test is being exercised. Other test signal amplitudes may be used, provided that the signal level is such that no distortion components are generated.

In 2000 the AES released AES Information Document 6id-2000 which defined dynamic range as "20 times the logarithm of the ratio of the full-scale signal to the r.m.s. noise floor in the presence of signal, expressed in dB FS" with the following note: "This specification is sometimes referred to as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of a signal. The label SNR should not be used due to industry confusion over the exact definition. SNR is often used to indicate signal-to-noise ratio, with the noise level being measured with no signal. This can often givean optimistic result because of muting circuits, which mute the noise when no signal is present."

See also

*Audio quality measurement
*Distortion measurement
*Noise
*Sound level meter
*ITU-R 468 noise weighting
*Noise measurement
*Headroom
*Weighting filter
*Equal-loudness contour
*Fletcher-Munson curves

External links

* [http://www.ptpart.co.uk/noise.htm Noise measurement briefing]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Audio quality measurement — seeks to quantify the various forms of corruption present in an audio system or device. The results of such measurement are used to maintain standards in broadcasting, to compile specifications, and to compare pieces of equipment. The need for… …   Wikipedia

  • Noise measurement — is carried out in various fields. In acoustics, it can be for the purpose of measuring environmental noise, or part of a test procedure using white noise, or some other specialised form of test signal. In electronics it relates to the sensitivity …   Wikipedia

  • Audio system measurements — are made for several purposes. Designers take measurements so that they can specify the performance of a piece of equipment. Maintenance engineers make them to ensure equipment is still working to specification, or to ensure that the cumulative… …   Wikipedia

  • Noise shaping — is a technique typically used in digital audio, image, and video processing, usually in combination with dithering, as part of the process of quantization or bit depth reduction of a digital signal. Its purpose is to increase the apparent signal… …   Wikipedia

  • Noise (audio) — Noise in audio, recording, and broadcast systems refers to the residual low level sound (usually hiss and hum) that is heard in quiet periods of a programme. In audio engineering, it can refer either to the acoustic noise from loudspeakers, or to …   Wikipedia

  • Noise figure — (NF) is a measure of degradation of the signal to noise ratio (SNR), caused by components in a radio frequency (RF) signal chain. The noise figure is defined as the ratio of the output noise power of a device to the portion thereof attributable… …   Wikipedia

  • Noise — This article is about noise as an unwanted phenomenon. For other uses, see Noise (disambiguation). NASA researchers at Glenn Research Center conducting tests on aircraft engine noise in 1967 In common use, the word noise means any unwanted …   Wikipedia

  • Noise floor — This article is about physics term. For the Bright Eyes album, see Noise Floor (Rarities: 1998 2005). In signal theory, the noise floor is the measure of the signal created from the sum of all the noise sources and unwanted signals within a… …   Wikipedia

  • Noise (electronics) — Electronic noise [1] is a random fluctuation in an electrical signal, a characteristic of all electronic circuits. Noise generated by electronic devices varies greatly, as it can be produced by several different effects. Thermal noise is… …   Wikipedia

  • Noise reduction — For sound proofing, see soundproofing. For scientific aspects of noise reduction of machinery and products, see noise control. Noise reduction is the process of removing noise from a signal. All recording devices, both analogue or digital, have… …   Wikipedia