Fabrizio Ruffo


Fabrizio Ruffo

Fabrizio Ruffo (September 16, 1744 - December 13, 1827) was an Italian cardinal and politician, who led the popular anti-republican "Sanfedismo" movement (whose members were known as the "Sanfedisti").

Biography

Ruffo was born at San Lucido in Calabria, then part of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. His father, Litterio Ruffo, was duke of Baranello, and his mother, Giustiniana, was of the Roman family of Colonna. Fabrizio owed his education to his uncle, Tommaso Cardinal Ruffo, then dean of the College of Cardinals. In early life he secured the favour of Giovanni Angelo Braschi, who in 1775 became Pope Pius VI. Ruffo was placed by the pope among the "chierici di camera", the clerks who formed the papal civil and financial service. He was later promoted to treasurer-general, a post which carried with it the ministry of war. Ruffo's conduct in office was diversely judged. Pietro Colletta, the historian of Naples, speaks of him as corrupt, and Jomini repeats the charge.

Ruffo's biographer, Sachinelli, says that he incurred hostility by restricting the feudal powers of some of the landowners in the Papal States. In 1791 he was removed from the treasurership, but was created cardinal on September 29, though he was not in orders and in fact never became a priest. Ruffo went to Naples, where he was named administrator of the royal domain of Caserta, and received the abbey of S. Sophia in Benevento "in commendam".

When in December 1798 the French troops advanced on Naples, Ruffo fled to Palermo with the royal family. He was chosen to head a royalist movement in Calabria, where his family, though impoverished by debt, exercised large feudal powers. He was named vicar-general on January 25, 1800. On February 8 he landed at La Cortona with a small following, and began to raise the so-called "army of the faith" in association with Michele Pezza, "Fra Diavolo", and other brigand leaders. Backed by the Russian fleet of Admiral Ushakov, Ruffo had no difficulty in upsetting the Parthenopean Republican government established by the French, and by June had advanced to Naples. Possibly exceeding his authority, he promised the Neapolitan republicans immunity from reprisals and obtained their surrender in June, 1799. In the meantime, however, Admiral Horatio Nelson appeared with his fleet; he called the cardinal to task for his leniency, and revoked the terms of surrender. The republicans, it was asserted, had surrendered under terms that were unclear. Their leader, Francesco Caracciolo, was ignominiously executed aboard Nelson's flagship, June 30, and a general massacre of republican sympathizers in Naples followed.

The campaign gave rise to much controversy among nineteenth-century historians. Ruffo appears to have lost favour with the king by showing a tendency to spare the republicans. He resigned his vicar-generalship to the prince of Cassero, and during the second French occupation and the reigns of Joseph Bonaparte and Joachim Murat he lived quietly in Naples. Some notice was taken of him by Napoleon, but he never held an important post. After the restoration of the Bourbons he was received into favour. During the revolutionary troubles of 1822 he was consulted by the king, and was even in office for a very short time as a loyalist minister.

References

*cite book|first=Giovanni |last=Ruffo|title=Il cardinale Fabrizio Ruffo tra psicologia e storia: L'uomo, il politico, il sanfedista|year=1999
*cite book|first=Domenico |last=Petromasi|title=Alla riconquista del Regno: La marcia del cardinale Ruffo dalle Calabrie a Napoli|year=1994.

References

*1911


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Fabrizio Ruffo — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Fabrizio Ruffo (* San Lucido en Calabria, 16 de septiembre de 1744 † Nápoles, 13 de diciembre de 1827) fue un cardenal y político italiano. Biografía Fabrizi …   Wikipedia Español

  • Fabrizio Ruffo — Fabrizio Dionigi Ruffo (* 16. September 1744 in San Lucido bei Neapel; † 13. Dezember 1827 in Neapel) war ein Kardinal der katholischen Kirche. Leben Kardinal Fabrizio Ruffo Papst Pius VI …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fabrizio Ruffo — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Fabrizio Dionigi Ruffo et Ruffo. Fabrizio Ruffo, prince de Castelcicala (Naples,1763 1832) fut un homme d État napolitain. Biographie Né à Naples, il s attacha au ministre napolitain Acton, qui l envoya en… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Fabrizio Dionigi Ruffo — (* 16. September 1744 in San Lucido bei Neapel; † 13. Dezember 1827 in Neapel) war ein Kardinal der katholischen Kirche. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Literatur 3 Einzelnachweise …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fabrizio — is an Italian first name and surname, and may refer to:* Fabrizio Barbazza (born 1963), an Italian former Formula One driver * Fabrizio De André (1940–1999), an Italian singer songwriter * Fabrizio Giovanardi (born 1966), an Italian racing driver …   Wikipedia

  • Fabrizio Dionigi Ruffo — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Fabrizio Ruffo. Fabrizio Dionigi Ruffo Biographie Naissance 16  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ruffo — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Andrée Ruffo (1942 ) est une ancienne juge du Québec. Bruno Ruffo (né le 9 décembre 1920 et mort le 10 février 2007 en Italie), était un pilote moto… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ruffo — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Bruno Ruffo (1920–2007), italienischer Motorradrennfahrer Ernesto Ruffo Appel (* 1952), mexikanischer Politiker und Gouverneur Fabrizio Dionigi Ruffo (1744–1827), italienischer Kardinal Fulco Ruffo di… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ruffo — Ruffo, 1) Fabrizio, Kardinal, geb. 16. Sept. 1744 in Neapel, gest. 13. Dez. 1827, stammte aus der herzoglichen Familie Baranello, widmete sich dem geistlichen Stand und wurde 1794 zum Kardinal ernannt. Später trat er in neapolitanische Dienste.… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Ruffo — Ruffo, Fabrizio, Kardinal, geb. 16. Dez. 1744 in Sta. Lucida (Kalabrien), seit 1794 Kardinal, Urheber des Aufstandes in Kalabrien 1799, der die Parthenopeische Republik stürzte, gest. als Staatsrat 13. Dez. 1827 zu Neapel …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon