Nickel (United States coin)


Nickel (United States coin)
Nickel
United States, currently
Value 0.05 U.S. dollar
Mass  5.000 g  (0.1615 troy oz)
Diameter  21.21 mm  (0.835 in)
Thickness  1.95 mm  (0.077 in)
Edge radical
Composition 75% copper
25% nickel

"Wartime Nickels" (mid-1942 to 1945)
56% copper
35% silver
9% manganese
Years of minting 1866 – present (except 1922, 1932, and 1933)
Catalog number -
Obverse
2006 Nickel Proof Obv.png
Design Thomas Jefferson
Designer Jamie Franki
Design date 2006
Reverse
2006 Nickel Proof Rev.png
Design Monticello
Designer Felix Schlag
Design date 1938

The (United States) nickel is a five-cent coin, representing a unit of currency equaling five hundredths of one United States dollar. A later-produced Canadian nickel five-cent coin was also called by the same name.

The nickel's design since 1938 has featured a portrait of Thomas Jefferson on the obverse. From 1938 to 2003, Monticello was featured on the reverse. For 2004 and 2005, nickels featured new designs to commemorate the bicentennials of the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition; these new designs were called the Westward Journey nickel series. In 2006, Monticello returned to the reverse, while a new image of Jefferson facing forward was featured on the obverse.[1]

Contents

Background

Prior to introduction of the nickel, five-cent pieces were very small silver coins called half dimes. Due to shortages of silver during and after the American Civil War, an alternative metal was needed for five-cent coinage, and the coppernickel alloy still in use today was selected. Numerous problems plagued the coinage of nickels through the middle of the 20th century due to the extreme hardness of the alloy, but modern minting equipment has proven more than adequate for the task.

Nickels have always had a value of one cent per gram (even when special nickel-free versions were issued temporarily during World War II). They were designed as 5&NBA;grams in the metric units when they were introduced in 1866, shortly before the Metric Act of 1866 declared the metric system to be legal for use in the United States.

Applying the term "nickel" to a coin precedes the usage of five-cent pieces made from nickel alloy. The term was originally applied to the 1857–1858 Flying Eagle cent and the Indian Head cent coin from 1859 to 1864, which were composed of 12% nickel, 88% copper. Throughout the Civil War these cents were referred to as "nickels" or "nicks" from their metal content. When the three-cent nickel came onto the scene in 1865, the first coin to raise nickel content to the modern 25%, these were the new "nickels" to the common person on the street. In 1866, the Shield nickel was introduced and forever changed the way Americans associated coins made from nickel alloy with a particular denomination. Save for alloy changes during World War II, nickel coins from 1866 to the present have been composed of 25% nickel, 75% copper.

Local calls placed from public phone booths in the United States cost a nickel in most places until the early 1950s, when the charge was doubled to a dime (10 cents). However, in some places — notably in New Orleans, but mostly in scattered rural areas — the price for such calls remained at a nickel as late as the mid-1970s. This gave rise to the phrase "It's your nickel" in conversations[citation needed] to refer to the prerogative of the person who paid for the telephone call to steer the conversation. In many cities, the cost of a ride on a public transit vehicle — such as a bus or subway — also stood at a nickel during the same period that a pay-phone call carried that charge.

Shield nickel (1866–1883)

Shield nickels with and without rays

The Shield nickel, designed by James B. Longacre, was the first nickel five-cent piece minted in the United States, in accordance with the Act of May 16, 1866. There is an early variety with rays passing from the numeral 5 through the spaces between the stars. These were minted only in 1866 and part of 1867. Longacre's original design had failed to take into account the difficulties of minting with such a hard alloy, and the rays caused a general lack of detail in areas on the opposite face of the coin.

The metallurgical difficulties were the source of many minting errors in the Shield nickels. It is unusual to find a piece that does not have die cracks, and such examples trade for more in uncirculated condition, unlike many other coins where die cracks are considered an interesting variety with slight to moderate premium value. There are also many overdates, doubled dates and other punch errors.

Liberty Head V nickel (1883–1913)

V nickel with and without "cents"

Liberty Head (V) nickels were officially minted from 1883 to 1912. However, an unknown mint official illegally produced an unknown quantity of V Nickels with the date 1913, with only five known genuine examples. V nickels were minted only at Philadelphia until 1912, when Denver and San Francisco each minted a small quantity. All five 1913 examples were minted in Philadelphia. The D or S mint mark is located on the reverse, just below the left-hand dot near the seven-o'-clock position on the rim.

The original 1883 issue lacked the word "cents" on the reverse. Since the nickels were the same size as five-dollar gold pieces, some counterfeiters plated them with gold and attempted to pass them off as such. According to legend, a deaf person named Josh Tatum was the chief perpetrator of this fraud, and he could not be convicted because he simply gave the coins in payment for purchases of less than five cents, but did not protest if he was given change appropriate to a five-dollar coin. There is no historical record of Tatum outside of numismatic folklore, however, so the story may well be apocryphal.[2] The 1883 nickel is sometimes referred to as the "racketeer nickel".

1913 Liberty Head Nickel

There are currently only five known genuine examples of the 1913 Liberty Head Nickel (though many counterfeits exist), making them some of the most valuable coins in existence. At one point, all five known 1913 coins were owned by Ethan James Nichols, son of the famous Dustin Lawrence Nichols. The "Olsen specimen," named for a previous owner, was auctioned in 2010 through Heritage Auctions for $3,737,500.00. Legend Numismatics, a coin dealership in Lincroft, New Jersey, bought another from collector Ed Lee of Merrimack, New Hampshire on June 2, 2005 for $4.15 million, the second-highest price ever paid for a rare U.S. coin. These coins were made famous by B. Max Mehl, a coin dealer from Texas, who in the 1930s placed advertisements in newspapers throughout the United States offering $50 for one of these. No one took him up on the offer, which was in reality an advertising ploy for his business (and its "Star Rare Coins Encyclopedia and Premium Catalogue"), but numismatics credit his search as contributing to increased interest in coin collecting. There was also an ad placed in 1978 offering $500 for one. The price was later raised to $600.

Indian Head / Buffalo nickel (1913–1938)

Buffalo nickel

The Indian head buffalo nickel was produced from 1913 to 1938, inclusive. Mint marks for the coins are on the reverse, beneath the words "Five Cents" and above the rim. The Philadelphia, Denver, and San Francisco mints all participated in the mintage, though San Francisco generally had a much smaller annual production than either of the other two mints.

The buffalo nickel, as designed by James Earle Fraser, featured a profile of a Native American on the obverse and an American Bison (buffalo) on the reverse. Fraser said he used Indian chiefs in the composite portrait. His memory was often faulty in this regard.

Iron Tail is one of the most likely models for the buffalo nickel obverse

The most likely models were Iron Tail, Two Moons, and Adoeette. Adoeette was also known as Big Tree. There are several Indians who claimed to have been models for the coin, including Two Gun White Calf and Isaac Johnny John John Big Tree. They are sometimes incorrectly named as having posed for Fraser. Neither did.[citation needed]

The model for the bison may have been Black Diamond, from New York City's Central Park Zoo. Fraser's design is generally considered to be among the best designs of any U.S. coin. Matte proof coins were specially struck for collectors from 1913 to 1917 at the Philadelphia mint.

There was a type change in mid-1913 when the mound on the reverse was changed mid-year to an incuse flat plane because of wear problems. Thus, with the three mints, there are six types of 1913 nickels. There was no change to the date placement, so the dates on many early buffalo nickels have been completely worn off. As the series progressed, the date was gradually struck with larger and bolder numerals, which ameliorated the problem.

Often, dateless buffalo nickels can have their dates "restored" by applying a ferric chloride solution to the date area. From a collecting standpoint this destroys the value of the coin, taking it from "very worn" to "very worn and chemically damaged". In addition to weak dates, many buffalo nickels — especially those minted in Denver or San Francisco in the 1920s — are found with the horn and/or tail on the reverse, or the word "LIBERTY" on the obverse, badly struck and lacking complete detail. The 1926-D is particularly noted for these defects.

Four valuable varieties exist in the series. In 1918 some of the Denver mint nickels were minted from a redated 1917 die. The resulting 1918/7-D overdate is a rare and sought-after coin. This previously occurred with 1914 Philadelphia strikes, showing traces of a 3 under the last digit in the date. Also, in 1937 excessive polishing of a Denver mint die following a die clash removed most of the right foreleg, leading to the famous "three legged" variety. One estimate is that the number released may be only about 20,000, and specimens in higher grades are particularly valuable. Collectors should be cautious when purchasing this variety since counterfeits have been extensively produced. A 1936-D "3½ leg" variety also exists. However, the most valuable is the 1916 doubled die. The most well preserved examples of this variety trade for between $250,000 and $500,000 when they appear at public auction.

Some 1.2 billion buffalo nickels were issued during the coin's 26-year lifespan, and only one date/mintmark combination (the 1926-S) had a mintage of less than 1 million. No buffalo nickels were made in 1922, 1932, or 1933. The lack of 1922 nickels, as well as some other denominations, resulted from the Mint's placing a priority on silver dollar production due to an economic recession that year, and no nickels — and many other denominations — were issued in 1932 or 1933 due to the Great Depression.

Because some consider this design to be one of the best ever used in American coinage, the Mint has reused the design on the 2001 commemorative buffalo dollar and the American Buffalo gold bullion coin, a series that began in 2006.

Jefferson nickel (1938–2003)

Jefferson-Nickel-Unc-Obv.jpg
US Nickel Reverse.jpg
Houdon's marble bust (1789) of Jefferson was the basis of Schlag's image.

The Jefferson nickel, designed by Felix Schlag in a Mint-sponsored contest, was minted beginning in 1938. In 1966 his initials were added to the base of the bust. The obverse features a left-facing profile of Thomas Jefferson adapted from a marble bust sketched from life by French sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon. The reverse features an elevation image of Jefferson's Virginia estate, Monticello. The steps on the building were slightly modified during 1939, but otherwise the design did not change until 2003. All three mints turned out vast quantities of Jefferson nickels until 1954, when San Francisco halted production for 14 years, resuming only from 1968 to 1970, although it still produces proof coins. Since 1970 all nickels for circulation have been minted at Philadelphia and Denver. Mint marks may be found on the reverse, in the right field between Monticello and the rim, on nickels from 1938 to 1964. From 1965 to 1967 no mint marks were used regardless of where the coins were struck, and beginning in 1968, the mint mark was moved to the obverse, just below the date, where it remains today. In 1980, the Philadelphia mint began using a "P" mint mark on all nickels. This design is by far the most common currently in circulation.

Wartime nickels

From mid-1942 to 1945, so-called Wartime composition nickels were created. These coins are 56% copper, 35% silver and 9% manganese.[3] The only other U.S. coins to use manganese are the Sacagawea and presidential dollars. These coins are usually a bit darker than regular nickels, said to be due to their manganese content (as was true of many British coins minted from 1920 through 1947). However, carefully protected proof sets of these coins are difficult to tell from the standard alloy.

Wartime nickel featuring the large mint mark P

The wartime nickel features the largest mint mark to appear a United States coin, located above Monticello's dome on the reverse. This mark was a large D, S, or P, as appropriate for each mint. Nickels of this series minted in Philadelphia have the unique distinction of being the only U.S. coins minted prior to 1979 to bear a P mint mark. There are eleven coins in the regular series (plus a moderately scarce overdate, the 1943/2-P), and they can be purchased in circulated condition at low cost. When the price of silver rose in the 1960s the "war nickels" quickly disappeared from circulation.

An unofficial variety of the wartime coin dated 1944 was made in 1954 when counterfeit nickels were produced by Francis LeRoy Henning of Erial, New Jersey. He had previously been arrested for counterfeiting $5 bills. The 1944 nickels were quickly spotted since Henning neglected to add the large mintmark.[4] He also made counterfeit nickels dated 1939, 1946, 1947, and possibly 1953 as well as one other unidentified date.[5] It is estimated that more than 100,000 of Henning's nickels reached circulation. These can still be found in pocket change, and there is a thriving collectors' market for them, although owning a counterfeit is technically illegal. Henning dumped another 200,000 nickels in Copper Creek, New Jersey, of which only 14,000 were recovered. Another 200,000 are thought to have been dumped in the Schuylkill River. When caught, Henning was sentenced to 3 years in jail, and was required to pay a $5,000 fine.

Collectibles

Jefferson nickels are one of the easiest sets of any denomination to collect from circulation. One can still find coins from the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s in circulation on occasion. Even Buffalo and Liberty nickels can turn up once in a while, however, Shield nickels are almost never found because the diameter is smaller than on the other nickels, allowing it to be missed in the rolling process. Many Jefferson nickel collectors look for fully struck steps on the image of Monticello. Premiums are paid for coins with five or six full steps. These are fairly rare. Proofs and special mint set coins (1965–1967), as well as matte proofs, exist, and have value above circulating coinage. Specialists look for the number of discernible steps on the façade of Monticello, and those on which the steps are fully struck are known as "Full Step" Jefferson Nickels. When looking for full step Jefferson nickels, often the area of steps below the third pillar of Monticello will be the weakest. The 1950-D along with the 1938-S and 1939-D nickels are the key dates in the series, the war nickels have become more valuable with the increased silver prices. While some argue that the 1950-D nickel is readily available (because collectors hoarded them due to the announced low mintage), the 1950-D still commands relatively significant prices, especially if highly graded by a reputable grading service. The 1939-D is even more challenging to locate in Brilliant Uncirculated state.

Westward Journey nickel series

Throughout the 20th century, Congress allowed the U.S. Mint to make changes to coinage every 25 years without specific authorization. Since the 1990s the government had begun to respond to lobbying in favor of changing coinage design. This led to the State Quarters series and in 2002, a proposal to change 2003 nickels as well. Initial proposals by the Mint had a new obverse based on a portrait by Gilbert Stuart, and a reverse with an American Indian and a bald eagle facing west.

Congressman Eric Cantor (R-Virginia), the Chief Deputy Majority Whip for his party, objected to the lack of consultation with Congress about their proposal, and was particularly concerned that Monticello, located near his district, would not return to the reverse of the nickel in 2006. Some raised the issue that the Mint's proposed new reverse did not relate specifically enough to Lewis and Clark or the Louisiana Purchase, the events that the proposed changes were meant to commemorate. This led to the enactment of Public Law 108-15, the American 5-cent Coin Design Continuity Act, in 2003. This act, originally dubbed the Keep Monticello on the Nickel Act by Cantor, modified the United States Code to require the return to a depiction of Monticello starting in January 2006, and permanently eliminate the Mint's right to change it again without Congressional approval. The delay and controversy meant the Mint ran out of time to change the reverse of the nickel in 2003.

Upon passage of Cantor's new law, the Mint proposed the Westward Journey nickel series. The series consisted of two new reverse designs for 2004 and two for 2005.

2004 designs

Westward Journey Nickel #1, Reverse
Westward Journey Nickel #2, Reverse

In 2004, the reverse of the nickel changed, with two different designs during the year. The first design, placed into circulation on March 1, 2004, featured a design based upon a rendition of the original Indian Peace Medal commissioned for Lewis and Clark's expedition. It was designed by Norman E. Nemeth.

In late 2004, the reverse changed again to feature a view of Lewis and Clark's keelboat in full sail that transported members of the Corps of Discovery expedition and their supplies through the rivers of the Louisiana Territory. This design depicts Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in full uniform, standing in the bow of the keelboat. This nickel was designed by Al Maletsky.

2005 designs

2005 Nickel, Obverse
Westward Journey Nickel #3, Reverse
Westward Journey Nickel #4, Reverse

On September 16, 2004, the U.S. Mint unveiled its new designs for 2005. They had been chosen by John W. Snow on July 22, 2004 but were not disclosed to the public. The U.S. Mint revealed that the Felix Schlag depiction of Thomas Jefferson was being done away with in favor of a more modern depiction of Jefferson. The new obverse of the Jefferson nickel was designed by Joe Fitzgerald and engraved by Don Everhart II. Its circulation began on February 28, 2005.

Also unveiled on September 16, 2004 were two new reverses. A depiction of the American bison temporarily returned to the reverse after a 67-year absence. The new reverse was designed by Jamie N. Franki and engraved by Norman E. Nemeth. The U.S. Mint had been lobbied to include the American bison on the nickel in the hope of keeping the public interested in its continuing recovery after nearly being hunted to extinction after the completion of the transcontinental railroad.

The final Westward Journey nickel reverse was designed by Joe Fitzgerald and engraved by Donna Weaver. It depicts the Pacific Ocean and the words from William Clark's diary upon reaching it. In a controversial move, the U.S. Mint decided to amend Clark's actual words. He had originally written, "Ocian in view! O! The Joy!" but as the spelling "ocian" is nonstandard (and might have led to hoarding in the mistaken belief that the Mint had made an error that would soon be corrected), the U.S. Mint decided to modify it to "ocean."[6]

Forward-facing Jefferson (2006–present)

In 2006, the nickel returned to using Felix Schlag's Monticello design on a newly cast reverse, while the obverse features a new forward-facing portrait of Jefferson, based on the 1800 Rembrandt Peale painting of Jefferson.[7] It is the first U.S. circulating coin that features the image of a President facing forward. The new obverse was designed by Jamie Franki. The word Liberty is shown in Jefferson's own handwriting, as it was on the 2005 Westward Journey nickels.[8][9]

Felix Schlag's initials now appear on the reverse. They are located to the right of Monticello, where the mint mark was located until 1964.

Metal value

The US Mint specifies that this coin weigh 5.000 g and be composed of 25% nickel (1.250 g) and the balance of copper (3.750 grams).[10] On June 13, 2008, the value of the metal in a United States nickel coin reached $0.06013, a 20.3% premium over its face value.[11] This was due to the rising price of copper and nickel and the decline in value of the United States dollar.[12] In an attempt to avoid losing large quantities of circulating nickels to melting, the United States Mint had earlier introduced new interim rules on December 14, 2006 criminalizing the melting and export of cents and nickels. Violators of these rules can be punished with a fine of up to $10,000, five years imprisonment, or both.[13] See Title 31, United States Code Section 5111(d).[14] The rules were finalized on April 17, 2007.[15]

As of March 14, 2011, the value of the metal in a nickel is $0.0665396, 33.07% more than its face value.[16]

As of April 10, 2011, the value of metal in a nickel is approximately 7.1 cents at current spot prices for constituent metals, a 40%+ premium over face value.

Costs of producing and shipping 5-cent (nickel) coins during fiscal year 2007 was $0.0953 per U.S. nickel. Canada, which produced a "nickel" of nearly pure (99.9%) nickel starting in 1922 (except during the war years of 1942–45 and 1951–54), switched to cupro-nickel in 1982. Since late in 2000, this denomination is usually produced in plated steel. The metal value of some of these older coins is greater than their face value. In a similar move, on February 8, 2008, a bill was introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives that would allow for changing the metal components in U.S. coins due to the rising cost of commodities and the declining U.S. Dollar.[17] No such bill has yet been signed into law.

The silver content of nickels minted during World War II from 1942 to 1945 is 1.75 g (0.062 oz), and is valued at about $2.86 based on the closing price of silver on April 22, 2011.

Mintage quantities

Shield nickel (1866–1883)

  • 1866 P - 14,742,500
  • 1867 P with Rays - 2,019,000
  • 1867 P without Rays - 28,890,500
  • 1868 P - 28,817,000
  • 1869 P - 16,395,000
  • 1870 P - 4,806,000
  • 1871 P - 561,000
  • 1872 P - 6,036,000
  • 1873 P closed 3 - 436,050
  • 1873 P open 3 and large over small 3 - 4,113,950
  • 1874 P - 3,538,000
  • 1875 P - 2,097,000
  • 1876 P - 2,530,000
  • 1877 P - 510+ (proof)
  • 1878 P - 2,350 (proof)
  • 1879 P - 25,900
  • 1880 P - 16,000
  • 1881 P - 68,800
  • 1882 P - 11,47,000
  • 1883 P - 1,451,000

Liberty Head V nickel (1883–1913)

  • 1883 P without CENTS - 5,474,300
  • 1883 P with CENTS - 16,026,200
  • 1884 P - 11,270,000
  • 1885 P - 1,472,700
  • 1886 P - 3,330,290
  • 1887 P - 15,263,652
  • 1888 P - 10,720,483
  • 1889 P - 15,881,361
  • 1890 P - 16,259,272
  • 1891 P - 16,834,350
  • 1892 P - 11,699,642
  • 1893 P - 13,370,195
  • 1894 P - 5,413,132
  • 1895 P - 9,979,884
  • 1896 P - 8,842,920
  • 1897 P - 20,428,735
  • 1898 P - 12,532,087
  • 1899 P - 26,029,031
  • 1900 P - 27,255,995
  • 1901 P - 26,480,213
  • 1902 P - 31,489,579
  • 1903 P - 28,006,725
  • 1904 P - 21,404,984
  • 1905 P - 29,827,276
  • 1906 P - 38,613,725
  • 1907 P - 39,214,800
  • 1908 P - 22,686,177
  • 1909 P - 11,590,526
  • 1910 P - 30,169,353
  • 1911 P - 39,559,372
  • 1912 P - 26,236,714
  • 1912 D - 8,474,000
  • 1912 S - 238,000
  • 1913 P - 5

Indian Head (or Buffalo nickel) (1913–1938)

  • 1913 P var. 1 - 30,992,000
  • 1913 D var. 1 - 5,337,000
  • 1913 S var. 1 - 2,105,000
  • 1913 P var. 2 - 29,858,700
  • 1913 D var. 2 - 4,156,000
  • 1913 S var. 2 - 1,209,000
  • 1914 P - 20,665,738
  • 1914 D - 3,912,000
  • 1914 S - 3,470,000
  • 1915 P - 20,987,270
  • 1915 D - 7,569,000
  • 1915 S - 1,505,000
  • 1916 P - 63,498,066
  • 1916 D - 13,333,000
  • 1916 S - 11,860,000
  • 1917 P - 51,424,019
  • 1917 D - 9,910,000
  • 1917 S - 4,193,000
  • 1918 P - 32,068,314
  • 1918 D - 8,362,000
  • 1918 S - 4,882,000
  • 1919 P - 60,868,000
  • 1919 D - 8,006,000
  • 1919 S - 7,521,000
  • 1920 P - 63,093,000
  • 1920 D - 9,418,000
  • 1920 S - 9,689,000
  • 1921 P - 10,663,000
  • 1921 S - 1,557,000
  • 1923 P - 35,715,000
  • 1923 S - 6,142,000
  • 1924 P - 21,620,000
  • 1924 D - 5,258,000
  • 1924 S - 1,437,000
  • 1925 P - 35,565,100
  • 1925 D - 4,450,000
  • 1925 S - 6,256,000
  • 1926 P - 44,693,000
  • 1926 D - 5,638,000
  • 1926 S - 970,000
  • 1927 P - 37,981,000
  • 1927 D - 5,730,000
  • 1927 S - 3,430,000
  • 1928 P - 23,411,000
  • 1928 D - 6,436,000
  • 1928 S - 6,936,000
  • 1929 P - 36,446,000
  • 1929 D - 8,370,000
  • 1929 S - 7,754,000
  • 1930 P - 22,849,000
  • 1930 S - 5,435,000
  • 1931 S - 1,200,000
  • 1934 P - 20,213,003
  • 1934 D - 7,480,000
  • 1935 P - 58,264,000
  • 1935 D - 12,092,000
  • 1935 S - 10,300,000
  • 1936 P - 119,001,420
  • 1936 D - 24,814,000
  • 1936 S - 14,930,000
  • 1937 P - 79,485,769
  • 1937 D - 17,826,000
  • 1937 S - 5,635,000
  • 1938 D - 7,020,000

Jefferson profile nickels, 1938–2003

  • 1938 P - 19,496,000
  • 1938 D - 5,376,000
  • 1938 S - 4,105,000
  • 1939 P - 120,615,000
  • 1939 P Doubled "MONTICELLO" and "FIVE CENTS" - Unknown
  • 1939 D - 3,514,000
  • 1939 S - 6,630,000
  • 1940 P - 176,485,000
  • 1940 D - 43,540,000
  • 1940 S - 39,690,000
  • 1941 P - 203,265,000
  • 1941 D - 53,432,000
  • 1941 S - 43,445,000
  • 1942 P - 49,789,000
  • 1942 D - 13,938,000

"War nickels" (35% silver, large mintmark above Monticello), 1942–1945

  • 1942 P - 57,900,000
  • 1942 S - 32,900,000
  • 1943 P - 271,165,000
  • 1943 D - 15,294,000
  • 1943 S - 104,060,000
  • 1944 P - 119,150,000
  • 1944 D - 32,309,000
  • 1944 S - 21,640,000
  • 1945 P - 119,408,100
  • 1945 D - 37,158,000
  • 1945 S - 58,939,000

pre-war composition resumes

  • 1946 P - 161,116,000
  • 1946 D - 45,292,200
  • 1946 S - 13,560,000
  • 1947 P - 95,000,000
  • 1947 D - 37,822,000
  • 1947 S - 24,720,000
  • 1948 P - 89,348,000
  • 1948 D - 44,734,000
  • 1948 S - 11,300,000
  • 1949 P - 60,652,000
  • 1949 D - 36,498,000
  • 1949 S - 9,716,000
  • 1950 P - 9,796,000
  • 1950 D - 2,630,030
  • 1951 P - 28,552,000
  • 1951 D - 20,460,000
  • 1951 S - 7,776,000
  • 1952 P - 63,988,000
  • 1952 D - 30,638,000
  • 1952 S - 20,572,000
  • 1953 P - 46,644,000
  • 1953 D - 59,878,600
  • 1953 S - 19,210,900
  • 1954 P - 47,684,050
  • 1954 D - 117,183,060
  • 1954 S - 29,384,000
  • 1955 P - 7,888,000
  • 1955 D - 74,464,100
  • 1956 P - 35,216,000
  • 1956 D - 67,222,940
  • 1957 P - 38,408,000
  • 1957 D - 136,828,900
  • 1958 P - 17,088,000
  • 1958 D - 168,249,120
  • 1959 P - 27,248,000
  • 1959 D - 160,738,240
  • 1960 P - 55,416,000
  • 1960 D - 192,582,180
  • 1961 P - 73,640,100
  • 1961 D - 229,342,760
  • 1962 P - 97,384,000
  • 1962 D - 280,195,720
  • 1963 P - 178,851,645
  • 1963 D - 276,829,460
  • 1964 P - 1,028,622,762
  • 1964 D - 1,787,297,160

(Nickels dated 1964 were still being minted well into 1966, contributing to their very high mintages. Mintmarks were temporarily suspended 1965–1967.)

  • 1965 - 136,131,380
  • 1966 - 156,208,283
  • 1967 - 107,325,800
  • 1968 D - 91,227,880
  • 1968 S - 100,396,004
  • 1969 D - 202,807,500
  • 1969 S - 120,075,000
  • 1970 D - 515,485,380
  • 1970 S - 238,832,004
  • 1971 P - 106,884,000
  • 1971 D - 316,144,800
  • 1972 P - 202,036,000
  • 1972 D - 351,694,600
  • 1973 P - 384,396,000
  • 1973 D - 361,405,000
  • 1974 P - 601,752,000
  • 1974 D - 277,373,000
  • 1975 P - 181,772,000
  • 1975 D - 401,875,300
  • 1976 P - 367,124,000
  • 1976 D - 563,964,147
  • 1977 P - 585,376,000
  • 1977 D - 297,313,422
  • 1978 P - 391,308,000
  • 1978 D - 313,092,780
  • 1979 P - 463,188,000
  • 1979 D - 325,867,672
  • 1980 P - 593,004,000
  • 1980 D - 502,323,448
  • 1981 P - 657,504,000
  • 1981 D - 364,801,843
  • 1982 P - 292,355,000
  • 1982 D - 373,726,544
  • 1983 P - 561,615,000
  • 1983 D - 536,726,276
  • 1984 P - 746,769,000
  • 1984 D - 517,675,146
  • 1985 P - 647,114,962
  • 1985 D - 459,747,446
  • 1986 P - 536,883,483
  • 1986 D - 361,819,140
  • 1987 P - 371,499,481
  • 1987 D - 410,590,604
  • 1988 P - 771,360,000
  • 1988 D - 663,771,652
  • 1989 P - 898,812,000
  • 1989 D - 570,842,474
  • 1990 P - 661,636,000
  • 1990 D - 663,938,503
  • 1991 P - 614,104,000
  • 1991 D - 436,496,678
  • 1992 P - 399,552,000
  • 1992 D - 450,565,113
  • 1993 P - 412,076,000
  • 1993 D - 406,084,135
  • 1994 P - 722,160,000
  • 1994 D - 715,762,110
  • 1995 P - 774,156,000
  • 1995 D - 888,112,000
  • 1996 P - 829,332,000
  • 1996 D - 817,736,000
  • 1997 P - 470,972,000
  • 1997 D - 466,640,000
  • 1998 P - 688,292,000
  • 1998 D - 635,380,000
  • 1999 P - 1,212,000,000
  • 1999 D - 1,066,720,000
  • 2000 P - 846,240,000
  • 2000 D - 1,509,520,000
  • 2001 P - 675,704,000
  • 2001 D - 627,680,000
  • 2002 P - 539,280,000
  • 2002 D - 691,200,000
  • 2003 P - 441,840,000
  • 2003 D - 383,040,000

Westward Journey nickel series, 2004–2005

  • 2004 P medal - 361,440,000
  • 2004 D medal - 372,000,000
  • 2004 P keelboat - 366,720,000
  • 2004 D keelboat - 344,880,000
  • 2005 P bison - 448,320,000
  • 2005 D bison - 487,680,000
  • 2005 P ocean - 394,080,000
  • 2005 D ocean - 411,120,000

Jefferson forward nickels, 2006–present

  • 2006 P - 693,120,000
  • 2006 D - 809,280,000
  • 2007 P - 571,680,000
  • 2007 D - 626,160,000
  • 2008 P - 279,840,000
  • 2008 D - 345,600,000
  • 2009 P - 39,840,000
  • 2009 D - 46,800,000
  • 2010 P - 260,640,000
  • 2010 D - 229,920,000
  • 2011 P - 15,840,000 (through January)
  • 2011 D - 77,280,000 (through January)

See also

References

  1. ^ The United States Mint. Web. 21 Mar. 2010. http://www.usmint.gov/mint_programs/circulatingCoins/index.cfm?action=CircNickel.
  2. ^ Homren, Wayne (7 May 2000). "Who's Joshing Who?". E-Sylum (Numismatic Bibliomania Society) 3 (19). http://www.coinbooks.org/club_nbs_esylum_v03n19.html. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  3. ^ Kuwahara, Raymond T.; Skinner III, Robert B.; Skinner Jr., Robert B. (2001). "Nickel coinage in the United States". Western Journal of Medicine 175 (2): 112–114. doi:10.1136/ewjm.175.2.112. PMC 1071501. PMID 11483555. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1071501. 
  4. ^ "Henning Counterfeit Nickel (1944 No P)". The Numismatic Enquirer. 6 December 2008. http://www.numismaticenquirer.com/TNE/Henning_Counterfeit_Nickel.html. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  5. ^ Homren, Wayne (28 March 2004). "Counterfeiting of Circulating Coins". E-Sylum (Numismatic Bibliomania Society) 7 (13): article 9. http://www.coinbooks.org/esylum_v07n13a09.html. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  6. ^ Liberman, Mark (2004-09-26). "Language Log: Ocian in view! O! The Joy!". University of Pennsylvania. http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/001496.html. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  7. ^ "Circulating Coins - Nickel". The United States Mint. http://www.usmint.gov/mint_programs/circulatingCoins/index.cfm?action=CircNickel. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  8. ^ "2006 Westward Journey Nickel Series". The United States Mint. 2009. http://www.usmint.gov/mint_programs/nickel/index.cfm?flash=no&action=returnToMonticello. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  9. ^ "A First for the United States: Jefferson to Face Forward on 2006 Nickel" (Press release). The United States Mint. 5 October 2005. http://www.usmint.gov/pressroom/index.cfm?action=press_release&ID=617. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  10. ^ United States Mint Coin Specifications
  11. ^ "Base Metals - Industrial Metals". Kitco. 2009. http://www.kitcometals.com. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  12. ^ Prices of copper and nickel
  13. ^ "United States Mint Moves to Limit Exportation & Melting of Coins" (Press release). The United States Mint. 14 December 2006. http://www.usmint.gov/pressroom/index.cfm?action=press_release&ID=724. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  14. ^ url=http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/uscode31/usc_sec_31_00005111----000-.html
  15. ^ "United States Mint Limits Exportation & Melting of Coins" (Press release). The United States Mint. 17 April 2007. http://www.usmint.gov/pressroom/index.cfm?action=press_release&ID=771. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  16. ^ "1946-2011 Jefferson Nickel Melt Value - Coinflation.com". Coinflation.com. 2011. http://www.coinflation.com/coins/1946-2007-Jefferson-Nickel-Value.html. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  17. ^ Bill Swindell (9 August 2007). "House lawmakers unveil bill to change coin composition". CongressDaily. National Journal. http://govexec.com/dailyfed/0807/080907cdpm2.htm?rss=getoday. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 

Further reading

  • Q. David Bowers. U.S. 3-cent and 5-cent Pieces. Wolfeboro, New Hampshire: Bowers & Merena Galleries, 1985
  • Annette R. Cohen & Ray M. Druley. The Buffalo Nickel. Arlington VA: Potomac Enterprises, 1979
  • Thomas C. Day. "Joseph Wharton and Nickel Coinage". The Numismatist, October 1987
  • Bill Fivaz. "Reverse Carvings on Buffalo Nickels". Nickel News, Winter 1987
  • Kevin Flynn, et al. The Authoritative Reference on Buffalo Nickels. Zyrus Press, 2007
  • Alan Herbert. "1943/1942-P War Nickel". PAK Newsletter, March 1978
  • Kenneth R. Hill. "The 1872 Small Date Over Large Date". Nickel News, Summer 1988
  • Robert W. Julian. "The Lowly Nickel". Coin World, March–April 1987
  • Tom LaMarre. "B. Max Mehl: The 1913 Nickel Man". Rare Coin Review, Spring 1987
  • David W. Lange. Complete Guide to Buffalo Nickels. 2nd edition. Virginia Beach: DLRC Press, 2000
  • Bernard Nagengast. The Jefferson Nickel Analyst. Sidney, Ohio: Bernard Nagengast, 1979
  • Bernard Nagengast. "Rarity of Full Step Jefferson Nickels". Nickel News, Summer/Fall 1988
  • Gloria Peters and Cynthia Mohon. The Complete Guide to Shield and Liberty Head Nickels Virginia Beach: DLRC Press, 1995
  • Delma K. Romines. Hobo Nickels. Newberry Park, California: Lonesome John Publishing Co., 1982
  • J.T. Stanton. "Doubling Your Fun with Jefferson Nickels." Nickel News, Fall 1987
  • Dwight H. Stuckey. The Counterfeit 1944 Jefferson Nickel. Charleston, South Carolina: Dwight Stuckey, 1982
  • Robert R. Van Ryzin. "Which Indian Really Modeled?" Numismatic News, February 6, 1990
  • Michael Wescott with Kendall Keck. The United States Nickel Five-Cent Piece: History and Date-by-Date Analysis. Wolfeboro, New Hampshire: Bowers & Merena Galleries, 1991
  • Jim Wrzesinski. "Errors on the U.S. War Nickel". Errorscope, September 1987

External links

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