- Fritz Reiner
Frederick Martin “Fritz” Reiner (
December 19, 1888– November 15, 1963) was a prominent conductor of operaand symphonic musicin the twentieth century.
Reiner was born in
Budapest, Hungaryto a secular Jewish family that resided in the Pest area of the city. After preliminary studies in law at his father’s urging, Reiner pursued the study of piano, piano pedagogy, and composition at the Franz Liszt Academy. During his last two years there his piano teacher was the young Béla Bartók. After early engagements at opera houses in Budapest and Dresdenwhere he worked closely with Richard Strauss, he moved to the United States of America in 1922 to take the post of Principal Conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra. He remained until 1931, having become a naturalized citizenin 1928, then began to teach at the Curtis Institutein Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where his pupils included Leonard Bernsteinand Lukas Foss. He conducted the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestrafrom 1938 to 1948 and made a few recordings with them for Columbia Records, then spent several years at the Metropolitan Opera, where he conducted a historic production of Strauss's "Salome" in 1949, with the Bulgarian soprano Ljuba Welitschin the title role, and the American premiere of Igor Stravinsky's " The Rake's Progress" in 1951. He also conducted and made a recording of the famous 1952 Metropolitan Opera production of Bizet's "Carmen", starring Rise Stevens. The production was telecast on closed circuit televisionthat year. At the time of his death he was preparing the Met's new production of Wagner’s " Götterdämmerung".
In 1947, Reiner appeared on camera in the film "Carnegie Hall", in which he conducted the
New York Philharmonic Orchestraas they accompanied violinist Jascha Heifetzin an abbreviated version of the first movement of Tchaikovsky's violin concerto. Years later, Heifetz and Reiner recorded the full Tchaikovsky concerto for RCA Victor in Chicago.
Even though his music-making had been American-focused since his arrival in Cincinnati, Reiner became active in Europe after the Second World War. When he became music director of the
Chicago Symphony Orchestrain 1953 he had a completely international reputation. By common consent, the ten years that he spent in Chicago mark the pinnacle of his career, and are best-remembered today through the many landmark, stereophonic recordings he made in Chicago's Orchestra Hall for RCA Victorfrom 1954 to 1962. His last concerts in Chicago were in the spring of 1963.
His last recording, released in a special "
Reader's Digest" boxed set, was a performance of Brahms' fourth symphony, recorded with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestrain London's Kingsway Hall. This recording was later reissued on LP by Quintessence and on CD by Chesky.
He also appeared with members of the Chicago Symphony in a series of telecasts on Chicago's
WGN-TVin 1953-54, and a later series of nationally-syndicated programs called "Music from Chicago". Some of these performances have been issued on DVD.
Reiner was married three times (one of them was a daughter of
Etelka Gerster) and fathered two daughters, as well as a third daughter out of wedlock. In his last years Reiner's health deteriorated as a result of a major heart attack he suffered in October 1960. He died in New York Cityat the age of 74.
Repertoire and Style
Reiner was especially noted as an interpreter of Strauss and Bartók and was often seen as a modernist in his musical taste; he and his compatriot
Joseph Szigeticonvinced Serge Koussevitzkyto commission the "Concerto for Orchestra" from Bartók. In reality, he had a very wide repertory and was known to admire Mozart's music above all else.
Reiner’s conducting technique was defined by its precision and economy, in the manner of
Arthur Nikischand Arturo Toscanini. It typically employed quite small gestures - it has been said that the beat indicated by the tip of his baton could be contained in the area of a postage stamp - although from the perspective of the players it was extremely expressive. The response he drew from orchestras was one of astonishing richness, brilliance, and clarity of texture. Igor Stravinskycalled the Chicago Symphony under Reiner "the most precise and flexible orchestra in the world"; it was more often than not achieved with tactics that bordered on the personally abusive.
Chicago musicians have spoken of Reiner's autocratic methods; a leading trumpeter told
National Public Radiothat Reiner often tested him and other musicians. Nevertheless, as Leonard Bernstein discovered, Reiner had a quick and rather sarcastic sense of humor. When Bernstein dared to call Reiner "Fritz" during a class at the Curtis Institute, Reiner quickly retorted, "Yes Mr. Bernstein?"
*cite book | last=Hart | first=Philip | title=Fritz Reiner: A Biography | location=Evanston, Illinois | publisher=Northwestern University Press | year=1994 | isbn=081011125X
*cite book | last=Morgan | first=Kenneth | title=Fritz Reiner: Maestro & Martinet | location=Urbana, Illinois | publisher=University of Illinois Press | year=2005 | isbn=0252029356
* [http://robertmeyer.wordpress.com/2007/10/09/fritz-reiner-conductor/ Fritz Reiner, Conductor from Robert Meyer, Musical Reminiscences]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,715271,00.html On Fritz Reiner marriage]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Fritz Reiner — (* 19. Dezember 1888 in Budapest; † 15. November 1963 in New York City) war ein amerikanischer Dirigent ungarischer Herkunft. Inhaltsverzeichnis … Deutsch Wikipedia
Fritz Reiner — Frederick Martin “Fritz” Reiner (19 de diciembre, 1888, Budapest 15 de noviembre, 1963, Nueva York) fue un director de orquesta estadounidense de origen húngaro. Uno de los grandes directores de orquesta de la tradición centroeuropea, después de… … Wikipedia Español
Fritz Reiner — Fritz Reiner, né le 19 décembre 1888 à Budapest et décédé le 15 novembre 1963 à New York, est un chef d orchestre hongrois naturalisé américain en 1928. Biographie Il étudie tout d abord le piano en … Wikipédia en Français
REINER, FRITZ — (1888–1963), conductor. Born in Budapest, Reiner was a student at the Liszt Academy, Budapest, where he studied the piano with Bartók. He worked as répétiteur at the Vigopera, where he made his conducting début in Carmen at the age of 19. He… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Reiner — bezeichnet: einen männlichen Vornamen, siehe Rainer eine Form des Westernsattels, siehe Reitsattel#Westernsattel Reiner ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Alexander Reiner (1885–1960), deutscher Zahnarzt, SS Führer und KZ Kommandant Anna… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Reiner — may refer to: *Reiner, Bishop of St Asaph Late 12th century Welsh bishop *Carl Reiner American film director, screenwriter and actor *Fritz Reiner Early 20th century American conductor *Markus Reiner Engineer and scientist one of the founders of… … Wikipedia
Fritz Busch — in Stuttgart. Aufnahme von 1919. Fritz Busch (* 13. März 1890 in Siegen; † 14. September 1951 in London) war ein deutscher Dirigent. Leben Fritz Busch studierte bei Fritz Steinbach in … Deutsch Wikipedia
Fritz Busch — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Busch. Fritz Busch … Wikipédia en Français
fritz — /frits/, Informal. n. 1. on the fritz, not in working order: Our TV went on the fritz last night. v.i. 2. fritz out, to become inoperable. [1900 05; of obscure orig.] * * * (as used in expressions) Haber Fritz Kreisler Fritz Lang Fritz Reiner… … Universalium
Fritz — /frits/, n. 1. Older Slang (sometimes offensive). a German, esp. a German soldier. 2. a male given name. [1910 15; < G; common nickname for Friedrich] * * * (as used in expressions) Haber Fritz Kreisler Fritz Lang Fritz Reiner Fritz Strassmann… … Universalium