- Torah Umesorah - National Society for Hebrew Day Schools
Torah Umesorah - National Society for Hebrew Day Schools (or Torah Umesorah תורה ומסורה) is an Orthodox Jewish organization that fosters and promotes
Torah-based Jewish religious education in North Americaby supporting and developing a loosely affiliated network of 700 independent private Jewish day schools catering to more than 200,000 children, yeshivas and kollelim in every city with a significant population of Jews. The fomer leader of Torah Umesorah was its executive vice-president Rabbi Joshua Fishman, a disciple of Rabbi Yitzchok Hutner(1906-1980) who brought him into the organization when Rabbi Hutner was on its rabbinical advisory board. Rabbi Fishman retired in June 2007, and Rabbi Dovid Nojowitz replaced him.
The organization was established in
New York Cityin 1944 at a time when the United States was at war with the Axis Powersand Europe's Jews were facing the genocideof the Holocaustby the Nazis. Yet it was precisely at that time that the call went out, challenging the prevailing mood of the times, to establish a totally new network of Jewish day schools across North America.
The originator and leading personality of this new idea was the Hungarian-born
Rabbi Shraga Feivel Mendlowitz(who insisted in being addressed as "Mr. Mendlowitz") who was then serving as the head of the Yeshiva Torah Vodaasin Brooklyn. He was supported, encouraged and guided by a group of colleagues (mostly leading Eastern European-born and educated rosh yeshivas ["deans"] ), such as Rabbi Aharon Kotler(1890-1962) the rosh yeshiva of the Lakewood yeshivain New Jersey, Rabbi Joseph Soloveitchik(1903-1993) of Yeshiva University, and other leading rabbis.
Planning Torah Umesorah's contributions to Jewish education
The founders of Torah Umesorah wanted to establish a different model of education that was not based on the up-till-then accepted practice whereby Jewish parents sent their children to government non-sectarian
public schools during the day and then in the afternoons or on Sundays would send their children to Chederor Talmud Torah-type Jewishly-run schools as had once been done in Europe -- but which now in the modern New World were failing to transmit Judaismin a compelling and lasting manner to students who arrived tired in the afternoons, and who were also subjected to the secularizing forces in general American society and culture in public school, on the street, and at home.
Thus the rabbis envisioned the birth of dual-
curriculum Jewish day schools that would provide both a Judaic (Jewish or Torah religious) education for half the day and a good secular education all under one roof in one building or complex. Ideally, each new school was to be guided by an ordained rabbi who would serve as the headmaster or principal and who would also recruit a "general studies" associate principal (also known as the "English principal"), preferably someone who was also loyal to the traditions of Judaism, who would then recruit, assist, supervise and guide teachers who would be teaching the same secular subjects taught in the public schools.
Factors favoring Torah Umesorah's establishment
However, there were enough parents who were sold on the idea particularly as the shock of the enormity of
the Holocaust(of World War II) set in and since over half a million United States Jews had served in the US armed forces and witnessed the horrors of anti-Semitismfor themselves many were sympathetic to the rabbis' calls for a moderate Jewish education, at least until the Bar Mitzvahage (12-13) of their children.
Another important factor at the time was the highly emotional Jewish pride that was felt by many Jews following the establishment of the new State of
Israelwith the United States being the first to recognize the new Jewish state. Many American Jews now felt that they needed to provide the means for their children to learn the Hebrew languageconnected with the Hebrew Biblethe core of Judaism, even teach Religious Zionismthat would connect the children and their families with pride in Israel, and simultaneously not neglect a secular education as citizens of the United States living in an open society, with hopes and plans for attending collegein the future as well.
The new Jewish days schools were seen as the perfect means to serve as the educational vehicles to accomplish the new goals of all-day Jewish schooling -- or, all-day schooling under Jewish religious auspices -- whereas in the past the Cheders and Talmud Torahs were judged to be failures because they did not manage to adequately inspire and prepare the Jewish children who attended them for Jewish religious adulthood. (Once Torah Umesorah was established, and its affiliated schools were attracting students, the same criticism would be leveled at parents who withdrew their children as they reached adolescence and were then sent to government-run public school high schools rather than making the sacrifices of attending Jewish high schools.)
Other Orthodox efforts
The organization was set up at a time when another major Orthodox group, the Hasidic Chabad-Lubavitch movement under Rabbi
Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn(1880-1950) began to establish its own North American network of after Rabbi J.I. Schneersohn's arrival in the United States in 1940. Subsequently this spurred-on those not affiliated with Chabad, as they began a parallel process of recruiting students and establishing Jewish schools in whichever Jewish communities they could do so.
New York- New Jerseymetropolitan area, particularly in many areas of Brooklyn, various Hasidic and Haredi groups (such as Satmar, Bobov, Vizhnitz and many others) attracted many new supporters for yeshivaeducation that was more intensive than the Jewish day school model being promoted by Torah Umesorah to the American heartland.
The impetus came largely from Holocaust survivors who arrived in the United States during the 1940s and 1950s (such as the Lithuanian
Mir yeshiva) who had no wish to emulate the educational goals of secular (Jewish) society, feeling that they had been betrayed by the outside world during the Holocaust. They therefore responded to calls to send their children to yeshivas (for the boys) and Bais Yaakovs (for the girls) that barely provided any secular education beyond the "3Rs" ("reading, writing and arithmetic") with most of the time devoted entirely to Talmudand rabbinical literature(for the boys) and study of Tanakhand Jewish laws and customs (for the girls) all combined with fervent and intense Jewish worship. The new institutions thrived in their own right and mostly followed the guidelines of their own rosh yeshivas and rebbes who did not look to Torah Umesorah for any guidance. At times they may have asked Torah Umesorah for help with obtaining financial grants, but not with anything to do with curriculum issues.
Towards the latter part of the twentieth century, as those Torah Umesorah affiliated schools that aligned themslves with Modern Orthodoxy grew disenchanted with Torah Umesorah's tilt towards
Haredi Judaism, a new trend developed whereby teachers and rabbis from the Haredi and Hasidic schools began to look to Torah Umesorah for training in improving classroom management, enhancing classroom disciplineand learning up-to-date teaching skills and techniques that they had not formally received during their yeshiva training.
First director and building Jewish day schools and Community Development
After its founding, Torah Mesorah appointed a full time Director in 1946, someone with an academic degree, Dr.
Joseph Kaminetskywho was given the mandate to fulfill the vision of the founding rabbis.
When Dr. Joseph Kaminetsky became the professional head of Torah Umesorah, the National Society for Hebrew Day Schools there were very few
Jewish day schools let alone authentic yeshivas or Bais Yaakovschools in North America. Whereas by the end of the twentieth century there were over 600 yeshivas and day schools in the United States and Canada with over Jewish 170,000 students.The communinty development end of Torah Umesorahis run by Rabbi Nate Segal and David Merkin toward establishing and strengthening Jewish infastructure and communities all through North America.
plit with the Modern Orthodox
By the 1980s and 1990s there was a split in the movement when the Modern Orthodox community pushed for the establishment of day-school type high schools. However because Torah Umesorah is guided by a rabbinical board of advisers who are also the core of the Haredi
Agudath Israel of Americarabbinic leadership, they do not condone coeducationbeyond the eighth grade (some even earlier) and since almost all the Jewish day schools consist of both boys and girls as students, with most classes in Judaism conducted separately, who combine for the secular studies classes, the rabbis could therefore not give their approval to high schools run along such (co)educational lines they deemed to be against traditional Torah education ("chinuch"). The desired model for the rabbis and the rosh yeshivas who guide them is for boys who graduate eighth grade to continue in all-male traditional yeshivas (" Talmudical academies") and for the girls to study at Bais Yaakov("Beth Jacob") type schools. Almost all Modern Orthodox parents and communal leaders rejected this position and chose instead to create a network of Modern Orthodox Jewish day schools known as Association of Day Schools and Yeshiva High Schools(AMODS) affiliated and staffed by Yeshiva Universityand performing the same functions as Torah Umesorah.
In response to the new challenges, Torah Umesorah began to look toward other means to achieve its ends and adopted a strategy of encouraging
adult education. "Partners in Torah" matches day school educated Jews for study with less learned study partners in distant communities over the phone and, if possible, in person. There are several thousand active "partnerships" in this program.
In 2004 a division of Partners in Torah was launched in the United Kingdom - [http://phoneandlearn.org PaL (Phone and Learn)] matches Jews who want to learn more about their heritage with a friendly, knowledgeable tutor for an hour a week of Jewish learning and discussion over the phone.
Torah Umesorah has taken a leading role in breaking ground and finding the funding for the establishment of out-of-town
kollelim ("post-graduate" Talmudic schools) in any community that is willing to set up the infrastructure and host such efforts. Some of the young rabbisand rebbetzins (their wives) have then subsequently taken full- and part-time positions as Jewish educators in the local day schools, as well as opting to serve in local Orthodox synagogues as "pulpit rabbis" and in some instances even founding and developing new Jewish day schools and synagogues of their own, similar to the procedure that Chabadrabbis have utilized over the years.
Under Project SEED
yeshivastudents (boys and girls in their teens and early 20's) are recruited and sent on two to six-week summer trips to far-flung smaller Jewish communities, where they teach classes or supervise children in summer day-camps, which may or not be accrediated by a third party association such as the Western Association of Independent Campsor the American Camping Association. The experience is meant to benefit all participants by providing a Torah oriented experience in an environment where the campers and counselors are strictly separated by gender. Some of the girls are paid a stipend. All out-of-town girls receive an all-expense paid stay at their destination, which includes air-fare, room and board, trips, transportation, and nicely wrapped gifts.
* Publications for students, teachers, administrators, and principals
* Counseling for students and families
* Teacher training
* Annual conventions for rabbis who teach or are principals
* Job placement for rabbis and Jewish studies teachers.
* Teacher on-the-job training
* Principals organization, with professional training for outstanding candidates
Beth din("Jewish court of law") to resolve disputes
* Enrichment programs
* Financial assistance for some students
* Adult education via the Summer SEED program and Partners-in-Torah
* Help with establishing
kollels ("post-graduate Talmudic schools") and new Jewish day schools and yeshivas where called upon
* Tutoring services
col1 =; Judaism-related
Agudath Israel of America
Jewish day school
Relationships between Jewish religious movements
Solomon Schechter Day School Association*
Torah im Derech Eretz
Torah Umadda(the motto of Yeshiva University).
col2 =; Non-Jewish topics
* [http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Torah+Umesorah&btnG=Google+Search Torah Umesorah on Google]
* [http://www.e-chinuch.org/mwo/Publications/publicationscatalog.php3 Torah Umesorah Publications Catalog]
* [http://www.e-chinuch.org/ Creative Learning Pavilion, a Torah Umesorah project]
* [http://www.study42.org/main_pages/contacts.html Partners in Torah, adult Jewish education]
* [http://www.phoneandlearn.org PaL (Phone and Learn)]
* [http://www.jewishmediaresources.com/article/198/ Tribute to Dr. Joe Kaminetsky]
* [http://www.forward.com/issues/2002/02.06.07/news4.html 2002 dispute over leadership: "Orthodox Sage Surprises Top Council by Resigning"]
* [http://mschick.blogspot.com/2004/07/betrayal-of-jewish-day-schools.html Lack of non-Orthodox funding: "The Betrayal of Jewish Day Schools"]
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