- Little Blue Books
Little Blue Books are a series of small staple-bound books published by the Haldeman-Julius Publishing Company of
Girard, Kansas(1919-1978). They were extremely popular, and achieved a total of more than 300 million booklets sold over the series' lifetime. pg 265 of Susan Jacoby's "Freethinkers: a history of American secularism", 2004, ISBN-13: 978-0-8050-7776-6, ISBN 0-8050-7776-6. Published by Henry Holt and Company, LLC; cover design John Candell]
Emanuel Haldeman-Julius, a
socialistreformer and newspaperpublisher, and his wife, Marcet, set out to publish small low price paperback pocketbooks that were intended to sweep the ranks of the working class as well as the "educated" class. Their goal was to get works of literature, a wide range of ideas, common sense knowledge and various points of view out to as large an audience as possible. These books, at approximately 3 1/2 by 5 inches (8 1/2 by 12 3/4 cm) easily fit into a working man's back pocket or shirt pocket. The inspiration for the series were cheap ten cent paperback editions of various classic works that Haldeman-Julius had purchased as a 15 year old (the " Ballad of Reading Gaol" being especially enthralling). He would later write:cquote|It was winter, and I was cold, but I sat down on a bench and read that booklet straight through, without a halt, and never did I so much as notice that my hands were blue, that my wet nose was numb, and that my ears felt as hard as glass. Never until then, or since, did any piece of printed matter move me more deeply...I'd been lifted out of this world - and by a 10C booklet. I thought, at the moment, how wonderful it would be if thousands of such booklets could be made available."pg 28 of "The World of Haldeman-Julius", Emanuel Haldeman-Julius, 1960, published in New York; citation and quote taken from Susan Jacoby's "Freethinkers: a history of American secularism", 2004, ISBN-13: 978-0-8050-7776-6, ISBN 0-8050-7776-6. Published by Henry Holt and Company, LLC; cover design John Candell]
They purchased a publishing house in
Girard, Kansasin 1919 from their employer " Appeal to Reason", a socialist weekly which had seen better days and that Haldeman-Julius edited. Though the "Appeal to Reason" was not the influential newspaper it had been, its printing presses (and more importantly the 175,000 names on its subscriber lists) would prove to be crucial. Haldeman-Julius, before anything had even been printed, sent an appeal to the "Appeal to Reason" 's subscribers to send him a prepayment of $5; at 10 cents a pamphlet, he would then send them at staggered intervals 50 pamphlets which he would be able to print with the advanced monies. Things went very well:cquote|"Five thousand readers took me up, which meant I had $25,000 to work with. I hurried through the 50 titles (and they were good ones, too, for I haven't believed in trash at any time in my life) and got many letters expressing satisfaction with the venture. Encouraged, I announced a second batch of 50 titles, and called for $5 subscriptions...Meanwhile, the booklets were selling well to readers who hadn't subscribed for batches of 50." pg 30 of "The World of Haldeman-Julius", Emanuel Haldeman-Julius, 1960, published in New York; citation and quote taken from Susan Jacoby's "Freethinkers: a history of American secularism", 2004, ISBN-13: 978-0-8050-7776-6, ISBN 0-8050-7776-6. Published by Henry Holt and Company, LLC; cover design John Candell] They began printing these works (at a rate of 240,00 a day) on cheap pulp paper, stapled and bound with a blue or yellow paper cover that first sold for 25 cents apiece but quickly were dropped to only 5 cents. The name changed over the first few years, at times known as the People's Pocket Series, the Appeal Pocket Series, the Ten Cent Pocket Series and the one that took, Little Blue Books.
In just nine years the idea caught on all around the globe. The Little Blue Books were finding their ways into the pockets of laborers, scholars and the average citizen alike. The St. Louis Dispatch called Haldeman-Julius "the
Henry Fordof literature". Amongst the better known names of the day to support the Little Blue Books were Emperor Haile Selassieof Ethiopia, Admiral Richard Byrd, who took along a set to the South Pole, and Franklin P. Adamsof Information, Please!
Many bookstores kept a book rack stocked with many Little Blue Book titles, and their small size and low price made them especially popular with travelers and transient working people.
Louis L'Amourcites the Little Blue Books as a major source of his own early reading in his autobiography, " Education of a Wandering Man". Other writers who recall reading the series in their youth include Saul Bellow, Harlan Ellison, Jack Conroy, Ralph Ellison, and Studs Terkel.
The works covered were frequently classics of
Western literature: Goetheand Shakespeare were well represented, as were the works of the Ancient Greeks, and more modern writers like Voltaire, Emile Zola, H. G. Wells. Some of the topics the Little Blue Books covered were on the cutting edge of societal norms. Alongside books on making candy(#518 - "How to Make All Kinds of Candy" by Helene Paquin) and classic literature (#246 - Hamletby William Shakespeare) were ones exploring homosexuality(#692 - "Homo-Sexual Life" by William J Fielding) and agnosticviewpoints (#1500 - "Why I Am an Agnostic: Including Expressions of Faith from a Protestant a Catholic and a Jew" by Clarence Darrow). Shorter works from many popular authors such as Jack Londonand Henry David Thoreauwere published, as were a number of political tracts written by Robert Ingersoll or Haldeman-Julius himself. A young Will Durantwrote a series of Blue Books on philosophy which were republished in 1926 by Simon & Schusteras " The Story of Philosophy", a popular work that remains in print today.
Decline in popularity
World War II, the FBIunder J. Edgar Hooverviewed the Little Blue Books' inclusion of such subjects as socialism, atheism, and frank treatment of sexuality as a threat and put Haldeman-Julius on their enemies list. This caused a rapid decline in the number of bookstores carrying the Little Blue Books, and they slowly sank into obscurity by the 1950s, although still well remembered by older people who had read them in the 1920s and 1930s.
The works continued to be reprinted after Haldeman-Julius' drowning in 1951 and were sold by
mail orderby his son until the Girard printing plant and warehouse was destroyed by firein 1978.
Several complete collections are known to exist including one at
Pittsburg State University's Leonard H Axe Library.
*"The World of Haldeman-Julius", Emanuel Haldeman-Julius, 1960, published in New York
* [http://library.pittstate.edu/spcoll/ndxhjulius.html E. Haldeman-Julius Collection at Leonard Axe Library]
* [http://library.indstate.edu/about/units/rbsc/debs/bluebook.html Little Blue Book collection at Indiana State Library]
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