Kilmarnock

Kilmarnock

Coordinates: 55°36′40″N 4°29′45″W / 55.61106°N 4.49571°W / 55.61106; -4.49571

Kilmarnock
Scottish Gaelic: Cille Mheàrnaig [1]
Scots: Kilmarnock, Killie
KilmarnockSept2011Sunset.jpg
The Skyline of Kilmarnock in September 2011 at dusk
Kilmarnock is located in East Ayrshire
Kilmarnock

 Kilmarnock shown within East Ayrshire
Population 44,734 (2001 Census)
OS grid reference NS429381
Council area East Ayrshire
Lieutenancy area Ayrshire
Country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town KILMARNOCK
Postcode district KA1-KA3
Dialling code 01563
Police Strathclyde
Fire Strathclyde
Ambulance Scottish
EU Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament Kilmarnock and Loudoun
Scottish Parliament Kilmarnock and Loudoun
Central Scotland
Website http://www.east-ayrshire.gov.uk/
List of places: UK • Scotland •

Kilmarnock (Scottish Gaelic: Cille Mheàrnaig) is a large burgh in East Ayrshire, Scotland, with a population of 44,734.[2] It is the second largest town in Ayrshire.[3] The River Irvine runs through its eastern section, and the Kilmarnock Water passes through it, giving rise to the name 'Bank Street'.[4] Kilmarnock is often shortened to 'Killie', especially when it is referenced in a footballing situation.

Kilmarnock is the main town within East Ayrshire, and the East Ayrshire HQ is located on London Road in Kilmarnock, leading to the villages Crookedholm and Hurlford, which furthermore leads to Loudoun. Kilmarnock is the second largest town in Ayrshire, after only Ayr. Kilmarnock is most-notably known worldwide for its publications of the first Robert Burns book, which went onto be known as The Kilmarnock Edition, and is very rare these days. Aside, the distributed internationally whisky brand Johnnie Walker's is situated in the town, where it has been situated since the 19th century. Protest and backing from the Scottish Government took place in 2009, after Diageo, the owner of Johnnie Walker announced plans to close the bottling plant in the town after 289 years.[5][6][7][8][9]

Contents

History

Kilmarnock Cross in 1849.

The name comes from the Gaelic cill (church), and the name of Saint Marnoch or Mernoc who is also remembered in the name of Portmarnock in Ireland and Inchmarnock. It may come from the three Gaelic elements mo, 'my', Ernán (name of the saint) and the diminutive ag, giving Church of My Little Ernán. It is believed by some[who?] that the saint founded a church there in the 7th century. There are 12 Church of Scotland congregations in the town, plus other denominations. In 2005, the Reverend David W. Lacy, minister of the town's Henderson Church, was elected Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.

The core of the early town appears to have lain around what is now the Laigh Kirk (Low Church), although the oldest parts of the current building are no earlier than the 17th century, extending north and northwest. In 1668[citation needed] the town was largely destroyed by an accidental fire. About 120 families lost most of their possessions and were forced to live destitute in the fields surrounding the town. These tradespeople had no other way of making a living and had already been driven to the edge of poverty by having troops stationed with them as part of the anti-Covenanter measures. Parish churches throughout Scotland collected money for the relief of these homeless citizens.[10]

A comparatively modest settlement until the Industrial Revolution, Kilmarnock extended considerably from around 1800[citation needed] onwards. This resulted in formal, planned developments such as King Street, Portland Street, Saint Marnock Street and latterly John Finnie Street; the last often suggested as one of the finest Victorian planned streets in Scotland.

Areas of Kilmarnock

  • Altonhill
  • Annanhill
  • Barnweil
  • Beansburn
  • Bellfield
  • Bonnyton
  • Caprington
  • Crookedholm
  • Gargieston
  • Grange Estate
  • Hurlford
  • Hillhead
  • Howard Grange
  • Loanhead
  • Longpark
  • Kirkstyle
  • Knockinlaw
  • New Farm Loch
  • Onthank
  • Riccarton
  • Shortlees
  • Southcraig
  • Springhill
  • Tourhill
  • Townholm
  • Wardneuk
  • Wellpark

Economy

The skyline of Kilmarnock, shown here in July 2004

Kilmarnock's traditional industries were based around textiles and heavy engineering: e.g. locomotives (Andrew Barclay and Sons) from 1837, and valves (Glenfield and Kennedy), which are still in production. Now trading as Glenfield Valves.[citation needed]; and carpets (manufactured by Blackwood & Morton, Kilmarnock) from the early 20th century. The carpets manufactured in Kilmarnock were internationally known for their quality and intricacy since the late 19th century.[citation needed] Many locations around the world chose to install BMK carpets. The RMS Titanic was carpeted using carpets manufactured by Stoddard Carpets, the parent company and successor to BMK.[citation needed] Carpet-making finally ceased in Kilmarnock in early 2005.

The Foregate, is the centre of the Kilmarnock town centre

Archibald Finnie and his family lived at Springhill House (now a nursing home) near the Grange Academy. They owned many coal mines, pits and other companies in Springside and other places. John Finnie Street is named after one of the family. Shoes were also a major product for some time, with Saxone having a factory in the town on the site of where the Galleon Leisure Centre now stands. Kilmarnock had one of the earliest tram railways in the world, running to Troon over the (recently restored) Laigh Milton viaduct. The Glasgow and South Western Railway also set up their works here, producing nearly 400 locomotives by the time it was absorbed by the London, Midland and Scottish Railway in 1923. Some work continued, but heavy repairs were sent to St. Rollox. Locomotive repairs finished in 1952, and the works closed in 1959. Nevertheless locomotives are still made by Hunslett-Barclay, as well as the maintenance of existing diesel and electric multiple units.

From 1946 tractors were also built in Kilmarnock, with a large Massey-Harris factory present on the outskirts of the town. It later became Massey-Ferguson, before closing in 1978. Glenfield and Kennedy still survives albeit with a fraction of its former workforce, which at its height numbered in the thousands.

The Johnnie Walker bottling plant in Kilmarnock.

Kilmarnock is home to the Johnnie Walker brand of Scotch whisky. However the owner of Johnnie Walker, Diageo, has announced that they will be closing the bottling plant in the town by the end of 2011, thus ending a 189 year link with the whisky brand and the town.[11][12] In September 2009, owner Diageo confirmed the plant in Kilmarnock would close, despite local protests.[13] Originally known as Walker's Kilmarnock Whisky, the Johnnie Walker brand is a legacy left by John ‘Johnnie’ Walker after he started to sell whisky in his grocer’s shop in Ayrshire, Scotland. The brand became popular, but after Walker's death in 1857 it was his son Alexander Walker and grandson Alexander Walker II who were largely responsible for establishing the scotch as a popular brand. Under John Walker, whisky sales represented eight percent of the firm’s income; by the time Alexander was ready to pass on the company to his own sons, that figure had increased to between 90 and 95 percent. [14] Prior to 1860 it was illegal to sell blended whisky.[15] During that time John Walker sold a number of whiskies — notably his own Walker’s Kilmarnock. In 1865 John’s son Alexander produced their first blend, Walker’s Old Highland.

Alexander Walker first introduced the iconic square bottle in 1870. This meant fewer broken bottles and more bottles fitting the same space. The other identifying characteristic of the bottle is the label, which is applied at an angle of 24 degrees. The angled label means the text on the label could be made larger and more visible.[16] From 1906–1909 John’s grandsons George and Alexander II expanded the line and introduced the colour names. In 1908, when James Stevenson was the managing director, there was a re-branding of sorts. The whisky was renamed from Walker's Kilmarnock Whiskies to Johnnie Walker Whisky. In addition, the slogan, "Born 1820 – Still going Strong!" was created, along with the Striding Man, a figure used in their advertisements to this day.

Regeneration

Regeneration shown here, construction of the new Grange Academy secondary school, being constructed in January 2007

The textile and manufacturing sectors across Scotland suffered significant decline in the post-war period and in particular from the 1960s, in the face of greater foreign competition. Kilmarnock was no exception, with the closure or significant reduction of many of its traditional large employers: Glenfield and Kennedy, Massey Ferguson, BMK and Saxone. Although significant attempts have been made to halt this decline and attract new employers, Kilmarnock saw a continuing net loss of jobs in the five years to 2005. Although traditionally a main shopping area for most of the surrounding districts, patterns have changed over the last 20 years; traditional centres such as Ayr have been joined by new developments at Braehead and East Kilbride. This difficult economic climate is most visible in the town centre, the eastern part of which has been extensively redeveloped, with important historic buildings such as King Street Church and the town hall being demolished and Duke Street (the link from Kilmarnock Cross to the Palace Theatre and out to the London Road) built over.

As part of the regeneration, a major "building clean-up" went under-way. Shown here, The Dick Insitite Library & Museum recently cleaned in 2008

More recently Portland Street, which formed the northerly part of the main shopping area, lay abandoned for many years due to a decline in retail trade and in the face of possible comprehensive redevelopment. The street has now been redeveloped, but has not yet regained its former degree of popularity, with a Gala Bingo and a J D Wetherspoon's taking up much of one side of the street and the rest largely occupied by chain stores. In 2004, the Rough Guide to Scotland described the town as "shabby and depressed, saddled with some terrible shopping centres and a grim one-way system".[citation needed] The town, however, contains several parks such as Howard Park, Dean Park and Kay Park, and residential areas including London Road, Dundonald Road, McLelland Drive and Howard Park Drive. The town also boasts a collection of gift shops, cafes, bars and restaurants within the very desirable Bank Street area, whilst offering retail options within its retail parks at Queen's Drive and Glencairn Square. According to the local press in November 2007, the new SNP council have drawn up a Top Ten Hit List on 'eyesore' buildings in the town, and their owners and have revealed plans to crack down hard on property owners who have left their buildings fall into disrepair. A plan of action is being carried out to get something done with each of these sites. Many of the buildings in disrepair are irreplaceable listed buildings such as the former ABC cinema (previously the King's Theatre) on Titchfield Street.[citation needed] Plans to improve the derelict building at the top of John Finnie Street that was destroyed by a fire in the late 1980s have been submitted to include a council office retaining the original facade. Work is estimated to be completed in 2012. A four-star hotel recently opened next to Rugby Park, the home of Kilmarnock F.C., and new restaurants, such as Merchants and the award winning Jefferson Restaurant have opened in the town centre.

The Park Hotel, siutated next to the grounds of Kilmarnock F.C., is the town's only four-star hotel, and is a major-icon of the recent Kilmarnock regeneration

Regeneration activities have been discussed for Kilmarnock town centre; in early 2006, an application to Historic Scotland's Conservation Area Regeneration Scheme was successful, and as of July 2006 an application under the Heritage Lottery Fund's Townscape Heritage Initiative Scheme was pending. Work has pretty much finished on a quality housing development on the gapsite of the former Kilmarnock Infirmary north of the town centre.[citation needed] In the past there have been major efforts to improve the quality of life for residents in the town's worst housing estates, especially in parts of Shortlees, Longpark and Onthank. Much new quality housing has been constructed on the northern fringes of the town, in order to service the demand for commuter housing. With a journey time of 20 minutes from Kilmarnock to Glasgow (roughly half that of the existing train service), the M77 motorway has transformed the link between Glasgow and Kilmarnock. The upgrading of the A77 route to Glasgow to the M77 motorway in 2005 has made Kilmarnock more accessible for commuters, and recent house price increases have reflected this.[17]

Landmarks

Listed landmarks

Transport

Local passenger and goods trains at Kilmarnock Station in 1957 View east, towards Dumfries and Carlisle by the main line, also Muirkirk; ex-Glasgow & South Western.

In 1812, the Kilmarnock and Troon Railway opened, mainly to carry coal from the area to the harbour at Troon, but also carrying passengers.In 1904, Kilmarnock had its own tramway system built. The name of the company was Kilmarnock Corporation Tramways. An electric power station was built in the south bank of the River Irvine at Riccarton. Overhead power lines and tram lines were laid. With continued upgrading and expansion, the tram network at its peak went from Ayr Road in Riccarton at its southerly point, to Knockinlaw Road in Beansburn in the North.

The Stagecoach Group is the main provider of public bus transport in Kilmarnock

At Kilmarnock Cross, the line had an easterly spur that stretched along London Road, through Crookedholm and finally terminating at Hurlford. There had been proposed extensions along Portland Road, up John Finnie Street, West Langlands Street and eventually towards Crosshouse, but by this time, increasing costs and the far more flexible motor bus had made inroads and the trams ceased operation in 1926 during the General Strike. The council decided not to restart the service and the infrastructure was soon dismantled. Today the town is served by Kilmarnock railway station.

Kilmarnock has excellent road links to Glasgow with the M77 motorway now completed from Fenwick to its junction with the M8 at the Kingston Bridge. A new south side motorway will connect this point to the M74 near Calderpark when the latest phase of development is complete, eliminating some of the heavy traffic currently travelling on the A71 through Hurlford, Galston, Newmilns, Darvel and Strathaven to join the M74 at Stonehouse. Stagecoach Group is the main transport provider in the town which it operates bus services to most major towns in the west of Scotland. Kilmarnock also has its own railway station which operates services from the town to all major location in Scotland and as far as City of Carlisle and City of Newcastle

Kilmarnock lies on the intersection of 3 main roads: the A71 which runs from Edinburgh to (Irvine), the A76 from Dumfries to Kilmarnock, and the A77/M77 from Stranraer to Glasgow, showing the significance of its location as an early market town.

Education

Kilmarnock College, the only college to be situated in the town

Kilmarnock has 1 college and 17 schools (13 primary and 4 secondary). There is also a college in the town, Kilmarnock College, formerly Kilmarnock Technical College. The schools are managed by East Ayrshire Council. Kilmarnock Academy is a comprehensive school, one of several in Kilmarnock, a town in western Scotland. It can trace its history back to the local burgh school founded in the 1630s and the first school to bear the name was established in 1807. In 1898 the school was moved to its current location and in the early 1900s the school acquired the Kilmarnock Technical School for its use. The current headteacher is Mr. Paterson, who was appointed in June 2011. The school consists of 4 parts. The 'old building', a listed building in use since 1898 and part of the initial Kilmarnock Academy; the 'new building,' a larger building opened in 1967 and connected to the old building by a link corridor; the Technical Extension which opened in 1997 and is now where the schools computing and music departments are situated, and the P.E building, where the Physical Education department is situated. This is also rented out to groups such as a Tae Kwon Do club and local football teams. Next to the school is the "Old Tech," formerly Kilmarnock Technical School, which opened in 1910 as part of the Academy. It is also listed, but is no longer part of the school; it was closed in 1997 due to a reduction in student numbers, caused by a restructuring of educational resources in the area. The building remained closed, and reopened in 2006 as luxury housing, due to its prime location directly next to the Dick Institute, the town's primary library and museum, and the centre of town. In the art department at the school, there is a war memorial in memory of those who lost their lives in World War 1.[25] Kilmarnock Academy is one of the few schools in the world to have educated two Nobel laureates: Alexander Fleming and John Boyd Orr.[26]

The Old Building of Kilmarnock Academy shown here from the Kilmarnock Railway Station in 2008

St Joseph's Academy was originally founded in 1955 in its present location. Initially built on what was the outskirts of Kilmarnock at the time, the adjacent New Farm Loch estate eventually grew and enveloped the school. The school comprised an extended single building, housing most of the subjects taught within. Due to a lack of space, an additional building, commonly referred to as 'A' Block was erected in the 1970s. As the school was constructed on what was essentially fields, the St Joseph's campus included a large playingfield, comprising a red blaze hockey pitch, running tracks, and space for 4 grass football pitches.

The corner of Annanhill Primary,Grange Academy to the left and the new Grange under construction in the centre

St. Conval's High School was later annexed with St. Joseph's in October 1998 and became known as St. Joseph's Cumnock Campus. In 2004 however St. Joseph's Cumnock Campus was shut down due to falling attendance figures, and the town's Catholic children now attend the new St. Joseph's Academy campus in Kilmarnock, which now serves the entire Secondary Catholic population of East Ayrshire. In the early 21st century, a programme was initiated by central government to upgrade secondary schools throughout the country using a mixture of public and private money. St Joseph's was one of the schools selected for demolition and reconstruction, along with nearby Grange Academy. In 2008, the rebuilt St Joseph's was opened, including the new St Andrew's Primary - an amalgamation of the former feeder St Columba's and St Matthew's Primaries.

In September 2008, the new Grange Campus was completed and incorporated Grange Academy, Annanhill Primary, and Park School. The opening of the campus was delayed from August. The old Grange Academy and Annanhill Primary School buildings have been demolished.James Hamilton Academy is a non-denominational, co-educational, comprehensive school which means that it is open to all boys and girls who live in the area which the school serves. It is located in Sutherland Drive, Kilmarnock, (New Farm Loch), East Ayrshire.

The P.E. Department consists of a Sports Hall, a Gym Hall and changing facilities. There are Technical Department, Science Labs, an I.T. Department, a Library, Maths and English Departments, Music facilities, Home Economics facilities and a Social Subjects Department (Geography, History and Modern Studies). There were rumours of a rat infestation after boys found (what they believed to be) a dead rat in the changing facilities. Teachers denied a infestation, telling pupils that it was a "bit of fur" that they found. James Hamilton Academy, there is also a Primary School (New Farm Primary School), and a Nursery (New Farm Nursery) on campus.

Sports

The town is host to Kilmarnock F.C., a member of the SPL and the second oldest professional football club in Scotland.[27] Their home ground is Rugby Park. The irregular etymology of the ground is that when founded, the club played both football and rugby. The club has the largest supporter base of any team outside Scotland's four major cities.[citation needed] Rugby Park was also one of the first football grounds in Scotland to have floodlights installed. In recent years the stadium has been modernised, firstly to bring it in line with the all-seating regulations, then rebuilt totally to make a new ground. It has also hosted international football matches and music concerts, most recently Elton John in June 2005. The club's foundation dates back to the very earliest days of organised football in Scotland, when a group of local cricketers looking for a sporting pursuit to occupy them outwith the cricket season formed a football club in 1869. Originally they played rugby rules, but the difficulty in organising fixtures and the growing influence of Queen's Park soon persuaded them to adopt the association code instead. These origins are reflected to this day by the name of the club's home ground – Rugby Park.

The inside grounds of Rugby Park, the grounds of Kilmarnock F.C

Although not amongst the founder members of the Scottish Football Association in 1873, Kilmarnock did join in time to compete in the inaugural Scottish Cup tournament in 1873–74. Their 2–0 defeat against Renton in the First Round on 18 October 1873 is thought to have been the first match ever played in the competition. Kilmarnock joined the Scottish League in 1895 and after winning consecutive Second Division titles were elected to the top flight for the first time in 1899. For much of their history they have been one of the most successful clubs based outwith Scotland's major cities. This is in part due to their loyal support, who are mostly Ayrshire-based fans. They have reached the Scottish Cup final eight times, winning the trophy on three occasions. Despite five appearances in the final , they have yet to lift the Scottish League Cup. The club's greatest success was in 1965 under the management of Willie Waddell. On the final day of the season, they travelled to face Hearts at Tynecastle requiring a victory by two goals to nil (due to the competition being decided by goal average at that period if teams were equal on points) to win the league at their opponents' expense. A memorable 2–0 win saw Kilmarnock crowned Scottish League champions for the first, and to date only, time.[28] This capped a period of tremendous consistency which had seen them occupy runners-up spot in four of the previous five seasons.

After a period of decline in the 1980s which saw the club relegated to the Second Division, Killie have returned to prominence, holding top division status since being promoted in 1993 and lifting the Scottish Cup for the third time in 1997 thanks to a 1–0 victory over Falkirk in the final. The club have qualified for European competitions on nine occasions, their best performance coming in the 1966–67 Fairs Cup when they progressed to the semi-finals, eventually being eliminated by Leeds United. The club is also one of only a few Scottish clubs to have played in all three European competitions (European Cup, Cup Winners' Cup and the UEFA Cup). Killie finished the 2005–06 season in 5th position, after a season which at several points they seemed to be challenging for 3rd place. However, after selling Kris Boyd to Rangers in January 2006, Killie had to rely on goals from young attacking midfielder Steven Naismith, striker Colin Nish and winger Danny Invincibile. After taking only 1 point in the first four post-split games, Killie beat Hibernian 3–1 to leapfrog Aberdeen into 5th place.

Kilmarnock started the 2006–07 season brightly despite losing 4–1 away to Celtic on the opening day.[1] Young striker Steven Naismith scored a contender for goal of the season against Hibernian in August before going to Arsenal for a trial. [2] Rangers dropped their first points to Killie in four years after a last-minute Naismith penalty earned a draw for Kilmarnock.[3] In September Jefferies suffered his worst defeat as Killie manager after a 5–0 loss at Motherwell.[4] Killie is ensured of a top 6 finish for the 2nd season in a row, whilst a tremendous run in the League Cup ensured a place in the final[5]. Unfortunately for Killie fans, their team was comprehensively beaten 5–1 in the final by Hibernian. Season 2007–08 is probably best forgotton. After selling Naismith to Rangers for a club-record fee, Killie struggled, finishing in 11th place and just 40 points. Fortunately for them, they avoided being drawn into a relegation battle due to Gretna collecting only 23 points, 10 of which were lost when they entered administration. The 2008–09 season got off to a good start, but a mid season slump that included a 12 game run without a win found them at the wrong end of the table come Spring. They finally finished in 8th place thanks to crucial victories over their relegation rivals during the run in. Striker Kevin Kyle's goals in these games were the deciding factor.

The club started the 2009–10 season with the ever blackening cloud of financial difficulties hanging over their head.[citation needed] By January 2010, Kilmarnock were second bottom of the SPL, with last placed Falkirk just two points behind. On 11 January 2010, Jim Jefferies left the club by "mutual consent" and Jimmy Calderwood was appointed manager. Kilmarnock then achieved a first win in nine years against Celtic. Continued poor form, however, meant a final day showdown at Rugby Park with Falkirk for SPL survival. Kilmarnock began the game with a two point advantage over their rivals and a goalless draw on the day was good enough to secure top flight football for another year. They ended the season with just 33 points, their worst points finish in the SPL. After Calderwood left the team at the end the season, Mixu Paatelainen was appointed manager for the next two years with an option for a third. Despite being the favourites for relegation that season, Mixu's Kilmarnock team exceeded all expectations and comfortably made the top six split and finished the season in fifth position. Paatelainen left Kilmarnock in order to take the vacant position of Finland national manager and his assistant Kenny Shiels was caretaker manager for the final games of the SPL season.[6]

The town also regularly plays host to professional wrestling shows, promoted by the British Championship Wrestling promotion.[citation needed] There are two golf courses in the town, Annanhill Golf Course and Caprington Golf Course, which has both an 18 hole course and a 9 hole course. Both these courses are council owned and run by East Ayrshire Council.

The local leisure complexes include the Galleon Centre: with a 25 metre swimming pool, baby pool, ice rink, squash courts, sauna, gym, games hall, bar area, bowling green and the New Northwest Centre (formerly the Hunter Centre) which contains a community gym and various local medical facilities.

Culture

The Howard Park Hotel, pictured here on October 22, 2006 before it closed

A leisurely stroll around the town will reveal many fine buildings. Kilmarnock boasts a large number of listed buildings. The Dick Institute, opened in April 1901, was severely damaged by fire only eight years after it opened. Some of the museums collections were lost in the fire. It reopened two years after the fire in 1911. The Dick Institute was used as an Auxiliary Hospital in 1917 during World War One.It is now shared by the Arts and Museums Service, and the Libraries, Registration and Information Service. The two Art Galleries and three Museum Galleries house permanent and temporary displays of Fine Art, Contemporary Art and Craft, Local and Industrial History and Natural Sciences. The Lending Library, Audio Library, Junior Library, Reference Library, and Learning Centre are all housed on the ground floor.

The first collection of work by Scottish poet Robert Burns, Poems, chiefly in the Scottish dialect was published here in 1786. It was published at the current site of the Burn's Mall, dedicated to his work. This edition is known as the Kilmarnock Edition. Two areas of Kilmarnock, Ellerslie and Riccarton, are associated with William Wallace and his father. Claims have been made that this is the true origin of his birthplace.[citation needed]

John Bowring, polyglot and fourth governor of Hong Kong, was Member of Parliament for Kilmarnock in 1835. In the castle of Kilmarnock, Dean Castle, there is an exhibition of armour and weapons, and the Van Raalte collection of musical instruments.

In popular culture

The Welcome Sign to Kilmarnock. Below, it shows the sign which reads The UK's Friendliest Shopping Town and also gives the information that the town is the birthplace of "Scotland's Hero", William Wallace
Northcraig old reservoir. A wildlife site near Rowallan Castle.

Kilmarnock was voted the "UK's Friendliest Shopping Town" in 2006.[29] In 2010, BBC Scotland filmed residents on the town's Onthank and Longpark area for the TV program The Scheme which broadcast in 2010 for two episodes so far, out of a planned four. The Scheme caused much controversy within residents of the community, who believed that the BBC only showed the "worst parts", leading to others believing that they were "pretty much the same". The series has been the subject of media criticism, with the series being labelled as "poverty porn" [30][31] and described as giving a "misleading impression" of life on the estate.[32][33] The programme makers have denied allegations that their series exploits the residents of the estate.[34]

Notable people

Michael Smith currently pursuing his education in the creation of blue bottles and their effect on biodiversity within the southern hemisphere.

The man behind the discovery of Penicillin, Alexander Fleming was born in Lochfield near Darvel, and was educated at Kilmarnock Academy

Ben and James Johnston, drummer and bassist of Scottish rock band Biffy Clyro

Twin towns

Kilmarnock - as part of East Ayrshire Council - is twinned with five cites and has received awards from the Council of Europe for its work in twinning.[37][38]

The former Kilmarnock and Loudoun District Council was also twinned with Sukhum, Abkhazia, a disputed region on the Black Sea coast. Following a review of links this link is now considered as a friendship link.[39]

References

  1. ^ Ainmean-Àite na h-Alba ~ Gaelic Place-names of Scotland
  2. ^ Brinkhoff (2007).
  3. ^ "Mid-2006 Population Estimates for Localities in Scotland". http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/publications-and-data/settlements-and-localities/mid-2006-population-estimates-for-localities-in-scotland/list-of-tables.html. Retrieved 2008-10-01. [dead link]
  4. ^ Smellie (1898).
  5. ^ http://www.kilmarnockstandard.co.uk/ayrshire-news/news-east-ayrshire/kilmarnock-news/2009/07/01/kilmarnock-s-johnnie-walker-factory-to-shut-81430-24043998/
  6. ^ "More than 20,000 take to streets to protest Johnnie Walker plant closure". The Daily Telegraph (London). 2009-07-26. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/scotland/5913043/More-than-20000-take-to-streets-to-protest-Johnnie-Walker-plant-closure.html. 
  7. ^ Khan, Stephen (2009-07-02). "Kilmarnock is Johnnie Walker". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/jul/02/johnnie-walker-kilmarnock-diageo. 
  8. ^ http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2009/07/15110912
  9. ^ http://news.stv.tv/scotland/west-central/109214-first-minister-in-kilmarnock-in-campaign-to-save-diageo-jobs/
  10. ^ Chamber, Robert (1885). Domestic Annals of Scotland. Edinburgh : W & R Chambers. p. 316.
  11. ^ "Diageo warn of further cuts as it prepares for jobs battle". http://www.theherald.co.uk/search/display.var.2518335.0.diageo_warns_of_further_cuts_as_it_prepares_for_jobs_battle.php. 
  12. ^ Press Association (2009-07-01). "Johnnie Walker whisky to end 189-year link with Kilmarnock | Business | guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/jul/01/johnnie-walker-closure-kilmarnock. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  13. ^ "Diageo confirms Kilmarnock and Glasgow plants will close | Scotland | STV News". News.stv.tv. 2009-09-09. http://news.stv.tv/scotland/121733-diageo-confirms-kilmarnock-and-glasgow-plants-will-close/. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  14. ^ http://www.cigaraficionado.com/Cigar/CA_Features/CA_Feature_Basic_Template/0,2344,737,00.html
  15. ^ MacLean, Charles. Scotch Whisky: A Liquid History. ©2003 Charles MacLean & Cassell Illustrated. London, England. (ISBN 1-84403-078-4)
  16. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MnSIp76CvUI
  17. ^ "Huge rise in Scots house prices". BBC News. 2004-07-10. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/3881237.stm. Retrieved 2008-05-01. 
  18. ^ "Architecture Kilmarnock". http://www.futuremuseum.co.uk/Default.aspx?Id=436&mode=object&item=2335. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  19. ^ "Dean Castle". http://www.futuremuseum.co.uk/Default.aspx?Id=17. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  20. ^ "Kay Park". http://www.east-ayrshire.gov.uk/comser/tourism/places_kay_park.asp. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  21. ^ "Kilmarnock Football Club roots". http://www.killiefc.com/Web%20Pages/killie_history%20begining.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  22. ^ "Lady's Walk - Howard Park". http://www.corbett5.freeserve.co.uk/auldkillie.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  23. ^ "Sandbed Street Bridge - The oldest surviving bridge in Kilmarnock". http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:YNMfZpSU8HEJ:www.east-ayrshire.gov.uk/devser/documents/jfscaa.pdf+%22Sandbed+Street+Bridge%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=uk&lr=lang_en. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  24. ^ "The Palace Theatre, Kilmarnock". http://www.futuremuseum.co.uk/Default.aspx?Id=418&mode=collection. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  25. ^ "War Memorial". http://images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.roll-of-honour.com/Databases/KilmarnockAcademy/KilmarnockAcademyWW1-1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.roll-of-honour.com/Databases/KilmarnockAcademy/index.html&usg=__oR-tbXbisyYovY2EwYbOfIp2-oc=&h=450&w=600&sz=73&hl=en&start=5&um=1&tbnid=quvU54YxdouPtM:&tbnh=101&tbnw=135&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dkilmarnock%2Bacademy%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1. Retrieved May 03, 2011. 
  26. ^ Kilmarnock Academy Website
  27. ^ "Having been founded in 1869, Kilmarnock can claim to be the second oldest surviving Association football club in Scotland". Scotprem.com. http://www.scotprem.com/content/default.asp?page=s26_2. Retrieved 2010-05-14. 
  28. ^ "1964–65 Scottish League Champions". killiefc.com. http://www.killiefc.com/Season%201964-65/65%20Champs.htm. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  29. ^ http://www.shopkilmarnock.co.uk/
  30. ^ The Scheme: gritty TV or poverty porn?, The Guardian TV & Radio Blog, Friday 28 May 2010
  31. ^ The Scheme: A brutal eye-opener or poverty porn? ,The Scotsman, 28 May 2010
  32. ^ Debate over housing estate portrayal on 'The Scheme', stv.tv, 19 May 2010
  33. ^ The Scheme, a TV documentary of life on a Kilmarnock estate, has already been dubbed Scotland's Shameless. But what's life really like there?, Scotsman, 20 May 2010
  34. ^ Producers of BBC series The Scheme hits back after MSP blasts show, Sunday Mail, 30 May 2010
  35. ^ "Who's Who in Glasgow in 1909: WILLIAM FINDLAY [ebook chapter] / George Eyre-Todd, 1909". Gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk. http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/eyrwho/eyrwho0605.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  36. ^ "''Literary Encyclopedia'': William McIlvanney". Litencyc.com. 2002-06-30. http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=5019. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  37. ^ "Town Twinning". East Ayrshire Council. http://www.east-ayrshire.gov.uk/corpres/twinning/town_twinning.asp. Retrieved 2008-09-16. "East Ayrshire is twinned with five European towns...In September 1980 Kilmarnock & Loudoun District Council (now part of East Ayrshire Council) was presented with the Council of Europe Flag of Honour; this was followed in August 1989 by the Plaque of Honour which is second only to the Europe Prize itself. Both are now kept within the council's offices in Kilmarnock." 
  38. ^ "TTA". http://teigntwin.co.uk/atoz/twins-k.htm. 
  39. ^ "Members’ Services And Civic Ceremonial Sub-committee Of The Policy And Resources Committee - 7 September 2005" (PDF). East Ayrshire Coucil. http://www.east-ayrshire.gov.uk/content.asp?URL=/crpadmmin/agendas/members/sept%202005/town%20twinning%20update%20-%207%20september%202005.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-11. 

Bibliography

  1. Beattie, Frank (1994) Greetings from Kilmarnock, Ochiltree : R. Stenlake, ISBN 1-87207-441-3
  2. Beattie, Frank ((2003) Kilmarnock Memories, Sutton Publishing, ISBN 0-7509-3236-8
  3. Brinkhoff , T. (2007) City Population: Great Britain and Northern Ireland: Scotland, Online statistics (accessed 8 July 2007)
  4. Malkin, John (1989) Pictorial History of Kilmarnock, Darvel : Alloway, ISBN 0-907526-42-X
  5. Smellie, Thomas (1898) Sketches of Old Kilmarnock, Section II, limited edition of 250 copies, Kilmarnock : Dunlop & Drennan

External links


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См. также в других словарях:

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