- James Bryant Conant
James Bryant Conant (
March 26, 1893– February 11, 1978) was a chemist, educational administrator, and government official. He was born in Dorchester, Massachusettsin 1893 and graduated from the Roxbury Latin Schoolin West Roxbury in 1910. He went on to study chemistryat Harvard ( B.A., 1914; Ph.D., 1917). At Harvard he studied under Charles Loring Jackson, and became acquainted with Roger Adams, Farrington Daniels, Frank C. Whitmoreand James B. Sumner. As a Harvard professor, he worked on both physical and organic chemistry. The American Chemical Societyhonored him with its highest prize, the Priestley Medal, in 1944.
In 1933, Conant accepted an appointment as the
President of Harvard University, a post he held until 1953. Between 1941 and 1946, he also served as chairman of the National Defense Research Committee; from that position he played a key role, along with his close friend Vannevar Bush, in ramping up the Manhattan Projectwhich developed the first nuclear weapons. After World War IIhe was an advisor to both the National Science Foundationand the Atomic Energy Commission. He served as U.S. High Commissioner and United States Ambassador to Germanyfrom 1953 to 1957.
As the university's president, Conant was instrumental in transforming
Harvard, until then still somewhat parochial and New England 'white bread,' into an increasingly diverse and world-class research university. He introduced aptitude tests into the undergraduate admissions system so that students would be chosen for their intellectual promise and merit, rather than their social connections. Many American colleges followed Conant's lead, and this campaign led eventually to the adoption of the SAT. Conant also did much to move general undergraduate curriculum away from its traditional emphasis on the classics, and towards a more scientific and modern subject matter. He was active throughout his career on issues of education and scientific policy. For this work, he was awarded the prestigious Sylvanus Thayer Awardby the United States Military Academy at West Point.
Conant also actively promoted the discipline of
history of science, instituting the Harvard Case Histories in Experimental Scienceand including history of science in the General Education curriculum. For Conant, an approach to science history that emphasized the internal and intellectual dimensions of scientific development — as opposed to the so-called external factors of sociology, economics and politics — reinforced the American Cold Warideology and would help Americans understand the importance of science since the Second World War. During that time, American science (and especially the field of physics that Conant viewed as exemplary) was rapidly becoming dominated by military funding, and Conant sought to defuse concerns about the possible corruption of science. Conant was instrumental in the early career of Thomas Kuhn, whose " The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" has been extremely influential for the various fields of science studies.
Conant died in
Hanover, New Hampshirein 1978. James B. Conant Middle School is a former school named after the man in Neenah, Wisconsin, though it has since become the "Conant" building of Neenah High School, in addition to the Neil Armstrongbuilding and a large building connecting the two known simply as "The Link." James B. Conant High Schoolin Hoffman Estates, Illinoiswas named after Conant, as was James B. Conant Elementary School in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.
* [http://alsos.wlu.edu/qsearch.aspx?browse=people/Conant,+James Annotated bibliography for James Conant from the Alsos Digital Library]
*gutenberg author | id=James_Bryant_Conant | name=James Bryant Conant
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James Bryant Conant — (26 de marzo de 1893 – 11 de febrero de 1978) fue un químico, administrador escolar y funcionario público estadounidense. Como presidente de la Universidad de Harvard promovió reformas que llevaron a esa casa de … Wikipedia Español
James Bryant Conant — (né le 26 mars 1893; mort le 11 février 1978), était un chimiste, Biographie James Conant est né à Dorchester dans le Massachusetts en 1893. Il obtint un diplôme de la Roxbury Latin School à West Roxbury, un quartier de Boston en 1910. Il partit… … Wikipédia en Français
James Bryant Conant — (* 26. März 1893 in Dorchester, Massachusetts, USA; † 11. Februar 1978 in Hanover, New Hampshire), war ein US amerikanischer Chemiker, Wissenschaftspolitiker und Diplomat. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben und Werk 2 Publikationen … Deutsch Wikipedia
James B. Conant — James Bryant Conant James Bryant Conant (né le 26 mars 1893; mort le 11 février 1978), était un chimiste, Biographie James Conant est né à Dorchester dans le Massachusetts en 1893. Il obtint un diplôme de la Roxbury Latin School à West Roxbury,… … Wikipédia en Français
James B. Conant — James Bryant Conant (* 26. März 1893 in Dorchester, Massachusetts, USA; † 11. Februar 1978 in Hanover, New Hampshire), war ein US amerikanischer Chemiker, Wissenschaftspolitiker und Diplomat. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben und Werk 2 Publikationen … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Conant,James Bryant — Co·nant (kōʹnənt), James Bryant. 1893 1978. American educator who was president of Harvard University (1933 1953) and served as ambassador to West Germany (1955 1957). * * * … Universalium