Flying squirrel

Flying squirrel

Taxobox
name =flying squirrels
fossil_range = Early Oligocene - Recent


image_width = 250px
image_caption = Northern flying squirrel ("Glaucomys sabrinus")
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
subphylum = Vertebrata
classis = Mammalia
ordo = Rodentia
familia = Sciuridae
subfamilia = Sciurinae
tribus = Pteromyini
tribus_authority = Brandt, 1855
subdivision_ranks = Genera
subdivision = "Aeretes"
"Aeromys"
"Belomys"
"Biswamoyopterus"
"Eoglaucomys"
"Eupetaurus"
"Glaucomys"
"Hylopetes"
"Iomys"
"Petaurillus"
"Petaurista"
"Petinomys"
"Pteromys"
"Pteromyscus"
"Trogopterus"
The flying squirrels, scientifically known as Pteromyini or Petauristini, are a tribe of squirrels (family Sciuridae). There are 43 species in this tribe, the largest of which is the woolly flying squirrel ("Eupetaurus cinereus"). The two species of the genus "Glaucomys" ("Glaucomys sabrinus" and "Glaucomys volans") are native to North America, and the Siberian flying squirrel is native to parts of northern Europe ("Pteromys volans").

The term "flying" is somewhat misleading, since flying squirrels are actually gliders incapable of true flight. Steering is accomplished by adjusting tautness of the patagium, largely controlled by a small cartilaginous wrist bone. The tail acts as a stabilizer in flight, much like the tail of a kite, and as an adjunct airfoil when "braking" prior to landing on a tree trunk.

Though their life expectancy is only about six years in the wild, flying squirrels often live between 10 and 15 years in captivity. This difference is due to these creatures being important prey animals. Predation mortality rates in sub-adults are very high. Predators include arboreal snakes, raccoons, nocturnal owls, martens, fishers, coyotes, and the domestic house cat. In the Pacific Northwest of North America, the Northern Spotted Owl ("Strix occidentalis") is a well-known predator. They are also nocturnal.

They have been kept as pets since the US colonial era.

Genera

Flying squirrels are mammals.Thorington and Hoffman (2005) recognize 15 genera of flying squirrels in two subtribes.

*Tribe Pteromyini - flying squirrels
**Subtribe Glaucomyina
***"Eoglaucomys", one species, the Kashmir Flying Squirrel ("Eoglaucomys fimbriatus").
***"Glaucomys" (American flying squirrels), two species, the Northern flying squirrel and the Southern flying squirrel, North America
***"Hylopetes", seven species, southeast Asia
***"Iomys", one species, Horsfield's Flying Squirrel, Malaysia and Indonesia
***"Petaurillus" (pygmy flying squirrels), three species, Borneo and Malaya
***"Petinomys", nine species, southeast Asia
**Subtribe Pteromyina
***"Aeretes", one species, the Groove-toothed Flying Squirrel or North Chinese Flying Squirrel ("A. melanopterus"), northeast China
***"Aeromys", two species, Thailand to Borneo
***"Belomys", one species, the hairy-footed flying squirrel ("B. pearsonii"), southeast Asia.
***"Biswamoyopterus", one species, the Namdapha flying squirrel, India
***"Eupetaurus", one species, the woolly flying squirrel, Kashmir; rare
***"Petaurista" (giant flying squirrels), five species, southeast Asia (including the Japanese giant flying squirrel, the Red giant flying squirrel, and the giant flying-squirrel)
***"Pteromys", two species, Finland to Japan (including the Japanese dwarf flying squirrel)
***"Pteromyscus", one species, the Smoky Flying Squirrel, southern Thailand to Borneo
***"Trogopterus", one species, the complex-toothed flying squirrel, China

Popular culture reference

* "The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show" - The Jet Age ace Rocket "Rocky" J. Squirrel
* "" - Nemo's pet squirrel Icarus
* "SegaSonic the Hedgehog" - Ray The Flying Squirrel
* "Happy Tree Friends" - Splendid
* "Samurai Champloo" - Momo a Momonga, the pet of Fuu
* "Monty Python's Flying Circus" - A minor character in a sketch was called "Flying Squirrel of the Yard".
* "Decoder Ring Theatre" - In "The Red Panda Adventures", the Red Panda's sidekick is called "The Flying Squirrel".
*"Tak and the Power of Juju" (video game) - A character that Tak can transform into
*"Big Buck Bunny" - One of only five characters in this short film is a flying squirrel called Frank.

See also

The following are sometimes confused with flying squirrels:
*Colugos
*Petauridae - gliding possums
*Anomaluridae - scaly-tailed squirrels
*Sugar Glider - small gliding possums

Similarities between them result from convergent evolution.

For a general overview of all flying and gliding mammals see:
*Flying and gliding animals

References

*Thorington, R. W. Jr. and R. S. Hoffman. 2005. Family Sciuridae. Pp. 754-818 in "Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference". D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

External links

* [http://www.flyingsquirrels.com/ FlyingSquirrels.com]
* [http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/classification/Pteromyinae.html Animal Diversity Web: Pteromyinae] , classification


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Flying squirrel — Flying Fly ing, a. [From {Fly}, v. i.] Moving in the air with, or as with, wings; moving lightly or rapidly; intended for rapid movement. [1913 Webster] {Flying army} (Mil.) a body of cavalry and infantry, kept in motion, to cover its own… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • flying squirrel — Flying Fly ing, a. [From {Fly}, v. i.] Moving in the air with, or as with, wings; moving lightly or rapidly; intended for rapid movement. [1913 Webster] {Flying army} (Mil.) a body of cavalry and infantry, kept in motion, to cover its own… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Flying squirrel — Squirrel Squir rel (skw[ e]r r[e^]l or skw[i^]r ; 277), n. [OE. squirel, OF. esquirel, escurel, F. [ e]cureuil, LL. squirelus, squirolus, scuriolus, dim. of L. sciurus, Gr. si oyros; skia shade + o yra tail. Cf. {Shine}, v. i.] 1. (Zo[ o]l.) Any… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Flying squirrel — Fly ing squir rel (? or ?). (Zo[ o]l.) One of a group of squirrels, of the genus {Glaucomys} (formerly {Pteromus} and {Sciuropterus} [1913 Webster]), especially {Glaucomys volans} and {Glaucomys sabrinus}, having parachute like folds of skin… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • flying squirrel — ☆ flying squirrel n. 1. any of a number of squirrels (esp. genus Glaucomys) with winglike folds of skin attached to the legs and body, which enable them to make long, gliding leaps 2. FLYING PHALANGER …   English World dictionary

  • flying squirrel — any of various nocturnal tree squirrels, as Glaucomys volans, of the eastern U.S., having folds of skin connecting the fore and hind legs, permitting long, gliding leaps. [1605 15] * * * Any member of two distinct groups of rodents that are able… …   Universalium

  • flying squirrel — squirrel that can glide through the air due to winglike folds of skin between its front and hind legs …   English contemporary dictionary

  • flying squirrel — noun nocturnal phalangers that move with gliding leaps using parachute like folds of skin along the sides of the body • Syn: ↑flying phalanger, ↑flying opossum • Hypernyms: ↑phalanger, ↑opossum, ↑possum • Hyponyms: ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • flying squirrel — noun a squirrel that has skin joining the fore and hindlimbs for gliding from tree to tree. [Many species, chiefly in subfamily Pteromyinae.] …   English new terms dictionary

  • flying squirrel — /flaɪɪŋ ˈskwɪrəl/ (say fluying skwiruhl) noun 1. → glider (def. 5). 2. a squirrel like animal, especially of the genus Glaucomys, as G. volans of the eastern US, with folds of skin connecting the fore and hind legs, enabling it to take long… …   Australian English dictionary


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»