Roman civil wars

Roman civil wars

There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the late Republic. The most famous of these are the war in the 40s BC between Julius Caesar and the optimate faction of the senatorial elite initially led by Pompey and the subsequent war between Caesar's successors, Octavian and Mark Antony in the 30s BC. Following is a list of civil wars in ancient Rome.


Late Republic


Augustan interval

After 30 BC, the Roman Empire was unified under leadership of Octavian. In 27 BC Octavian was granted the title of Augustus by the Senate. These two dates are considered to mark the end of the Republic and the birth of the Roman Empire. The period of rule by the Caesars was known as the "Pax Augusti" (peace of Augustus), and was the beginning of the era known as the "Pax Romana" (Roman Peace). The next serious Roman civil war would not be fought until after Nero's suicide in 68 AD, the year before the year of the four emperors.

Early Empire

From the rule of the Flavian Dynasty until the Year Of The Five Emperors, the Roman Empire experienced an extended period of internal peace and harmony later known as the time of The Five Good Emperors - Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius and Marcus Aurelius.

Mid Empire

Late Empire


  • Kohn, George Childs, 'Dictionary of Wars, Revised Edition' (Checkmark Books, New York, 1999)

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