official_name = Bandung
nickname = Kota Kembang (City of Flowers)
motto = "Bermartabat" ('dignity')
image_caption = Pasupati Bridge at Night
map_caption = Location of Bandung in Indonesia
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = Province
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Dada Rosada
25 September 1810
area_total_km2 = 167.67
area_total_sq_mi = 64.74
population_as_of = 2004
population_total = 2510982
population_density_km2 = 14976
population_density_sq_mi = 5782
timezone = WIB
utc_offset = +7
latd=6 |latm=57 |lats= |latNS=S
longd=107 |longm=34 |longs= |longEW=E
elevation_m = 768
elevation_ft = 2520
website = [http://www.bandung.go.id/index.php www.bandung.go.id]
Bandung (pronounced|bʌndʊŋ) is the capital of
West Javaprovince in Indonesia, and the country's fourth largest city. Located 768 m (2,520 ft) above sea level, Bandung has relatively year-around cooler temperature than most other Indonesian cities. The city lies on a river basinand surrounded by volcanic mountains. This topology provides the city with a good natural defense system, which was the primary reason of Dutch East Indiesgovernment's plan to move the colony capital from Batavia to Bandung.
The Dutch colonials first opened tea plantantions around the mountains in the eighteenth century, followed by a road construction connecting the plantation area to the capital (180 km or 112 miles to the northwest). The European inhabitants of the city demanded the establishment of a municipality ("gemeente"), which was granted in 1906 and Bandung gradually developed itself into a resort city for the plantation owners. Luxurious hotels, restaurants, cafes and European boutiques were opened of which the city was dubbed as "Parijs van Java".
After Indonesian independence, the city experienced a rapid development and urbanization that has transformed Bandung from idyllic town into a dense 15,000 people/km² metropolitan area, a living space for over 2 million people. Natural resources have been exploited excessively, particularly in the conversions of protected upland area into highland villa and real estates. Although the city has encountered many problems, ranging from waste disposal, floods to chaotic traffic system, Bandung however still has its charm to attract people flocking into the city, either as weekend travellers or living in.
Bandung, the capital of
West Javaprovince, located about 180 km (112 miles) southeast of Jakarta, is the fourth largest city in Indonesia cite journal|title=Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet, pp.139, 181, 251, 435. ISBN 1-74059-154-2] with over 2.6 million population in 2006 and over 6.7 million people on the greater Bandung regency & metropolitan area. It's rated the fastest growing city / urban region in Indonesia [Bandung Tourism & Investment Council http://discoverbandung.solsticex.com] . Its elevation is 768 metres (2,520 ft) above sea leveland is surrounded by up to 2,400 m (7,874 ft) high Late Tertiary and Quarternaryvolcanic terrain. cite journal|title=A 135,000-year record of vegetational and climatic change from the Bandung area, West-Java, Indonesia| journal=Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology|volume=117|issue=1-2|pages=55–72|date=1995|doi=10.1016/0031-0182(94)00121-N|author=W.A. van der Kaars and M.A.C. Dam ] The 400 km² flat of central Bandung plain is situated in the middle of 2,340.88 km² wide of the Bandung Basin; the basin comprises Bandung, the Cimahisatellite city, part of Bandung Regency, and part of Sumedang Regency.cite conference| author = Setiawan Wangsaatmaja, Arief D. Sutadian and Maria A.N. Prasetiati| title = Groundwater Resource Management in Bandung| booktitle = Sustainable Groundwater Management in Asian Cities| publisher = Institute for Global Environmental Strategies| url = http://www.iges.or.jp/en/fw/report01.html| accessdate = 2006-08-21 ] The basin's main river is the Citarum; one of its branches, the Cikapundung, divides Bandung from north to south before it merges with Citarum again in Karawang. The Bandung Basin is an important source of water for drinking water, irrigation and fisheries, and its 6,147 million m³ of groundwater is a major reservoir for the city.
The northern part of the city is hillier than the rest; the distinguished truncated flat-peak shape of the Tangkuban Perahu volcano ("Tangkuban Perahu" literally means 'up-turned boat') can be seen from the city to the north. Long-term volcanic activity has created fertile andisol soil in the north, suitable for intensive
rice, fruit, tea, tobaccoand coffeeplantations. In the south and east, alluvialsoils deposited by the Cikapundung river are mostly found.
Geological data shows that the Bandung Basin is located on an ancient volcano, known as Mount Sunda, erected up to 3,000–4,000 metres (9,850–13,100 ft) during the
Pleistoceneage. [cite journal| author = M.N. Kartadinata, M. Okuno, T. Nakamura and T. Kobayashi| title = Eruptive History of Tangkuban Perahu Volcano, West Java, Indonesia: A Preliminary Report| journal = Journal of Geography| volume = 111| issue = 3| pages = 404–409| date = 2002| url = http://www.geog.or.jp/journal/back/pdf111-3/p404-409.pdf| format = Before Present) blocked the Citarum river, turning the basin into a lake known as "the Great Lake of Bandung". [cite paper | author = Dam, M.A.C. | title = The Late Quaternary Evolution of the Bandung Basin, West Java, Indonesia | version = Ph. D. Thesis| publisher = Universiteit van Amsterdam| date = 1994] The lake drained away; the reason for which is the subject of ongoing debate among geologists. [cite book| last = van Bemmelen| first = R.W.| title = The Geology of Indonesia, Vol. 1A, General Geology| date = 1949] cite news | title = Sangiangtikoro is not The Leaking Point of The Old Bandung Lake| language = Indonesian| publisher = Pikiran Rakyat| date = 2005-10-27| url = http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/cetak/2005/0905/27/0108.htm| accessdate = 2006-07-20 ]
Due to its elevation, the climate in Bandung is cooler than most Indonesian cities and can be classified as
humid; the average temperature is 23.6 °C (74.5 °F) throughout the year.cite press release|publisher=Bureau of Statistics|title="Bandung Dalam Angka" (Bandung in Numbers)|date=2003| url=http://www.bandung.go.id/index.php?fa=download.category&id=1&startpage=1&offset=0| language=Indonesian|accessdate=2007-01-15] The average annual rainfall ranges from 1,000 millimetres in the central and southeast regions to 3,500 millimetres in the north of the city.cite conference| first = Setiawan| last = Wangsaatmaja| coauthors = Sutadian, Arief D.; Prasetiati, Maria A.N.| title = Groundwater Resource Management in Bandung| booktitle = Sustainable Groundwater Management in Asian Cities| publisher = Institute for Global Environmental Strategies| url = http://www.iges.or.jp/en/fw/report01.html| accessdate = 2008-08-21] The wet seasonconforms with other Indonesian regions, around November to April.
The earliest reference to the city dates back to 1488, but archaeological findings suggest a type of "
Homo erectus" species had lived on the banks of the Cikapundung River and around the old lake of Bandung. [cite journal| author= B. Brahmayanto, E. Yulianto and Sudjatmiko| title = On the geomorphological development of Pawon Cave, west of Bandung, and the evidence finding of prehistoric dwelling cave| journal = JTM| date = 2001| url = http://www.geocities.com/ekoy001/PawonJTM-web.htm| accessdate = 2008-08-21 ] During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Dutch East Indies Company(VOC) opened plantations in the Bandung area. A supply road connecting Batavia (now Jakarta), Bogor, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedangand Cirebonwas built in 1786. In 1809, Louis Napoleon, the ruler of the Kingdom of the Netherlandsand its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to increase the defensive systems of Java against the British from India. Daendels built a road, stretching approximately 1,000 km (621 miles) from the west to the east coast of Java, and passing through Bandung. [cite news|title=Pramoedya sheds light on dark side of Daendels highway|publisher=The Jakarta Post|date=2006-01-08] [cite paper|author=Peter .J.M Nas; Pratiwo|date=2001|publisher=University of Leiden|url=http://www.leidenuniv.nl/fsw/nas/pdf/NasPratiwoPostweg30-10-2001.pdf|format= R.A. Wiranatakusumah II, the chief administration of the Bandung regency at that time, moved its office from Krapyak, in the south, to a place near a pair of holy city wells ("sumur Bandung"), the present-day site of the city square ("alun-alun"). He built his "dalem" (palace), "masjid agung" (the grand mosque) and "pendopo" (public-official meeting place) in the classical orientation. [cite book|title=Wajah Bandung Tempoe Doeloe|author=Kunto, Haryanto|date=1984|publisher=Granesia] The pendopo faces Tangkuban Perahumountain, which was believed to have a mystical ambience.
In 1880, the first major railroad between Batavia and Bandung was built,cite conference|booktitle=The eleventh International Planning History Conference 2004|title=Creative culture and urban planning: The Bandung Experience|first=Ahmad R.|last=Soemardi|coauthors=Radjawali, I|date=2004|url=http://www.etsav.upc.es/personals/iphs2004/pdf|format=
In the beginning of the 1920s, the Dutch East Indies government made plans to move the capital of Dutch East Indies from Batavia to Bandung. Accordingly, during this decade, the Dutch colonial government started building military barracks, the central government building ("Gouvernments Bedrijven", the present-day
Gedung Sate) and other government buildings. This plan, however, was cut short by World War IIafter which the Dutch were not able to re-established their colony.
The fertile area of the Parahyangan Mountains surrounding Bandung supports productive
teaplantations. In the nineteenth century, Franz Junghuhn introduced the cinchona("kina") plant. [cite news|title=If Only Junghuhn Knows How Cinchona in Indonesia Becomes...|publisher=Pikiran Rakyat|language=Indonesian| url=http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/cetak/0604/07/0108.htm| date=2004-06-07| accessdate=2006-08-21] With its cooler elevated landscape, surrounded by major plantations, Bandung became an exclusive European resort area.cite web | title = An Extremely Brief Urban History of Bandung | publisher = Institute of Indonesian Architectural Historian | url=http://www.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~fujimori/lsai/bandung.html| accessdate = 2006-08-20 ] Rich plantation owners visited the city on weekends, attracting girls and businessmen from the capital, Batavia. Braga Streetgrew into a promenade street with cafes, restaurants and boutique shops. Two art-deco style hotels, Savoy Homann and Preanger, were built in the vicinity of the Concordia Society, a club house for the wealthy with a large ballroom and a theatre.cite conference|booktitle=The 11th International Planning History Conference 2004|title=Creative culture and urban planning: The Bandung Experience|author=Ahmad R. Soemardi and I. Radjawali| date=2004| url=http://www.etsav.upc.es/personals/iphs2004/pdf| format=
After the Indonesian Independence in 1945, Bandung was determined as the capital of
West Javaprovince. During the 1945–1949 independence struggle against the Dutch when they wanted to reclaim their colonies, Bandung was one of the heaviest battle places. The Dutch military commander set an ultimatum for the Indonesian combatants in Bandung to leave the city. In response, on 24 March 1946, much of the southern part of Bandung was deliberately set alight as the combatants left; an event known as the "Bandung Lautan Api" or 'Bandung Sea of Flame'. [cite paper|url=http://www.bandungheritage.org/images/stories/dokumen/bandung_sea_of_fire.pdf|format= 24 March 1946|author=Sitaresmi, Ratnayu|accessdate=2008-08-22]
In 1955, the first
Asian-African Conference-- also known as the "Bandung Conference" -- was held in Bandung, attended by head of states representing twenty-nine countries and colonies from Asiaand Africa. The conference venue was at the Gedung Merdeka, the former Concordia Society building. The conference announced 10 points of declaration on world peace promotion and oppositions against colonialism, known as the Declaration of Bandung, which followed by wave of nationalism movements around the globe and remapped the world politics. [cite journal|title=Cold War II: The Eisenhower Administration, the Bandung Conference, and the Reperiodization of the Postwar Era| author=Jason Parker| journal=Diplomatic History| volume=30| issue=5| date=2006| pages=867–892| doi=10.1111/j.1467-7709.2006.00582.x] The conference was also the first international conference of colored people in the history of mankind.cite book|title=The Color Curtain: A Report on the Bandung Conference| author=Richard Wright| authorlink=Richard Wright (author)| id=ISBN 087805748X| publisher=University Press of Mississippi |date=1995] Richard Wright in his book, "The Color Curtain", captured the epic meanings of the conference for people of color around the world. Even black freedom movement activists in the United Statesreferred Bandung as Afro-Asian solidarity in 1960s. [cite journal|title=Introduction: The Fate of Nationalisms in the Age of Bandung| author=A. Burton, A. Espiritu and F.C. Wilkins| journal=Radical History Review| issue=95| date=2006| pages=145–148| doi=10.1215/01636545-2006-95-145|volume=2006]
In 1987, the city boundary was expanded with the Greater Bandung ("Bandung Raya") plan; a relocation of higher concentration development outside the city in an attempt to dilute some of population in the old city. During its development, however, the city core is often uprooted, old faces are torn down, lot sizes regrouped, and what was idyllic residence is bustling chain supermarkets and rich banks.cite web
title = An Extremely Brief Urban History of Bandung
publisher = Institute of Indonesian Architectural Historian
accessdate = 2006-08-20 ]
The city area in 1906 was only 19.22 square kilometres and it has been expanded several times until the 1987 expansion into 167.2965 km². The city administration is divided into 26 subdistricts ("kecamatan") and 139 villages ("kelurahan"). A mayor ("walikota") leads the city administration. Since 2005, the city residents directly voted for a mayor, while previously mayors were nominated and selected by the city council members or known as the Regional People's Representative Council (DPRD). As of 2003, the total number of city administration personnel, including the mayor, is 20,163.
Most of Bandung population are of Sundanese descent. Javanese is largest minority, from nearby provinces and eastern part of Java. Notable minorities include Chinese Indonesians, Indian Indonesians, and Korean Indonesians. [Bandung Tourism & Investment Council http://discoverbandung.solsticex.com]
:See also|Indonesian architectureBandung is renowned for its large stock of Dutch colonial architecture; most notably the tropical
Art Decoarchitectural style. Henri Maclaine-Pontis among the first Dutch architects who realized how important to combine each architectural style with culture of local people. He stressed that modern architecture should be evolved from local history and native elements.cite conference|author=W. Wangsadinata and T.K. Djajasudarma| title=Architectural Design Consideration for Modern Buildings in Indonesia| year=1995| booktitle=INDOBEX Conf. on Building Construction Technology for the Future: Construction Technology for Highrises & Intelligence Buildings| location= Jakarta| url=http://www.wiratman.co.id/ximages/architecture.pdf| accessdate=2007-01-18] In 1920, Pont planned and designed buildings for the first technical university in the Dutch East Indies, "Technische Hogeschool te Bandung" (the present-day Institut Teknologi Bandung), after which he was named as a professor in architecture at the university. A striking local Javanese roof style is noticeably seen on top of the campus' ceremonial hall, embedded in his artwork.
In the same year, another Dutch architect,
J Gerber, designed "Gouverments Bedrijven" (Government Companies) in line with the colonial government plan to move the capital from Batavia to Bandung. The building is an example of harmonical mixture between West and East architectural styles, particularly the Italian Renaissance style of archstructures in the west wing and Thailand's pagoda-like structures in the middle section.Fact|date=February 2007 The building is known as Gedung Sate, named after the distinguished small satayshaped structure on the roof, and used as the head office of West Javaprovincial government and West Java's house of representative.
The modern and native architectural blending was followed by several Dutch architects that have shaped the city landmarks. In the 1930s, Bandung was known also as the city of architecture laboratory because of many Dutch architects made some experiments with new architectural designs.
Albert Aalbersadded the expressionist architecturestyle to the Art Deco by designing the DENIS bank (1936) and renovated the Savoy Homann Hotel(1939). C.P.W. Schoemaker was one of celebrated architects who strongly added native elements in his artworks, including the Villa Isola(1932), Hotel Preanger(1929), the regional military headquarter (1918), Gedung Merdeka(1921) and ITB Rectorate Building (1925).
Bandung is the capital of West Java, a province of which most of its residents are mainly
Sundanese people. Sundanese languageis spoken as the first language and is commonly used as informal language for communication in streets and markets, while Indonesian - Indonesia's national language and a lingua francaamong its many ethnic units - is used as a second language and the language of government, businesses, and instruction at schools.
A popular traditional musical instrument is
angklung, made of parallel bamboo tubes tuned to specific frequencies with a hammer and is shaken to produce certain notes. Music is performed by a choir of angklung players, each of whom are responsible for sounding certain notes. Its melody is only slightly different from that of Central Java's gamelanensembles.
Bandung has served for popular weekend-break destination for people living in
Jakartafor many reasons. The cooler climate of highland plantation area, the varieties of food, the cheaper fashion shops located in factory outlets and distros, golf courses, and the friendliness of local people have become the main attraction of the city. [Java Experience http://travel.ciao.co.uk/Java_Experience_5297272_5] In the 1990s, local designers opened denim clothing stores along Cihampelas Streetwhich gave Bandung another nickname, the "Tourist Shopping City" (Kota Wisata Belanja). It was a success as the-then residential street had been fully transformed into a "jeans street". The city attracts people from other big cities to buy local fashion wears, as they are cheaper than branded items. [Asia Travel http://www.asiatravel.com/bandinfo.html]
The city gained more shoppers to come when
textilefactories in the outskirt of Bandung opened a fashion store that sells their products directly from the factory. The products are tagged as "sisa export" (rejected or over-produced export quality items) and these shops are called "factory outlets". The trend was followed by another factory outlets. [The Lively Pulse of Bandung http://www.thingsasian.com/goto_article/article.2543.html]
Bandung is the home town of the
soccerteam Persib Bandung. Another soccer team Persikab is based in neighbouring town of Soreang, the capital city of Bandung Regency(Kabupaten Bandung). Persib Bandung's home base stadium is Siliwangi Stadium.
Other popular sports in Bandung include
badminton(see Taufik Hidayat, gold medal winner at the 2004 Summer Olympics) and basketball. The roads leading up to Lembang and Dago are popular routes for mountain cyclingduring the weekend. In the hillside around Bandung, there are a couple of golf courses.
Bandung can be accessed through 3 highways from Jakarta. An intercity toll highway, named as Cipularang
toll road, connecting Jakarta, Karawang, Purwakarta, Padalarang and Bandung, has recently been completed in May 2005. It is currently the fastest way to go to Bandung from the capital. Driving time is about 1.5 hours on average. There are 2 other options: the Puncak route (Jakarta- Cianjur/ Sukabumi-Bandung) or the Subang route (Jakarta- Cikampek- Subang- Lembang-Bandung). From eastern part of the cities ( Cirebon, Tasikmalayaand Central Javaprovince), Bandung can be accessed through the main provincial road.
The Pasupati bridge recently opened to the public, relieving traffic jams in the city for east-west transport. The 2.8 km
cable-stayed bridgelies through the valley of Cikapundung. It is 30 to 60 metres wide and after extensive delays, its construction finally completed in June 2005, following financial investment from Kuwait. [cite news|title=Kuwait invested USD 1.5 billion in Indonesia|url=http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0209/14/ekonomi/kuwa14.htm|pubisher=Kompas|language=Indonesian|date=2002-10-14|accessdate=2006-08-23] The bridge is part of Bandung's comprehensive inner-city highways plan.
Taxis are widely available. The primary means of public transportation is by minibus, called "angkot" (from "angkutan"=transportation and "kota"=city). They serve certain routes throughout the city and are operated privately. To find exact angkot routes, information are available through the drivers or at terminals. City-owned
buses, called "DAMRI", operates on larger relatively long routes. Bandung has 2 intercity bus terminals: Leuwipanjang, serving buses from the west, and Cicaheum, serving buses from the east.
Husein Sastranegara International Airportserves direct flights to Batam, Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Denpasar, Palembangand Padangand also international services from Kuala Lumpur. The airport is located nearby the Dirgantara aerospace complex and Dirgantara Fairground.
Railway connects Bandung to
Jakarta, Purwakarta, Bekasi, Karawangand Cikampekto the west, and Surabaya, Yogyakartaand Solo to the east. It is also the major means of transportation for people living in suburb areas of Cimahi, Padalarang, Rancaekek, Cicalengkaand Cileunyi.
cience and education
There are hundreds of public and private schools in Bandung. Like in other Indonesian cities, Bandung has several state-funded and administered junior high and high schools, called State Junior High Schools (SMP Negeri) and State High Schools (SMA Negeri), respectively. At least sixteen universities — three of which are state-owned universities — and 45
professional schoolsare scattered throughout the city. Education from social sciences, technology until tourism education can be found in one of those universities.
Among the several state universities located in Bandung,
Institut Teknologi Bandung(Bandung Institute of Technology), Universitas Padjadjaran(University of Padjadjaran), and Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia(Indonesia University of Education) are considered among the best universities in their respective fields of specialty in Indonesia. Established 1920, Institut Teknologi Bandungis Indonesia's oldest and most prestigious technical university. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia(formerly IKIP Bandung, established in 1954) is one of the first institutions of higher education established after Indonesian independence and is currently a leading education university in the country. Universitas Padjadjaran(established in 1956) is considered to be one of the best universities in the country in the fields of medical, law, communication, and economic studies.
In the north of Bandung,
Bosscha Observatoryis the only observatoryin Indonesia. Construction of the observatory began in 1923 and was completed in 1928. In 1922, the first international publication from Bosscha Observatory was published and in 1959, the observatory was included as a part of the department of astronomyin the Institut Teknologi Bandung (Bandung Institute of Technology).
Bandung economy is mainly built upon tourism, manufacturing, textile/apparel, education institutions, technology, retail, services, financial, pharmaceutical, food, among others. Those are the major investments and most popular fields/industries being sought here. [Bandung Tourism & Investment Council http://discoverbandung.solsticex.com]
Bandung has nearly 50 higher educational institutions and is among the most popular destination for education in Indonesia. Creative-based culture has shaped the basis of Bandung economy. The once quiet residential district of Dago has become an important business and entertainment centre. Chic cafes and restaurants are spreading out along Dago Street. In the early 1990s Cihampelas Street became a popular clothing store location.
The "distro" sell stylish non-trademarked products, made by local designers. Books, indie label records, magazines, fashion products and other accessories are typical distro products. After their products receive large teenagers attention, then these local designers make their own clothing company. Now, there are more than 200 local brand names in Bandung. Distro distance itself from factory outlet in term of its philosophy. Distros come from individual designers and young entrepreneurs, while factory outlet products come from a garment factory. [cite news|title=From Indie to Magic|url=http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0308/22/muda/504835.htm|language=Indonesian|publisher=Kompas|date=2003-08-22|accessdate=2006-08-21]
The north of the city serves as a
water reservoirfor Bandung's 2 million people, however, the area has seen much residential development. Several attempts to reserve this area have been made, including the creation of reserves, such as the Juanda National Park and Puncrut, but the development continues. The real danger has come in the form of several floodings in Bandung's south. [cite conference
first = Agus
last = Fahmudin
coauthors = Wahyunto
title = Evaluation of Flood Mitigation Function of Several Land Use Systems in Selected Areas of West Java, Indonesia
booktitle = Japan / OECD Expert Meeting on Land Conservation Indicators
publisher = OECD
url = http://www.olis.oecd.org/comnet/agr/landconserv.nsf/viewHtml/index/$FILE/Fahmuddin.PDF
In the middle of 2006, Bandung faced another environmental disaster, as the city's land fill site was reevaluated after a
landslidein 2005. [SP 18 May 2006 http://www.sp18.com/2006/05/] Collection of 8,000 m3/day domestic garbage piled up, causing air pollution, spreading of diseases, and water contamination. The provincial government eventually stepped in to solve the garbage issues. [cite news|title=Trash in Bandung Fears Uncollected|publisher=Pikiran Rakyat|language=Indonesian|url=http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/cetak/2005/0205/23/0103.htm|date=2005-02-23] [cite news|title=From Bandung Ocean of Flame to the Ocean of Trash|publisher=Kompas|language=Indonesian|url=http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0503/14/teropong/1615278.htm|date= 2005-03-25]
Bandung has sister relationships with a number of towns worldwide:
*flagicon|United States Fort Worth, USA
Suwon, South Korea
*The Dirtiest of Indonesia's metropolitan areas. [cite news|url=http://www.antara.co.id/seenws/?id=35701|title=Bandung and Bekasi the Dirtiest Metropolitan|language=Indonesian|publisher=Antara|date=
Adipura Award— for the achievement of the most beautiful city in Indonesia."The Adipura consists of a trophy and an award."
List of radio stations in Bandung, Indonesia
* [http://www.bandung.go.id/index.php?fa=en.index Official site]
* [http://www.bandungtourism.com/ Official tourism site]
* [http://www.bandungheritage.org/ Bandung Heritage Society]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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