- Roma in Spain
Infobox Ethnic group
group = Roma in Spain _es. "Gitanos"
caption = Spanish Gitanos:
Lolita Flores· Isabel Pantoja· Joaquín Cortés
poptime = Romani 600,000-800,000 up to roughly 1.5% of the Spanish population
popplace = Throughout the Country
region1 = flag|Andalusia
pop1 = 270,000
region2 = flag|Valencia
pop2 = 50,000
region3 = flag|Castile and León
pop3 = 29,000
region4 = flag|Catalonia
pop4 = 80,000
region5 = flag|Madrid
pop5 = 60,000
Romani language· Caló (Spanish Romani)· Spanish language· Catalan language
rels = Predominantly Evangelical
Roma peopleThe Romani peoplein Spain are generally known as Gitanos. Spanish Roma tend to speak Caló which is basically Andalusian Spanishwith a large number of Romani loan words. Estimates of the Spanish Gitano population fluctuate between 600,000 and 800,000 with the Spanish government estimating a number between 650,000 and 700,000. [http://www.eumap.org/reports/2002/eu/international/sections/spain/2002_m_spain.pdf]
It is generally accepted that the Roma migrated out of the Punjab & Rajasthan regions of the
Indian subcontinentinto Europe as early as the eleventh century. They are known to have brought the Indian Classical dance forms & Indian singing styles to Spain in the form of Flamenco, which directly derives from the Kathak dance of India. While in most of Europe the Roma arrived from Asia through Eastern Europe, there are records of their having arrived in Spainfrom Northern Africa, as early as 1425 and in Barcelonaand Zaragoza, in particular, by 1447. At first they were well received and were even accorded official protection by many local authorities, but by 1492 the first anti-Gypsy law was passed in Spain. Spanish Roma are linked to Flamencoand have contributed a great deal to this Andalusian musical art. According to Blas Infante, in his book "Orígenes de lo flamenco y secreto del cante jondo", etymologically, the word "Flamenco" may derive from Andalusi Arabic"fellah mengu", "Escapee Peasant". Infante connects the huge amount of Muslim Andalusians who decided to stay and mix with the Romani newcomers instead of abandoning their lands because of their religious beliefs ( Moriscos). After the Castilian reconquest of Andalusia, the Reconquista, most of the land was expropriated and given to warlords and mercenaries who had helped the Castilian kings enterprise against Al-Andalus. When the Spanish Crown later ordered the expulsion or forceful conversion of the Andalusian Moriscos, many of them took refuge among the Gypsies, becoming fellah mengu in order to avoid persecution, or forced deportation. In 1492 the Gypsies were included too in the list of peoples to be assimilated or driven out. For about 300 years, Gypsies were subject to a number of laws and policies designed to eliminate them from Spain as an identifiable group: Romani settlements were broken up and the residents dispersed; sometimes, Gypsies were even required to marry non-Gypsies; they were denied their language and rituals as well as being excluded from public office and from guild membership. citation needed
Gypsies worked as nomadic beast traders or entertainers.The sedentary population ("payos", "Gadjos") saw them as both dangerous, accusing them of laziness, stealing and kidnapping children, and attractive, bringing novelties from the outer world, having magical powers of
palmistryand living freely and carelessly. citation needed
During the Spanish Civil War, many gypsy Catholics were murdered by Republican Forces, many of them becoming martyrs and saints by Pope
Benedict XVI.Under Francisco Franco, Gypsies were harassed or simply ignored, although their children were, albeit sometimes forcibly, schooled. In the post-Franco era, however, Spanish government policy has been much more sympathetic toward them, especially in the area of social welfare and social services.In 1977, there were eliminated the last anti-gypsy, clearly discriminatory laws, promoted by Juan De Dios Rámirez Heredia, the first gypsy deputy. Since 1983, for example, the government has operated a special program of compensatory educationto promote educational rights for the disadvantaged, including those in Romani communities. The challenge will be to devise programs that bring the Romani population into the mainstream of the country's economic and political life without eroding the group's distinctive cultural and linguistic heritage. citation needed
At the same time, many Spanish Gypsies have found soothing to their lives in Evangelic Christianity, where the church has incorporated Flamenco in their worship.
Gitanos were traditionally
Roman Catholics who participate in four of the church's sacraments (baptism, marriage, confirmation, and extreme unction), but they are not assiduous churchgoers. They rarely go to folk healers, and they participate fully in Spain's state-supported medical system. Gitanos have a special involvement with recently dead kin, visit their graves frequently, and spend a great deal more money than non-Gitanos of equivalent economic classes in adorning grave sites.
At present, more than a half of all Gitanos have joined the Evangelical faith.Fact|date=January 2008 This fact has contributed to a better social status and cultural development. Even non-Evangelical Gitanos usually call the pastors for important ceremonies as funerals. The Romani Evangelical Assembly is the only religious institution entirely led and composed by Roma. The Gitano's however are of Hindu origin, as the Romany word for 'cross' is 'Trushul' which is the Hindu goddess Shiva's Trident.
The traditional Spanish Gypsies place a high value on the extended family.
Virginityis essential in unmarried women. Both men and women often marry young.Fact|date=April 2008 These traits are inherited from their Indian origin, as has been practiced by Indians throughout history.
Spanish Roma are called gitanos. In the late 1980s, the gitanos lived predominantly in southern and central Spain. Poor and largely illiterate, they have never been integrated into Spanish society.
Gitanos is a Spanish name, in southern
Francethey are known as "Gitans" or more generally "Tsiganes" (includes the other French Roma) and in Portugalthey are known as "Ciganos". Similarly to the English word Gypsy, the name "Gitano" comes from the old Spanish word "Egiptano" ( Egyptian), because in past centuries it was thought their origins were in the country of Egypt. After losing their original Romani language, they used Caló, a jargon with Spanish grammarand some Romani vocabulary (although very little). "Caló" means "dark" in Caló and the Caló word for "Gitanos" is "calé", also "the dark ones". Caló is one of the influences of later Germaníaand modern Spanish slang.
As well there is a relevant number of them in latin america who migrated during the colony, many times escaping from the catholic inquisition.
The image of Gitanos as outsiders to the main Spanish society have inspired several authors:
*"La gitanilla", by
Miguel de Cervanteshas Preciosa, a young Gitana, whose graceful dancing and singing convince a young noble to abandon his life and live as a Gitano.
Federico Garcia Lorca, a great Spanish poet of the 20th century, wrote " Romancero Gitano", "Gypsy Ballad Book." One of the poems in this collection is "Preciosa y el Aire" (Preciosa and the Air), in which the teenage girl created by Cervantes has a supernatural adventure.
Prosper Merimée's "Carmen" (1845) has the protagonist as a " femme fatale", ready to lie or attack and degrading men's lives.
*The beauty of a dark-haired Gitana has inspired people like
Julio Romero de Torres.
Following are famous people of Gitano ethnicity or descent:
Carmen Amaya, Flamenco dancer
Isabel Pantoja, singer
Manolo Caracol, Flamenco singer
Lolita Flores, singer
*Micaela Flores Amaya, "
La Chunga", Flamenco dancer
Vicente Escudero, He was a dancer and choreographer of Spanish Flamenco; occasionally painter, writer, cinematographic actor and flamenco singer.
Helios Gómez, Spanish artist painter, writer and poet
Antonio González, "el Pescaílla", guitarist
*Ricardo Baliardo, "
Manitas de Plata", French guitarist
* Joaquín Albaicín Spanish writer, lecturer and columnist for the artistic life
* José Heredia Maya Spanish poet and dramaturg
*Juan Peña Fernández, "el
Gipsy Kings, French group of " Flamenco Rumba"
*Pedro Pubill Calaf, "Peret",
Flamenco Rumbamusic star
*Juan de Dios Ramírez Heredia, Spanish Socialist MEP
Camarón de la Isla, Flamenco star
*Farruquito, Flamenco dancer
José Antonio Reyes, Spanish football player, currently plays for Atlético Madrid
Daniel Güiza, Spanish football player, currently plays for Fenerbahce
Telmo Zarraonaindia, Spanish football
Jesús Navas, Spanish football player, currently plays for Sevilla FC
Carlos Antonio Muñoz Cobo, Spanish football
*Arzu, Spanish football player, currently plays for
José Mari, Spanish football player, currently plays for Real Betis
David Cortés Caballero, Spanish football player, currently plays for Getafe CF
* Juana Martín Manzano, Fashion Designer
Los Niños de Sara, French fusion musicians
Ketama, Spanish fusion musicians
*Diego "El Cigala", Flamenco singer
Joaquín Cortés, Flamenco dancer
Faustino Reyes, Spanish Boxer
Ceferino Giménez Malla, blessed
* Patxi Ruiz Giménez Champion Basque pelota
* [http://www.eumap.org/reports/2002/eu/international/sections/spain/2002_m_spain.pdf The Situation of Roma in Spain] . The Open Society Institute, 2002 (
* Worth, Susannah and Sibley, Lucy R. "Maja
Dressand the Andalusian Image of Spain." " Clothingand Textiles Research Journal," Summer 1994, Vol. 12, pp.51-60.
*Gitanos article in the Spanish Wikipedia.
Triana (Seville), a neighborhood traditionally linked to Gitano history.
Sacromonte, the traditional Gitano quarter of Granada.
George Borrow, an English missionary and traveller who studied the Gypsies of Spain and other parts of Europe.
* [http://www.unionromani.org/pueblo_in.htm Union Romani]
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