Potawatomi


Potawatomi

Infobox Ethnic group
group=Potawatomi


poptime=~28,000
popplace=United States (Oklahoma, Kansas, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana), Canada (Ontario)
rels=Christianity, other
langs=English, Potawatomi
related=Ojibwe, Ottawa, and other Algonquian peoples

The Potawatomi (also spelled Pottawatomie and Pottawatomi, among many variations) are a Native American people of the upper Mississippi River region. They traditionally speak the Potawatomi language, a member of the Algonquian family. In the Potawatomi language, they generally call themselves Bodéwadmi, a name that means "keepers of the fire" and that was applied to them by their Anishinaabe cousins. They originally called themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of the word "Anishinaabe".

The Potawatomi were part of a long term alliance with the Ojibwe and Ottawa, called the Council of Three Fires. In the Council of Three Fires, Potawatomi were considered the "youngest brother."

History

The Potawatomi are first mentioned in French records, which suggest that, in the early 17th century, they lived in what is now southwestern Michigan. During the Beaver Wars, they fled to the area around Green Bay to escape attacks by the Iroquois and Neutral Nation.

Potawatomi warriors were an important part of Tecumseh's Confederacy and took part in Tecumseh's War, the War of 1812 and the Peoria War, although their allegiance switched repeatedly between the British and the Americans.

At the time of the War of 1812, a band of Potawatomi were present near Fort Dearborn, in the current location of Chicago. This tribe was agitated by chiefs Blackbird and Nuscotomeg (Mad Sturgeon), and a force of about 500 attacked the evacuation column leaving Fort Dearborn; a majority of the civilians and 54 of Captain Nathan Heald's force were killed, along with many wounded. This attack is referred to as the Fort Dearborn massacre. A Potawatomi chief named Mucktypoke ("Makdébki" , Black Partridge), counseled against the attack and later saved some of the civilians that were being ransomed by the Potawatomi.Edmunds, R. David (1988). "The Potawatomis: Keepers of the Fire". Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press (Civilization of the American Indian Series). ISBN 0-8061-2069-X.] There was also Potawatomi land in Crown Point, Indiana.

According to an article in the " [http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/chicago/chi-0605100248may10,1,2459253.story Chicago Tribune] ", the Prairie Band Potawatomi Indians purchased convert|1280|acre|km2 of land near Shabbona, Illinois, in rural DeKalb County.

Leaders

French Period (1615–1763)

The French period of contact began with early explorers who reached the Potawatomi in western Michigan and then found the tribe located along the Door Peninsula of Wisconsin. By the end of the French period, the Potawatomi had begun a move to the Detroit area of Michigan, leaving the large communities in Wisconsin.
*Madouche during the Fox Wars
*Millouisillyny
*Onanghisse (Shimmering Light) at Green Bay
*Otchik at Detroit

English Period (1763–1783)

The British period of contact began with the French removal at the end of the French and Indian War and was punctuated by Pontiac’s Rebellion and the capture of every British frontier garrison but one, at Detroit. The Potawatomi nation continued to grow and expanded westward from Detroit, most notably in the development of the St. Joseph villages adjacent to the Miami in southwestern Michigan. The Wisconsin communities continued and moved south along the Lake Michigan shoreline.
*Nanaquiba (Water Moccasin) at Detroit
*Ninivois at Detroit
*Peshibon at St. Joseph
*Washee (the Swan) at St. Joseph during Pontiac's Rebellion

American Treaty Period (1783–1830)

The American Treaty period of Potawatomi history began with the Treaty of Paris (1783), which ended the American Revolutionary War and established the United States' interest in the lower Great Lakes. It lasted until the treaties for removal were signed. The Potawatomi were recognized as a single tribe and there were often a few tribal leaders that all villages accepted. Still, the Potawatomi had a dispersed organization and belonged to several main divisions based on where they were located: Milwaukee or Wisconsin area, Detroit or Huron River, the St. Joseph River, the Kankakee River, Tippecanoe and Wabash Rivers, the Illinois River and Lake Peoria, and the Des Plaines and Fox Rivers. The Chiefs listed below are grouped by their geographic area.

Milwaukee Potawatomi

*Manamol
*Siggenauk ("Siginaak" : "Le Tourneau" or "Blackbird")

Chicago Potawatomi

*BurnettMcPherson, Alan (1993). "Indian Names in Indiana".] (1790?–1871) or Abraham Burnett
*Billy Caldwell, also known as Sauganash ("Zhaaganaash": "Englishman") (1780–??)

Des Plaines and Fox River Potawatomi

*Blackbird
*Waubansee (He Causes Paleness))
*Waweachsetohalong with La Gesse, Gomo or Masemo (Resting Fish)

Illinois River Potawatomi

*Mucktypoke ("Makdébki" : "Black Partridge")
*Senachewine (d. 1831) (Petacho or Swift Water) was the brother of Gomo who was chief among the Lake Peoria Potawatomi
*Shabbona (1775–unk) (Burly Shoulders)

Kankakee River (Iroquois and Yellow Rivers) Potawatomi

*Main Poc , also known as Webebeset ("Crafty One")
*Micsawbee 1800s
*Notawkah (Rattlesnake) on the Yellow River
*Nuscotomeg ("Neshkademég": "Mad Sturgeon") on the Iroquois and Kankakee Rivers
*Turkey Foot

t. Joseph and Elkhart Potawatomi

*Chebass ("Zhshibés" : "Little Duck") on the St. Joseph River
*Five Medals
*Onaska on the Elkhart River
*Topinbee (He who sits Quietly) (??-1826)

Tippecanoe and Wabash River Potawatomi

*Aubenaubee (1761–1837/8) on the Tippecanoe River
*Askum (More and More) on the Eel River
*George Cicott (1800?–1833)
*Keesass on the Wabash River
*Kewanna (1790?–1840s?) (Prairie Chicken) Eel River
*Kinkash (see Askum)
*Magaago
*Monoquet (1790s–1830s) on the Tippecanoe River
*Tiosa on the Tippecanoe River
*Winamac (Catfish)—1st
*Winamac (Catfish)—2nd

Fort Wayne Potawatomi

*Metea (1760?–1827) (Sulker)
*Wabnaneme on the Pigeon River

American Removal Period (1830–1840)

The Removal period of Potawatomi history began with the treaties of the late 1820s when reservations were created, then continually reduced in size. The final step was the removal of the Illinois Potawatomi to Nebraska and then the Indiana Potawatomi to Kansas. Many Potawatomi found ways to remain, primarily those in Michigan, and others fled to their Odawa neighbors or Canada to avoid removal.

*Big Foot at Lake Geneva
*Iowa Wabash River
*Menominee (1791?–1841) Twin Lakes of Marshall County
*Pamtipee of Nottawasippi
*Mackahtamoah Nottawasippi
*Pashpoho near Rochester
*Pepinawah
*Pokagon (c. 1775–1800?)
*Simon Pokagon (1790s–??)
*Alexander Robinson (Chechepinquay "Squinter") (??–1872)
*Shupshewahno (1800s–1841) or Shipshewana at Shipshewana Lake.
*Topinbee (The Younger) on the St. Joseph River
*Wabanim (White Dog) on the Iroquois River
*Michicaba (Snapping Turtle) on the Iroquois River
*Wanatah
*Weesionas (see Ashkum)
*Wewesh

Bands

There are several active bands of Potawatomi:

*Citizen Potawatomi Nation, Oklahoma
*Forest County Potawatomi Community, Wisconsin
*Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi (also known as the Gun Lake tribe), based in Dorr, Michigan in Allegan County, Michigan
*Hannahville Indian Community, Michigan
*Moose Deer Point First Nation, Ontario, Canada
*Nottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi, based in Calhoun County, Michigan
*Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians, Michigan and Indiana
*Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation, Kansas
*Stoney Point and Kettle Point bands, Ontario, Canada
*Walpole Island band; an unceded island between the United States and Canada

Population

Clans

Chauvignerie (1736) and Morgan (1877) mentions among the Potawatomi doodems (clans) being:
*"Bené" (Turkey)
*"Gagagshi" (Crow)
*"Gnew" (Golden Eagle)
*"Jejakwé" (Thunderer, i.e. Crane)
*"Mag" (Loon)
*"Mekchi" (Frog)col-3
*"Mek" (Beaver)
*"Mewi'a" (Wolf)
*"Mgezewa" (Bald Eagle)
*"Mkedésh-gékékwa" (Black Hawk)
*"Mko" (Bear)
*"Mshéwé" (Elk)col-3
*"Mshike" (Turtle)
*"Nmé" (Sturgeon)
*"Nmébena" (Carp)
*"Shagéshi" (Crab)
*"Wabozo" (Rabbit)
*"Wakeshi" (Fox)col-end

Location

The Potawatomi first lived in lower Michigan, then moved to northern Wisconsin and eventually settled into northern Indiana and central Illinois. In the early 19th century, major portions of Potawatomi lands were annexed by the U.S. government. Following the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, most of the Potawatomi people were forcibly removed from the tribe's lands. Many perished en route to new lands in the west through Iowa, Kansas and Oklahoma, following what became known as the "Trail of Death".

Language

Potawatomi (also spelled Pottawatomie; in Potawatomi "Bodéwadmimwen" or "Bodéwadmi Zheshmowen" or "Neshnabémwen") is a Central Algonquian language and is spoken around the Great Lakes in Michigan and Wisconsin, as well as in Kansas and in southern Ontario. [Moseley, Christopher (2007). "Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages", p. 74. Routledge. ISBN 070071197X.] There are fewer than 50 people who speak Potawatomi as a first language, most of them elderly. [Hinton, Leanne and Hale, Kenneth (2001). "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice", p. 342. Emerald Group Publishing. ISBN 0123493536.] There is currently an effort underway to revitalize the language.

Potawatomi language is the most similar to the Odawa language; however, it also has borrowed a considerable amount of vocabulary from Sauk. Like the Odawa language, or the Ottawa dialect of the Anishinaabe language, the Potawatomi language exhibits great amount of vowel syncope.

Many places in the Midwest have names derived from the Potawatomi language, including Allegan, Waukegan, Muskegon, Oconomowoc and Skokie.

ee also

*Treaty with the Potawatomi
*Potawatomi Trail of Death
*List of Potawatomi Information

Notes

External links

* [http://www.tolatsga.org/pota.html First Nations Compact Histories: Potawatomi History]
* [http://www.pbpindiantribe.com/ Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation]
* [http://www.potawatomi.org/ Citizen Potawatomi Nation]
* [http://www.nhbpi.com/ Nottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi]
* [http://www.fcpotawatomi.com/ Forest County Potawatomi]
* [http://www.mbpi.org/default.asp Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi] (Gun Lake)
* [http://www.moosedeerpoint.com/ Moose Deer Point First Nation]
* [http://www.pokagon.com Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians]
* [http://www.gbl.indiana.edu/Pot/Php1760.html The Potawatomi in historical perspective]
* [http://www.kansasheritage.org/PBP/books/treaties/title.html#toc Treaties with the Potawatomi]
* [http://nativeblog.typepad.com/ Potawatomi Author Larry Mitchell]
* [http://www.kettlepoint.org Kettle & Stony Point First Nation]
*CathEncy|wstitle=Potawatomi Indians


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Potawatomi — Indianerstämme im Gebiet der Großen Seen Die Potawatomi (auch Pottawatomie oder Pottawatomi) sind ein Indianerstamm aus der Region des oberen Mississippi River. Die ursprünglich benutzte Potawatomi Sprache kommt aus der Familie der Algonkin… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Potawatomi — /pot euh wot euh mee/, n., pl. Potawatomis, (esp. collectively) Potawatomi. a member of an Algonquian Indian people originally of Michigan and Wisconsin. * * * ▪ people  Algonquian (Algonquian languages) speaking tribe of North American Indians… …   Universalium

  • Potawatomi — noun a) A Native American people of the upper Mississippi River region. b) The Algonquian language spoken by the Potawatomi people …   Wiktionary

  • potawatomi — ► adjetivo sustantivo de género común ETNOGRAFÍA Díc. del indi viduo perteneciente a una tribu algonquina norteamericana, que habitó en el NE de Wisconsin. Los potawatomi eran sedentarios y vivían de la agricultura, de la caza y de la pesca …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Potawatomi — n. American Indian tribe originally from the north central United States n. member of the Potawatomi Indian tribe of the north central United States …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Potawatomi — [ˌpɒtə wɒtəmi] noun (plural same or Potawatomis) 1》 a member of an American Indian people inhabiting the Great Lakes region, principally in Michigan and Wisconsin. 2》 the Algonquian language of the Potawatomi. Origin the name in Ojibwa …   English new terms dictionary

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  • Potawatomi — /pɒtəˈwɒtəmi/ (say potuh wotuhmee) noun 1. a Native American people of Algonquian stock of Michigan and Wisconsin. 2. (plural Potawatomi or Potawatomis) a member of this people. –adjective 3. of or relating to this people …   Australian English dictionary


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