- Transparency (research)
Transparency, as used in the
humanities, implies openness, communication, and accountability. It is a metaphorical extension of the meaning a "transparent" object is one that can be seen through. Transparent procedures include open meetings, financial disclosure statements, the freedom of information legislation, budgetary review, audits, etc.
Banking transparency and disclosure of bank activities are suggested to prevent future banking crises [ [http://www.bos.frb.org/economic/wp/wp1998/wp98_8.pdf Will Greater Disclosure and Transparency Prevent the Next Banking Crisis] ] , underground banking, unpublished accounts (
clearstream) [ [http://mondediplo.com/2006/07/18clearstream Crime is a leading benificiary of globalisation] ] , money laundering, tax evasion, and other fraud [ [http://www.aic.gov.au/media/2005/20050818.html Underground banking link to money laundering] ] . Forcing banks to disclose more information about their lending and investment in deprived areas is suggested as part of the fight against financial exclusion [ [http://www.woodstockinst.org/for-the-press/woodstock-in-the-news/call-for-more-transparent-banking-in-deprived-areas-(guardian-unlimited)/ Call for more transparent banking in deprived areas (Guardian Unlimited)] ]
Corporate transparency, a form of radical transparencyis the construct of removing all barriers to —and facilitating of— free and easy public access to corporate, political and personal information and the laws, rules, social connivanceand processes that facilitate and protect those individuals and corporations who freely join, develop and embellish the process [ [http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2005/405/essentials/p34.htm Corporate Transparency:Code of Ethics Disclosures] ] .
Radical transparencyis a managementmethod where nearly all decision making is carried out publicly. All draft documents, all arguments for and against a proposal, the decisions about the decision making process itself, and all final decisions, are made publicly and remain publicly archived.
Media Transparencyis the concept of determining how and why informationis conveyed through various means.If the media and the public knows everything that happens in all authorities and county administrations there will be a lot of questions, protests and suggestions coming from media and the public. People who are interested in a certain issue will try to influence the decisions. Transparency creates an everyday participation in the political processes by media and the public. One tool used to increase everyday participation in political processes is Freedom of Information legislation and requests. Modern democracybuilds on such participation of the people and media.There are, for anybody who is interested, many ways to influence the decisions at all levels in society [ [http://www.icmpa.umd.edu/pages/studies/transparency/main.html Openness & Accountability: A Study of Transparency in Global Media Outlets] ] .
In politics transparency is introduced as a means of holding public officials
accountableand fighting corruption. When governmentmeetings are open to the press and the public, when budgetsand financial statementsmay be reviewed by anyone, when laws, rules and decisions are open to discussion, they are seen as transparent and there is less opportunity for the authorities to abuse the system in their own interest [ [http://ideas.repec.org/p/pen/papers/07-008.html The Transparency of Politics and the Quality of Politicians] ] .
government, politics, ethics, business, management, law, economics, sociology, etc., transparency is the opposite of privacy; an activity is transparent if all information about it is open and freely available. Thus when courts of law admit the public, when fluctuating prices in financial markets are published in newspapers, those processes are transparent. Open governmentis the political doctrinewhich holds that the business of government and state administration should be opened at all levels to effective publicscrutiny and oversight.
When military authorities classify their plans as secret, transparency is absent. This can be seen as either positive or negative; positive, because it can increase
national security, negative, because it can lead to secrecy, corruption and even a military dictatorship.
Scholarly research in any scientific discipline may also be labeled as (partly) transparent if some or all relevant aspects of the research are open in the sense of
Open source, Open Accessand Open Data, thereby facilitating social recognition and accountabilityof the scholars who did the research and replication by others interested in the matters addressed by it [ [http://www.nature.com/embor/journal/v3/n1/full/embor241.html Transparent science] ] .
liberal democracycan be a plutocracy, where decisions are taken behind locked doors and the people have very small possibilities to influence the politics between the elections, a participative democracyis more closely connected to the will of the people.
Participative democracy, built on transparency and everyday participation, has been used officially in northern
Europefor decades. (In the northern European country Sweden, public access to government documents became a law as early as 1766.) It has officially been adopted as an ideal to strive for by the rest of EU.
Many countries in the world still have older forms of democracy, or other forms of government.
Some organizations and networks, for example, the
GNU/ Linuxcommunity and Indymedia, insist that not only the ordinary information of interest to the community is made freely available, but that all (or nearly all) "meta"-levels of organizing and decision-making are themselves also published. This is known as radical transparency.
* To promote transparency in
politics, Hans Peter Martin, Paul van Buitenen( Europa Transparant) and Ashley Motedecided to cooperate under the name Platform for Transparency(PfT) in 2005.
* A similar organization that promotes transparency is
Accountability in the European Union
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative(or EITI)
Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006
Freedom of information
Regulation Fair Disclosure(U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Regulation)
Right to Information Act
The Transparent Society(David Brin)
Transparency and Accountability(TRAC)
* [http://www.transparency.org Transparency International]
* [http://www.followthemoney.org/ The National Institute on Money in State Politics]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Transparency and translucency — Diaphanes redirects here. For the genus of firefly, see Diaphanes (beetle). Translucence redirects here. For other uses, see Translucence (disambiguation). Translucent redirects here. For the Japanese manga series, see Translucent (manga).… … Wikipedia
Transparency International — TI An international anti*corruption organization. Transparency International is headquartered in Berlin, Germany, and its mission (as stated on its Web site) is to bring civil society, business, and governments together in a powerful global anti… … Auditor's dictionary
Climatic Research Unit email controversy — Date 17 November 2009 Location Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia Also known as Climategate Inquiries House of Commons Science and Technology Committee (UK) Independent Climate Change Review (UK) International Science Assessment … Wikipedia
Perceptual transparency — is the phenonmenon of seeing one surface behind another. [http://www.colourware.co.uk/steve/westland ripamonti dapos JEI 2004.pdf] In our everyday life, we often experience the view of objects through transparent surfaces.Physically transparent… … Wikipedia
Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 — Full title A bill to require full disclosure of all entities and organizations receiving Federal funds. Acronym Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 … Wikipedia
Manhattan Institute for Policy Research — Motto Turning Intellect into Influence Formation 1978 Type Public … Wikipedia
Capital Research Center — (CRC) is a conservative non profit organization that was founded in 1984 by Willa Johnson to study non profit organizations, with a special focus on reviving the American traditions of charity, philanthropy, and voluntarism. They also investigate … Wikipedia
Corporate transparency — is set of information, privacy, and business policies to improve corporate decisionmaking and operations openness to employees, stakeholders, shareholders and the general public. Standard Poor s has included a definition of corporate transparency … Wikipedia
Nevada Policy Research Institute — Part of a series on Conservatism … Wikipedia
Electromagnetically induced transparency — The effect of EIT on a typical absorption line. A weak probe normally experiences absorption shown in blue. A second coupling beam induces EIT and creates a window in the absorption region (red). This plot is a computer simulation of EIT in an… … Wikipedia