Worthing


Worthing

Infobox Settlement
name = Worthing
official_name = Borough of Worthing
other_name =
native_name =
nickname = Sunny Worthing
settlement_type = Town and Borough
total_type = Borough
motto = "Ex terra copiam e mari salutem"
(Latin: "From the land plenty and from the sea health")


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mapsize = 150px
map_caption = "Shown within West Sussex"


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map_caption1 = !-- Location ------------------>
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = United Kingdom
subdivision_type1 = Constituent area
subdivision_name1 = England
subdivision_type2 = Region
subdivision_name2 = South East England
subdivision_type3 = County
subdivision_name3 = West Sussex
subdivision_type4 = Borough
subdivision_name4 = Worthing
subdivision_type5 =
subdivision_name5 =
seat_type =
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government_footnotes =Leadership=Mayor & Cabinet
Executive=EnglishDistrictControl|ONS=45UH
government_type = Borough
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Christine Brown(LD)
leader_title1 = Leader of Council
leader_name1 = Keith Mercer (C)
leader_title2 = MPs
leader_name2 = Peter Bottomley (C)
Tim Loughton (C)
-
established_title = Founded
established_date = In antiquity
established_title2 = Town charter
established_date2 = 1803
established_title3 = Borough status
established_date3 = 1890
area_magnitude =
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area_footnotes = Ranked 335th
area_total_km2 = 32.48
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elevation_m = 7
elevation_ft = 25
elevation_max_m = 184
elevation_max_ft = 603
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population_total =English district population|ONS=45UH
population_density_km2 = English district density|ONS=45UH
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population_urban =461,181 (Greater Worthing)
183,000 (Worthing sub-urban)
population_density_urban_km2 =4901.5
population_density_urban_sq_mi =
population_blank1_title =ethnicity
population_blank1 =97.2% White
13.5%
population_blank2_title =Demonym
population_blank2 =Worthingite
population_density_blank1_km2 =
population_density_blank1_sq_mi =

timezone = GMT
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timezone_DST = Summer Time (British)
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postal_code_type = Postcode
postal_code = BN11, BN12, BN13, BN14
area_code = 01903
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blank_name =ONS code
blank_info =45UH
blank1_name =Highest Point
blank1_info =Cissbury Ring (184m)
blank2_name =Grid Reference
blank2_info =SU775075
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website = [http://www.worthing.gov.uk/ www.worthing.gov.uk]
footnotes =

Worthing (pronEng|ˈwɜrðɪŋ) is a large seaside town and a local government borough in West Sussex, England.Worthing is a major urban area and forms part of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation.

Town

Worthing has a population of just under 100,000 and is situated between the English Channel and the South Downs, a proposed national park [http://www.southdownscampaign.org.uk/main.htm.]

Traditionally Worthing has an above average proportion of elderly people, although there has been a decrease in the 60+ population, along with an increase in the population aged 25-45 in recent years. [http://www.worthingevolution.com/ Worthing Regeneration ] ]

At the same time, employment has increased at a faster rate than the national average.. Although the town is perceived as prosperous, and for three consecutive years was voted the most profitable town in Britain, [Experian Retail Monitor, 1998-2000] the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 2004 found that Worthing residents' average pre-tax pay is only £413 a week, compared to £442 for West Sussex and £474 for South East England. [ [http://www.eco-action.org/porkbolter/yule05.html The Pork-bolter - What's Really Going on in Worthing ] ]

Worthing has had an active underground culture for many years. Well known for smugglers right back to the 18th century, [ [http://www.worthing.gov.uk/Leisure/MuseumampArtGallery/Collections/LocalHistoryArchive/ Local History Archive ] ] [ [http://www.smuggling.co.uk/gazetteer_se_18.html Smuggling on the Sussex coast west of the River Ouse ] ] in the 19th century the Skeleton Army's opposition to the Salvation Army led to rioting, and in the 1960s The Worthing Workshop was a meeting place for musicians, actors and poets. Famous members included The Damned’s Brian James, Leo Sayer, Billy Idol, Martin Quittenton (who wrote Rod Stewart's "Maggie May") and Track Records' supremo, Ian Grant. More recently, the town was home to Jamie Hewlett (Designer of the Year 2006) and Alan Martin, creators of Tank Girl. The Ordinary Boys, with singer Preston, were formed in the town. Today, the Revolutionary Arts Group and an anarchic local newsletter called "The Porkbolter" continue the underground culture. The newsletter takes its name from a belief that the inhabitants of Worthing were nicknamed "pork bolters", dating from the town's days as a fishing village when superstitious fishermen were afraid of pigs.

The town is often known as 'Sunny Worthing' following a popular advertising campaign in the 1890s promoting the town's agreeable climate between the sea and Downs.

History

tone age

Within a 7-mile radius of Worthing's town centre lie four of Britain's major neolithic flint mines. The oldest of these mines, at Church Hill in Findon, may be the earliest known mine in Britain. Thought to date from the 5th millennium BC and 4th millennium BC, these mines represent some of the oldest mines in Europe, if not the world and predate the great neolithic sights of Stonehenge and Avebury. In the neolithic period, the South Downs above Worthing was one of Britain's most important flint mining centres, containing the greatest concentration of flint mines in Britain. [ [http://www.glaucus.org.uk/History.htm History of Shoreham ] ] These extensive flint mines which include the considerable mines at Cissbury are in many ways comparable to the vast flint mines of Spiennes in Belgium which have been given World Heritage Site status.

The secondary southern escarpment of the South Downs close to Worthing, south of the main ridge of the Downs (formed by hills such as Steep Down, Cissbury, Church Hill and Harrow Hill) is most visible west of the River Adur and it is this flint which is especially hard and durable and hence valuable in neolithic times. [Brandon, Peter (1998), The South Downs Phillimore ISBN-10: 186077069X ] Flint from these early mines played a significant role in enabling the 'neolithic revolution' to take place across southern Britain, gradually replacing the nomadic hunter-gatherer way of life of the mesolithic period with the settled agricultural way of life of the neolithic period. There is evidence that flint from these mines was traded across southern Britain, particularly to the populous areas on the Wessex downland. [Brandon, Peter (1998), The South Downs Phillimore ISBN-10: 186077069X ]

The flint mines are: Harrow Hill in Patching (mined from 4250 BC to 3500 BC)Russell, Miles (2002), Prehistoric Sussex, Tempus, ISBN 0-7524-1964-1] Blackpatch Hill in Clapham (4350 BC to 3500 BC), Church Hill in Findon (4500 BC to 3750 BC) and Cissbury, within the modern borough of Worthing. The flints would have been used to make tools such as axes, scrapers and arrow heads. At Harrow Hill, dozens of ox skulls have been found, suggesting ritual slaughter, possibly each autumn, as many animals would not have survived the winter. In the mine shafts, drawings of an Earth Spirit and phalluses seem to have been used to protect the fertility of the mines. [Brandon, Peter (1998), The South Downs Phillimore ISBN-10: 186077069X] At Blackpatch, remains of what appear to be miners' huts have been found. Cissbury in neolithic times was probably Britain's second largest flint mine, after Grimes Graves in Norfolk. Over 270 pits have been found at Cissbury and there is evidence that flint from Cissbury was exported as far away as the eastern Mediterranean. [http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/w-global/w-localtoyou/w-south_east/w-south_east-countryside/w-south_east-places-west_sussex/w-south_east-places-west_sussex-cissbury.htm National Trust | South East | Cissbury Ring ] ] Some shafts extend some 23 metres below the surface, with many galleries radiating from the base.. Four engravings, of a bull and deer, have been found in a shaft of one of the Cissbury flint mines. This is significant as few pieces of representational art survive from the British neolithic period.

For much of the neolithic period of the stone age, it is likely that the Worthing area was at the borders of territory of two tribes, one based at the causewayed enclosure at Whitehawk Camp (in modern Brighton) and one centred on the causwayed enclosure at the Trundle (near modern Chichester).

Henges seem to have existed on the Downs near Worthing at Blackpatch, Church Hill, Cissbury and also at Cock Hill, midway between the neolithic mining areas of Harrow Hill and Blackpatch. At Cock Hill lies a henge dating from the late neolithic period, 48 metres in diameter, roughly circular, with a single entrance to the south-east. Various round barrows have been found on the Downs near Worthing close to Blackpatch and Church Hill..

Neolithic axes from the mines have been found away from the Downs in various locations across the modern town of Worthing including at Homefield Park, Heene Road, Broadwater, Pond Lane and Seldens Way. A site near the summit of West Hill in High Salvington, between Honeysuckle Lane and the covered reservoir, has been identified as the possible location of a neolithic village, possibly used by flint miners. [Elleray, D Robert (1998), Millennium Encyclopaedia of Worthing History E300195311]

Bronze age

Several Bronze Age barrows have been found within the modern borough of Worthing, close to Cissbury on the Downs. The enclosures at Highdown Hill are believed to have been built at this time. Various artefacts, including tools, metal and pottery have been found in the Worthing area. In 1877 a large collection of Bronze Age cakes, palstaves and axes was found in a Bronze Age pot near Ham Road in East Worthing.

Iron age

The hill fort at Cissbury Ring dates from this period. Covering an extensive 60 acres (24 ha), [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-7294(190507%2F09)2%3A7%3A3%3C529%3ANDAC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L] this is one of the largest iron age hill forts in Britain and indeed Europe.

In 1842 a boat made from a hollowed-out oak tree was found at low tide in the sand near to Heene Road. It was believed that the boat dated from the Iron Age.

Roman times

Roman coins, tiles and pottery have been discovered in several parts of the town. Several roads in the Worthing area date from the Roman era or earlier, including the Roman road from Chichester ("Noviomagus Reginorum") to Brighton which ran through Durrington and Broadwater.

It is likely that several of Worthing's roads were laid out during this period in a grid form marking out a field system known as 'centuriation'.Kerridge, Ron and Standing, Mike (2005), Worthing The Francis Frith Collection ISBN-13: 9781859379950] Worthing's High Street lies at the south of a long straight trackway that stretches from high on the South Downs to the sea and northwards into the Weald. The track would have been used as a droveway (for transhumance) and can still be walked today along much of its length. Coming off the Downs it is now known as Charmandean Lane, which turns into a footpath known as the Quashetts, which becomes High Street and finally the Steyne before reaching the sea. The track would have touched the western shoreline of the 'broad water' that is the sea inlet from which Broadwater gets its name. The inlet would have existed for centuries but disappeared in the 18th century. It is likely that Worthing's grid system would have been based on this ancient track. The grid system would have been used to demarcate plots of land for fields and development.

The modern South Farm Road was once a track running north-south, parallel to the Quashetts path. It lies exactly 20 actus (about 710 metres) from the Quashetts path. 100 actus (about 3,550 metres) to the west of the Quashetts track lies the remains of a track that is probably Celtic in origin, also running north-south, by Stanhope Lodge, now on Poplar Road in Durrington. The track once marked the border between the parishes of Goring and Durrington. Today the line of this track marks the boundary between Clapham and Worthing. Another modern road that appears to be on the Roman grid system is Tarring Road (east-west), the ancient boundary between Heene and Tarring. South of Tarring Road (and the Teville stream is would have run alongside), the boundaries in the grid seem to be 24 actus apart from each other. The ancient boundary between Heene (later West Worthing) and Broadwater (later Worthing) lies 24 actus west of the Quashetts track. George V Avenue (north-south), the ancient boundary between Tarring (later West Worthing) and Goring lies 72 actus from the Quashetts track.

There is evidence of several buildings from the Roman era in Worthing. The town's Museum and Art Gallery is built on the site of a Roman farmhouse. A Roman settlement existed along the modern Brighton Road between Merton Road and Navarino Road. Remains of a Roman villa and bath house have been found on the site of Northbrook College's main Goring campus. A Roman milepost was found in modern Grand Avenue in West Worthing, possibly indicating another Roman road. A Roman cemetery existed between Chesswood Road and the railway line and burials dating from the early 4th century have also been found near Park Crescent. Roman pottery and coins have been found at Stonehurst Road, at land south of Ringmer Road in Tarring and on the Upper Brighton Road. Some Romano-British houses have been excavated in the Titnore Woods area of Durrington. Several small houses at the hill fort of Cissbury Ring on the Downs north of the town would have been in use during the Roman period.

Just beyond the boundaries of the modern town of Worthing, a Romano-British shrine existed at Muntham Court (now by the site of Worthing Crematorium). A Roman villa and bath-house also existed at Highdown and at nearby Angmering. The nationally-important Patching hoard of Roman coins that was found in 1997 is the latest find of Roman coins found in Britain, probably deposited after 475 AD. [ [http://www.treasurerealm.com/coinpapers/hoards/history.html cnet Internet Coin Project - Hoards, The Patching Hoard ] ] The hoard can be found in the town's Museum and Art Gallery.

axon times

Around 450, Highdown was being used as a cemetery by the South Saxons. Almost 100 hundred graves were found, possibly of Saxon warriors who died in the Saxon invasion of the area. [ [http://www.vttexplorers.co.uk/page9.htm VTT Explorers - Downs Time Line ] ] Highdown continued to be used for some time for burials and cremations of Saxons. It is significant that Highdown was being used as a cemetery by pagan Saxons at the same time that Romano-British villa at nearby Northbrook, less than a mile away was still in use by local Celtic Christians. This suggests that Celtic Britons and Saxons were able to live side-by-side in relative harmony.Fact|date=July 2008

The Saxons settled nearby Goring and Sompting and by the 13th century the settlement, then known as Wortinge, was populated primarily by farmers and mackerel fishermen. The hamlet of Worthing was originally part of the larger parish of Broadwater. Other nearby villages to later become part of Worthing include Tarring, Salvington, Goring, Heene and Durrington, as well as small parts of the parishes of Findon and Sompting.

Droveways (transhumance trackways) that extend from Tarring, Broadwater and nearby Sompting to grazing areas in the Weald via Cissbury Ring and Buncton near Wiston are believed to date from this period or earlier. [Brandon, Peter (1998), "The South Downs" Phillimore ISBN-10: 186077069X ]

Medieval times

Following the Norman conquest, William de Braose gave the manor of Worthing (then known as Ordinges) to Robert le Sauvage, whose descendants held Worthing for around 200 hundred years. Worthing is first mentioned in the Domesday Book as two separate hamlets, Ordinges and Mordinges, when it had a population of just 22. By 1218 the Ordinges had become known as Wordding. Fact|date=July 2007

In the 13th century, the manor of Worthing was owned by Margaret de Gaddesden, a descendant of Robert le Sauvage. Margaret de Gaddesden later left her husband, John de Camoys, to live with Sir William Paynel, who she later married. [ [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=18219 Broadwater | British History Online ] ] It is likely that as a consequence of leaving her first husband for another man she then gave the manor of Worthing to Easebourne Priory near Midhurst, while in 1332 Sir William gave the nearby manor of Cokeham to Hardham Priory near Pulborough. [ [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=18217 Sompting | British History Online ] ] By giving away their property to the church it is likely that Margaret and Sir William were acting in fear of their souls as the medieval church taught damnation was likely.

In 1300 and again in 1493, Worthing is recorded as having a harbour, possibly in the estuary of the Teville stream. [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=18222 Worthing | British History Online ] ] Worthing harbour was a member of Shoreham Port in 1324.

Worthing was owned by the Easebourne Priory until the dissolution of the monasteries in 1539. It then became the property of Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu, whose family held the manor of Worthing for over 200 years.

18th and 19th centuries

It was in the late 18th century that Worthing began to attract visitors. John Luther, from London, started the trend, building a large lodging house around 1759. [ [http://www.centenary-images.co.uk/en-gb/pg_12.html History ] ] In 1789, George Greville, 4th Earl of Warwick, bought the house (renaming it Warwick House) and the town began to become fashionable. [From 'Centenary' by Rupert Taylor, Pub. Beckett Features 1990] With a warm climate and calm seas, it benefited from the Edwardian fashion for sea cures. Over the course of the next century Worthing became a fashionable resort on the circuit along with the towns of Bath, Brighton, Bognor Regis, Cheltenham and Margate.

Royal visits from Princess Amelia in 1798, Princess Charlotte in 1807 and Princess Augusta in 1829 did much to make the town popular. The Prince of Wales visited his youngest sister Princess Amelia in Worthing from nearby Brighton. In 1814, Queen Caroline visited Worthing on her way back to live in Brunswick in northern Germany. [ [http://uk.geocities.com/kenathh5/hanoveriandynasty.html Hanoverian Dynasty ] ] In addition, Queen Adelaide, wife of King William IV stayed in the town in 1849 and in 1861 Queen Marie Amelie of France, wife of King Louis-Philippe of France stayed in the town when exiled from France.

Notable visitors to the fashionable town of Worthing in the 19th century included novelist Ann Radcliffe, [ [http://www.infopt.demon.co.uk/radcliff.htm The Life of Ann Radcliffe ] ] the Duke of Northumberland in 1802, Henry Dundas in 1804, Jane Austen in 1805, Lord Byron in 1806, [ [http://www.visitworthing.co.uk/AboutWorthing/BluePlaques/ Blue Plaques ] ] the Duke of Cumberland in 1817, George Eliot in 1855, [ [http://www.richmond.gov.uk/home/leisure_and_culture/local_history_and_heritage/local_studies_collection/local_history_notes/george_eliot.htm George Eliot - London Borough of Richmond upon Thames ] ] Oscar Wilde in 1893 and 1894, who wrote his masterpiece "The Importance of Being Earnest" while staying in the town in 1894, and the future Emperor Maximilian of Mexico.

In 1803 Worthing's population was approximately 2,500 and the hamlet was given town status. Cross Lane was renamed Montague Street and went on to become one of the new town's key thoroughfares. A turnpike road was built around this time linking Worthing directly to Horsham and London for the first time.

In the early 1800s, a wall was built separating the fashionable town of Worthing from Heene just to the west. The wall was built from the sea to the banks of the Teville stream, which could only easily be crossed at one point - the bridge at the top of the High Street, close to the Anchor public house (today's Jack Horner). Since the Teville stream flows east and south to the sea, this effectively gave the town just one point of entry and exit, allowing 'undesirables' to be kept out.

In 1815, two infants' schools opened, mainly through the efforts of the Revd. W. Davison, [From: 'Worthing: Education', A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 6 Part 1: Bramber Rape (Southern Part) (1980), pp. 125-28. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=18233. Date accessed: 21 August 2007.] from the new St Paul`s Church

In the early hours of February 22, 1832, a major smuggling foray took place when 300 kegs of contraband spirits [ [http://www.findonvillage.com/0905_smugglign_in_the_1800s.htm THIS IS FINDON VILLAGE - Smuggling in the 1800s in Findon Village, West Sussex. U.K ] ] were unloaded at the beach opposite the Steyne. Excise officers chased a group of some two to three hundred men, one of Sussex's last smuggling gangs,Brandon, Peter (2006), Sussex ISBN-10: 0709069987 ISBN-13:978-0709069980] up the town's High Street and alleyways (known in the Sussex dialect as twittens) towards Broadwater. As the group slowed down to climb the gate guarding the bridge over the Teville stream that would take them out of Worthing into open fields, horse-mounted excise officers opened fire at point-blank range on the crowd, who were armed only with wooden staves. They shot dead William Cowerson of Steyning and injured several others. Civil unrest was feared and the military were brought into the town for two years to ensure peace was kept. As with many towns and villages in Sussex and Kent, close proximity to the Continent made the trade of smuggling a lucrative and popular business.

In 1845 the railway was extended from Shoreham to Worthing, linking the town by rail with London and the railway network.

On November 25, 1850 eleven local fishermen were drowned as they set out from the town's beach to save the crew of the barque the "Lalla Rookh", a trading vessel of around 700 tons. The boat was in distress in a storm three miles off the coast, and eleven fishermen set out onbaord a small ferry, the "Britannia". The "Britannia" capsized, and a second boat was launched, returning with the news that the "Britannia" was lost with all lives. Soon afterwards the town's inhabitants subscribed for the town's first lifeboat. ['A Town's Pride, Rob Blann, published by Rob Blann 1990]

In 1890 the town received its Royal Charter and became the borough of Worthing. Worthing absorbed the neighbouring town of West Worthing and parish of Heene. The first meeting of the new Borough Council (replacing the Worthing Local Board and the West Worthing Commissioners) took place on 10th November 1890, when Worthing elected its first mayor, Alfred Cortis.

In 1893 an outbreak of typhoid fever caused 200 fatalities in the town, after 1,416 people caught the disease. The relatively young council took swift action, and by 1895 the town had a new drainage system.

20th century

The 20th century saw a continual expansion of the town, as it expanded to include local villages. In 1902 the borough of Worthing expanded to include parts of Broadwater and West Tarring. In 1929 the borough of Worthing expanded to include Goring and Durrington. And in 1933 the borough of Worthing expanded again to include the west of Sompting and the south of Findon.

Between 1908 and 1910, King Edward VII visited Worthing several times to stay at Beach House with the Loder family.

Following Italy's invasion of Abyssinia in 1936, Emperor Haile Selassie and his family were forced out of Ethiopia to the United Kingdom. They spent their first six weeks in the UK at the Warnes Hotel, one of the town's top hotels at the time.

During World War II, a hole was blown through Worthing Pier to prevent it being used as a landing stage in the event of an invasion. Barbed wire was spread across the beach, which was also mined. Canadian soldiers stayed in several parts of the town, including the former site of the town's rugby club in Tarring [ [http://www.worthingrfc.com/default.asp?category=41 Worthing RFC ] ] and at Park Crescent in the town centre. Courtlands, an impressive country house in the Goring area of the town was used as headquarters of the First Canadian Army. [ [http://www.goring-by-sea.uk.com/courtlands.htm The History of Courtlands ] ] In February 1944, the British Army's 4th Armoured Brigade set up headquarters in the Eardley Hotel by Splash Point. 200 tanks arrived and troops were billeted in and around Steyne Gardens. Historic Beach House was used by the Air Training Corps. During World War II, food supplies were scarce and rationed. The people of Timaru in New Zealand donated food parcels to the people of Worthing. After the war, the people of Worthing donated a stained glass window to the people of Timaru in thanks for their efforts.

Immediately post-war, Worthing expanded with the Maybridge estate, planned by Charles Cowles-Voysey. The redbrick housing estate used Prisoner of War labour, and was built between 1948 and 1956.

In the late 20th century many of the town's historic buildings were demolished by planners eager to 'modernise' the town. Notable losses included the town's Theatre Royal, the Old Town Hall, dating from 1834, medieval Offington Hall, the mansion at Charmandean, a medieval fig garden in Tarring and dozens of Victorian villas throughout the town.

In the late 20th century, Worthing had a significant motor industry. In 1979, Octav Botnar founded Datsun UK, later Nissan UK, in the West Durrington area of the town. In the 1970s and 1980s, Dutton Cars produced kit cars from their Worthing headquarters, and for a time was the largest manufacturer of kit cars in the world. The company went on to produce two models of amphibious car, that could be 'driven' across land and sea. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutton_Cars] International Automotive Design (IAD) was one of the UK's major design houses for cars, producing prototypes for manufacturers such as Mazda, including the first Mazda MX-5. In 1990, the company was bought by Daewoo who continued to develop cars at their Worthing Technical Centre, including the Daewoo Nubira and the Daewoo Kalos (later renamed the Chevrolet Aveo). In 2000, the Worthing centre was bought by TWR Racing which went out of business in 2003. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/motorsport/2761467.stm BBC SPORT | Motorsport | TWR hit by Arrows collapse ] ]

21st century

The town's council approved "Worthing Evolution", a Masterplan for the town's regeneration, in 2006 after extensive public consultation.

Since May 2006, environmentalist protesters have been tree sitting at Titnore Woods, in the Durrington area of the town. The action is in protest at plans to build houses and a road-widening scheme through ancient woodland on the edge of the town.

From February 2008, Worthing will host the reopened public inquiry into the proposed national park for the South Downs. [ [http://www.defra.gov.uk/wildlife-countryside/issues/landscap/natparks/sdowns/index.htm Defra, UK - Wildlife and Countryside - Landscape Protection - National Parks - South Downs ] ]

Governance

Westminster

The town has two Members of Parliament (MPs): Tim Loughton (Conservative) for East Worthing and Shoreham, who is Shadow Children's Minister and a Shadow Health Minister; and Peter Bottomley (Conservative) for Worthing West. At the 2005 general election, both seats were safe Conservative seats and have been held by the incumbents since the seats' creation in 1997.

From 1945 to 1997 Worthing returned one MP. Since 1945 Worthing has always returned Conservative MPs. Until 1945 Worthing formed part of the Horsham and Worthing parliamentary constituency.

Borough Council

The town is divided into 13 wards, 11 of which return three councillors and two which return two; this totals 37 councillors. Elections are held by thirds, with the two 2-member wards only having elections in the first and third years of the cycle.

Currently, there are 23 Conservative councillors; 13 Liberal Democrat councillors; and one Independent Conservative (resigned from the Conservative group in 2006). The Conservatives thus have control of the council.

electiontable|WorthingCouncil

Current makeup of Worthing Borough Council
-!colspan=2|Parties!Seats
-
23
-
13
-
1
-!colspan=2|Total!!37

The wards are::Broadwater (3 councillors: 2 Liberal Democrat, 1 Conservative):Castle (3 councillors: 2 Liberal Democrat, 1 Conservative):Central (3 councillors: 3 Conservative):Durrington (2 councillors: 2 Liberal Democrat):Gaisford (3 councillors: 2 Conservative, 1 Liberal Democrat):Goring (3 councillors: 3 Conservative):Heene (3 councillors: 3 Conservative):Marine (3 councillors: 3 Conservative):Northbrook (2 councillors: 1 Conservative, 1 Liberal Democrat):Offington (3 councillors: 2 Conservative, 1 Independent Conservative):Salvington (3 councillors: 3 Conservative):Selden (3 councillors: 2 Liberal Democrat, 1 Conservative):Tarring (3 councillors: 3 Liberal Democrat)

Coat of arms

The borough's coat of arms was designed by Mr TR Hide in 1890 for the new borough of Worthing.The coat of arms includes three silver mackerel, a Horn of Plenty overflowing with corn and fruit on a cloth of gold, and the figure of Hygieia (the Ancient Greek goddess of health) holding a snake. They represent the health given from the seas, the fullness and riches gained from the earth and the power of healing. [ [http://www.visitworthing.co.uk/AboutWorthing/WorthingBoroughCoatofArms/ Worthing Borough Coat of Arms ] ]

Worthing's motto is the Latin "Ex terra copiam e mari salutem", which translates as 'From the land plenty and from the sea health'.

Both the coat of arms and the motto of Worthing reflect Worthing's history of abundant fishing and farming, it having been a centre for mackerel fishing and one of the UK's largest market gardening areas.

Freedom of the Borough

Since the towns of Worthing and West Worthing merged in 1890 to form the borough of Worthing, the freedom of the borough has as been granted to the following people: [ [http://www.worthing.gov.uk/YourCouncil/Mayoralty/FreemenoftheBorough Freemen of the Borough ] ]
* Edward Harrison
* George Baker
* Charles Caleb Grinstead
* Henry William Goddard
* Henry Ingram Hill
* Herbert Pope
* Members of the “H” (Worthing Company) 2nd VB Royal Sussex Regiment, being members of the Active Service Company of Sussex Volunteers serving in South Africa in the Second Boer War
* Sir Henry Aubrey-Fletcher
* Andrew Carnegie
* Alderman James Gurney Denton
* John Kennedy Allerton
* Alderman Harry Thomas Duffield
* Alderman James Farquarson Whyte
* Alderman Joseph Arthur Mason
* Charles Bertram Barber
* Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment
* Lavinia Fitzalan-Howard, Duchess of Norfolk
* HMS Sussex
* Baron Higgins of Worthing

Geography

Lying on the south coast of England, Worthing lies on the fertile flat coastal plain between the South Downs and the English Channel, some 60 miles (100km) south of London and 80 miles (120km) from the coast of Normandy to the south and east.

The borough of Worthing is made up of many former villages, which in turn merge into neighbouring villages and towns, although there are some strategic gaps between settlements. Worthing is part of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation, the 12th largest conurbation in the United Kingdom and England's 10th largest conurbation with a population of around 480,000. [ [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=8271&More=Y National Statistics Online (an official UK Government site)] ] . The conurbation has been split by statisticians into two primary urban areas, one centred on Worthing and one centred on Brighton. The Worthing primary urban area, which includes areas outside of the boundaries of the borough, has a population of nearly 183,000, making Worthing the 38th largest primary urban area in England and the eighth largest primary urban area in South East England (after the primary urban areas of Portsmouth, Reading, Southampton, Brighton, Aldershot, Chatham and Milton Keynes). [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_cities_in_England_by_population]

Districts

The borough of Worthing comprises the following areas (not necessarily directly corresponding to administrative wards or former parishes):

:Broadwater:Durrington:East Worthing:Findon Valley:Goring:Heene:High Salvington:Offington:Salvington:Tarring (also known as West Tarring):West Worthing

Physical geography

The town of Worthing is dominated by the Downs, in particular Highdown Hill (81m high), to the west, West Hill (128m), to the north-west, Cissbury Ring (184m) to the north and Steep Down (149m) to the north-east. At 184 metres, Cissbury Ring is the highest point in the borough.

The culverted Teville Stream begins as a spring in what is now allotments in Tarring, runs along Tarring Road and Teville Road north of the town centre, passing to the east through Homefield Park and Davison High School before meeting the sea at Brooklands where the Broadwater Brook (Sompting Brook) meets the sea. To the west and also in parts culverted, Ferring Rife rises in Durrington near Littlehampton Road, passing through Maybridge, then west of Ferring into the sea. In previous centuries, the hamlet of Worthing extended out further into the sea, but rising sea levels have submerged this area.

The west of the borough contains some ancient woodland at Titnore Woods, which is some of the last remaining ancient woodland on the Sussex coastal plain. The woods border Clapham Woods on the Downs, said to be the site of various UFO sightings. The south-west of the borough contains the Goring Gap, a protected area of fields and woodland between Goring and Ferring. To the east of Worthing lies the Sompting Gap, a protected area that lies between Worthing and Sompting. This area was formerly an inlet of the sea and it is here that the Broadwater Brook (also known as Sompting Brook) flows into Brooklands Park and on into the sea. Some of the reedbeds in the Sompting Gap at Lower Cokeham have been designated a Site of Nature Conservation Importance. [ [http://lancingvillage.co.uk/nature/reeds/ Lancing Village Nature & History - Cokeham Reed Beds] ] The borough of Worthing contains no nature reserves, the nearest being Widewater Lagoon and Lancing Ring (both in Lancing) and West Beach (in Littlehampton).

Marine environment

Lying some three miles off the coast of Worthing, the Worthing Lumps are a series of underwater chalk cliff faces, up to three metres high. The lumps are home to rare fish such as blennies and the lesser spotted dogfish. [http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/marine-wildlife-bill-is-scuppered-by-shipping-interests-639026.html Marine wildlife Bill is scuppered by shipping interests - Environment - Independent.co.uk ] ] The south coast of England is one of the best areas in Europe for underwater chalk habitat, which is rare throughout Europe. The Worthing Lumps are probably the best example of this unusual habitat. [ [http://www.rspb.org.uk/news/details.asp?id=tcm:9-171835 The RSPB: Local MP joins call for better protection of marine wildlife ] ] The proximity of these under-sea chalk cliffs to the town is the reason for the abundance of chalk on Worthing's pebble beaches.

The site has been declared a Site of Nature Conservation Importance (SNCI) (a site of county importance) by West Sussex County Council. However like all marine sites in the UK, there is no national or international protection. The 2002 Marine Wildlife Conservation Bill would have provided protection from disturbance of Worthing Lumps and other important marine sites around the UK. Although approved by Members of Parliament, the Bill was, according to the RSPB, thrown out by Conservative peers with shipping interests.

People

:"For a list of notable people from Worthing, see List of notable Worthing inhabitants"

People from Worthing are known as "Worthingites".

Worthing underwent dramatic population growth both in the early 1800s as the hamlet had newly become a town, and again in the 1880s. The town experienced further growth in the 1930s, and again when new estates were built, using Prisoner of War labourers, to the west of the town from 1948.

Etymology

Worthing means "(place of) Worth/Worō's people", from the Old English personal name "Worth"/"Worō" (the name means "valiant one, one who is noble"), and "-ingas" "people of" (reduced to -ing in the modern name). The first element of the name is almost certainly not "worth"/"worō" ("enclosure") (a cause of confusion for toponymists).Verify source|date=November 2007 The name was recorded as "Wuroininege" in 1183.

Older local people sometimes claim that the name of Worthing is derived from a natural annual phenomenon. Seaweed beds off nearby Bognor Regis are ripped up by summer storms and prevailing Atlantic currents deposit it on the beach. A rich source of nitrates, it makes good fertilizer. The decaying weed was sought by farmers from the surrounding area. Thus the town would have become known as Wort (weed) inge (people).Fact|date=July 2008 The explanation given by place-name scholars is that the name Worthing (Ordinges) is derived from Worth (an Old English given name) + ingas (people).

Folklore of Worthing

Midsummer Tree

As recently as the 19th century, it was believed that on Midsummer's Eve skeletons would rise up from the Midsummer Tree and dance around the tree until dawn when they would sink back into the ground. [ [http://archive.theargus.co.uk/2006/3/28/209322.html Time running out for the Midsummer tree ] ] The oak tree is said to be around 300 years old and is situated close to Broadwater Green in Broadwater. The legend of the Midsummer Tree was first recorded by folklorist Charlotte Latham in 1868.

Knuckerhole

It was once believed that monsters known as knuckers lived in bottomless ponds, known as knuckerholes. There were several knuckerholes in Sussex, including one in Worthing just by the Ham Bridge (modern Ham Road) close to the railway and the Teville Stream.

Economy and regeneration

Worthing's economy is dominated by the service industry, particularly finanicial services. The town is home to several major employers including GlaxoSmithKline, HM Revenue & Customs, Lloyds TSB, MGM Advantage and Southern Water.Another large employer, Norwich Union, have announced that there will be large redundancies at their Worthing office between 2008–2010, with the loss of around 600 jobs.

In 2006, Worthing Borough Council agreed a masterplan for the town's regeneration. Much of the regeneration is focused on improving the town centre and seafront. The historic Dome Cinema was reopened in 2007 after major investment from the Heritage Lottery Fund. A new £150 million development is proposed for Teville Gate, [ [http://www.tevillegateregeneration.org/index.htm TevilleGate ] ] close to the town's main railway station, which is expected to include 18-storey and 11-storey residential towers, with shopping and leisure facilities. The Grafton Centre [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/sussex/6902138.stm BBC NEWS | England | Sussex | Town eyesore could be demolished ] ] and Lido on the seafront are also earmarked for major redevelopment and improvement. The town's major undercover shopping centre, the Guildbourne Centre, may also be rebuilt entirely and extended to Union Place, covering the site of the town's former police station. A public art strategy is being prepared for the seafront, which may be extended to cover the whole town centre, while a £70,000 piece of artwork named "Suncloud" has been commissioned for Splash Point on the seafront, to be installed early in 2009. A new public space and gardens should be completed around the "Suncloud" towards 2010. [ [http://www.worthing.gov.uk/news/newsarchive/newsarchive2008/july/title,54891,en.html] ] £650,000 is being spent on improvements to the public realm for Chapel Road / South Street (the town centre's major north-south route) and the seafront which will take place later in 2008. [http://www.worthingregeneration.com/regeneration/media/Media,43403,en.pdf] It is proposed that the seafront would also undergo major improvement. In Spring 2008, improvements started to the Splash Point Café on the beach. A new high quality café-restaurant is planned on the site of an existing seafront shelter. Marks and Spencer is due to carry out a £12 million refurbishment of its Worthing store in 2008, which will see a new store café open overlooking the seafront. Also in 2008, work started on rebuilding the Victorian Eardley Hotel on the town's seafront. [ [http://www.the-eardley.co.uk/ The Eardley, Worthing, West Sussex ] ] There are plans to develop a new transport model linking the town centre with the Sussex coast's major trunk road, the A27.

In the longer term, a new marina has been proposed, possibly just to the east of the town centre. It is also intended to review the town's cultural and civic hub, possibly introducing new facilities, buildings and public squares around the Town Hall. [ [http://www.worthingregeneration.com Worthing Regeneration ] ] The town's Museum and Art Gallery is expected to undergo a £6 million pound redevelopment in the next few years. [http://www.worthing.gov.uk/YourCouncil/MinutesampAgendas/CabinetMemberforCultureLeisureSport/17July2006/PDFFile,34511,en.pdf] It is expected that a new £24 million municipal swimming pool will be built in the town centre in the next few years, possibly next to the existing pool, the Aquarena, which would be redeveloped. [ [http://www.theargus.co.uk/mostpopular.var.2019681.mostviewed.new_swimming_pool_for_worthing_would_cost_about_24_million.php New Swimming Pool For Worthing Would Cost About 24 Million (from The Argus) ] ] Swiss electronics firm, Lemo are building a new £5 million UK headquarters, nicknamed "The Peanut", in North Street, due to open in 2010. [http://www.chichester.co.uk/worthing-news/Worthing-firms-building-with-wow.4491997.jp] It has also been proposed that Montague Place is pedestrianised and improved to better link the town centre with the seafront.

In early 2008, the town's further education college, Northbrook College announced proposals to invest £70 million to consolidate its operations onto one major campus in Broadwater. [ [http://www.worthingherald.co.uk/worthing/Worthing-backs-Northbrook-College-plan.3712669.jp Worthing backs Northbrook College plan... with strings - Worthing Today ] ] Worthing College, the town's Sixth Form college, has also had plans approved for a £35 million redevelopment of its campus close to Durrington railway station.

Landmarks, buildings & places of interest

*Worthing Pier, opened April 1862.
*The Dome was built in 1911 as the Kursaal. Responding to anti-German sentiment during World War One, the building was renamed The Dome in 1915. In 1921 the downstairs Coronation Hall was converted into the Dome Cinema, which is preserved today. [ [http://www.worthingdomecinema.com/index.php Worthing Dome: The Untold Story ] ] The Dome is one of Britain's oldest working cinemas. [ [http://property.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/property/buying_and_selling/article1083573.ece Wild about Worthing - Times Online ] ]
*Castle Goring, built in the 1790s, is Worthing's most important building in terms of its architecture and is one of the town's two Grade I listed buildings.
* The Archbishop's Palace in Tarring dates from the 13th century and is Worthing's oldest secular building. It is one of the town's two Grade I listed buildings.
*High Salvington windmill.
*Cissbury Ring, an ancient hill fort located on the South Downs.
*St Paul's Church, formerly the Chapel of Ease, opened in 1812, designed by John Rebecca.
*Beach House, built in 1820 by John Rebecca.
*Park Crescent, built in 1829 by Amos Henry Wilds.
*Worthing Museum and Art Gallery built in 1908 as the town's museum and library by Alfred Cortis, the first mayor of Worthing, and Andrew Carnegie. West Sussex County Council built a new library in 1974 and the museum has had a chequered history ever since, fighting off closure in 2003 with the support of local residents.

Open spaces

The town contains a considerable number of parks and gardens, many laid out in the Victorian and Edwardian eras.
* Beach House Park - named after nearby Beach House the park is home to one of the world's most well-known venues for the sport of bowls. The park is also home to a possibly unique memorial to homing pigeons that served in the Second World War.
* Beach House Green - Field of hope
* Broadwater Green - Broadwater's 'village green'.
* Brooklands Park
* Denton Gardens
* Goring Green
* Highdown Gardens - a beautiful garden at the foot of the South Downs, deemed to be of national importance.
* Homefield Park - formerly known as the 'People's Park' it was once home to Worthing F.C.
* Liverpool Gardens - overlooking the graceful Georgian Liverpool Terrace, the gardens and terrace are named after Lord Liverpool. Overlooking the park from the east are four bronze heads known as "Desert Quartet", sculptured by Dame Elisabeth Frink.
* Marine Gardens
* Palatine Park
* Promenade Waterwise Garden
* Steyne Gardens - which includes a sunken garden re-landscaped in 2007 with a fountain of the Ancient Greek sea god, Triton, by sculptor William Bloye.
* Victoria Park - was donated by the Heene Estate to the poor of Worthing in commemoration of the death of Queen Victoria. ( Taken from title deeds to property owned in St. Matthews Road.) The land was previously used for market gardening and once sported a paddling pool which was closed due to foot infections in the children. Victoria Park is very popular for club and casual footballers.
* West Park - has a running track and basketball court and lies next to Worthing Leisure Centre.

Annual events

In January, the ancient custom of wassailing takes place in Tarring to bless the apple trees. A flaming torchlit procession takes place down Tarring High Street culminating in hundreds of people gathering around an apple tree to shout, chant and sing to drive away evil spirits. [ [http://www.worthing.gov.uk/Leisure/EventsinandaroundWorthing/EventsArchieve/Title,42822,en.html Events Archieve ] ] The apple trees are toasted with wassail, apple cider and apple cake, followed by fireworks. [ [http://s-v-m.moonfruit.com/ Sompting Village Morris ] ]

Every February, to coincide with Valentine's Day, the Revolutionary Arts Group stage the "We Love You" festival, a small event which includes artistic interventions around the town.

Each March a fruit-flinging contest is held on the beach to mark the sinking of the 1000-ton SS Indiana off the coast of Worthing in 1901. The ship was sailing to London from Venice via Valencia and crashed into another ship off Worthing. The ship's cargo of oranges and lemons was washed up on the beach to the delight of the town's inhabitants.

On May Day, a procession and dancing takes place in Worthing town centre, culminating in the crowning of the May Queen. [ [http://www.worthing.gov.uk/Leisure/EventsinandaroundWorthing/EventsbyMonth/May2008/Title,42837,en.html May 2008 ] ] Also in May, the Three Forts Marathon starts and finishes at the Norwich Union building on the outskirts of Worthing before taking in the ancient hill forts of Cissbury Ring, Devil's Dyke and Chanctonbury Ring over the rough and steep terrain of the South Downs. [ [http://www.threefortsmarathon.org.uk 3 Forts Marathon - Go the extra mile! ] ]

The Artists and Makers Festival, organised by the Revolutionary Arts Group, takes place in the first two-three weeks every July, and includes artists' open houses, studios and gardens; a textile arts trail; and music and theatre, including Rainbow Shakespeare which takes place in Highdown Gardens.

The Worthing Festival is held in the last two weeks each July with open-air concerts in the town centre and a fairground along the town's promenade.

Pier Day takes place on Worthing Pier and the nearby promenade every September.

Worthing is now the home to the International Birdman Rally (formerly hosted in Bognor Regis). Initial plans are for the 2009 International Birdman to be held in late July / early August.

Cannabis culture

Worthing, home of Chris Baldwin (a Legalise Cannabis Alliance activist), was one of the few towns in the UK to experience cannabis cafés for the first time. Chris first opened a café in a back room of his shop, "Bongchuffa", on Rowlands Road. The café was named "The Quantum Leaf". The café was so successful that he opened his second, on the other side of Worthing. He named his second creation "Buddies", and simultaneously set up "The Herb Connection" - a source of cannabis for those with alleged "medical need". Both cafés were subject to continuous police raids. The first café eventually came to a close when the landlord withdrew the lease for the property - shortly followed by "Buddies" closing due to police, who were intercepting customers on their way out of the property.

Another cannabis cafe, operating in a less obvious, but still public, manner was also opened and operating freely in Worthing for over two years, by a group not associated with the LCA. It survived a great deal of police attention and a few raids but no longer exists. The site of this cafe was reduced to rubble within months of the last raid, and is currently a building site with flats planned later in the year.

A Headshop opened in November 2006 in Worthing, called Green [http://www.greenworthing.co.uk] , to cater for the town's cannabis culture.

Crime

The borough of Worthing currently has a lower crime rate than the national average, with a downward trend in recorded crime falling faster than the rest of the country - a trend that is in keeping with Sussex and the south-east of England as a whole. [http://www.crimestatistics.org.uk/tool/default.asp?region=4&force=23&cdrp=202&l1=0&l2=0&l3=0&sub=0&v=27] [http://www.sussex.police.uk/about_us/annual_report_2006/index_div.asp]

Transport

Rail

Worthing is served by five railway stations on the West Coastway Line:
*East Worthing
*Worthing
*West Worthing
*Durrington-on-Sea
*Goring-by-Sea

Rail connections include services to Brighton (26 minutes), London (Victoria) (84 minutes), Gatwick Airport (50 minutes), Portsmouth, Southampton and East Croydon. In the winter of 2007, South West Trains withdrew their services from Basingstoke to Brighton (via Worthing).

Road

Worthing lies 60 miles (100km) south of London and 11 miles (16km) west of Brighton. It is served by the following main roads:

*A27 road to Brighton and Portsmouth
*A24 road to Horsham, Dorking, Leatherhead and London
*A259 road to Littlehampton, Chichester, Brighton, Hastings and Folkestone

Since 2005, the Megabus has run between Worthing and London, via Brighton.

Cycle

To the east of Worthing, the National Cycle Network Route 2 runs off-road along the seafront from Splash Point to Shoreham and is then signed on quiet roads to Hove Lagoon where an off-road route runs to Brighton.

To the west of Worthing the South Coast Cycle Route is on-road and is not designed to the standards of the National Cycle Network. Cycling on the seafront promenade in Worthing has become a highly contentious issue. Worthing remains one of the few towns in the country with a large seafront promenade that has failed to accommodate an off-road cycle route, although this is expected to be developed as part of the Worthing Evolution masterplan.

Literary and artistic connections

Architecture

* Renowned architect Anthony Salvin, who designed Harlaxton Manor, parts of Windsor Castle and Durham Castle Keep was born in Worthing in 1799 and died in Worthing in 1881.
* Architect, engineer and archaeologist John Turtle Wood lived at Marine Parade in the town and is buried in Christ Church in the town centre. He is possibly most famous for discovering the ancient Ionian city of Ephesus.

Comedy

* Comedian Bob Monkhouse moved to Worthing in 1939, attending school at Goring Hall in Goring, which is now a private hospital.
* Harry Hill was a locum at Worthing Hospital before becoming a comedian.

Historical

* Walter Dew, the police officer involved in the hunt for Jack the Ripper and Dr Crippen, retired to Worthing and was buried in the town's Durrington Cemetery in 1947.
* Five idealistic Worthing men, Tom Elliott, Chris Thornycroft, James Jump, Frederick Cronshaw and Edmond Updale, joined the International Brigade in 1936–1937 to fight against General Franco's nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War. [ [http://www.worthingherald.co.uk/worthing/Worthing-five-honoured-for-39idealism39.3039049.jp Worthing five honoured for 'idealism' - Worthing Today ] ]
* David Thomson, once a resident of Sea Close in Goring, is believed to have saved more than 100 people from the sinking Titanic in the North Atlantic while serving aboard the Canadian ship HMCS Rainbow in 1912. [ [http://archive.theargus.co.uk/2003/6/12/132461.html A wry look at Worthing ] ]

Theatre, Film and broadcast media

* David Leland's 1987 film "Wish You Were Here" was filmed along Worthing's seafront, and in various locations around the town most notably the town's historic Dome Cinema.
* The 1985 film "Dance with a Stranger" by Mike Newell, which starred Miranda Richardson and Rupert Everett was partly filmed at Worthing beach.
* Birthplace of actress Paddy Croft.
* Nicollette Sheridan, American television actress, was born in the town in 1963.
* Actor and star of "Coronation Street" in the 1960s and 1970s, Reginald Marsh, grew up in Worthing.
* Several early films were made in Worthing in 1898 including "Water Polo", [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0227774/ Water Polo (1898) ] ] "Launch of the Worthing Life-Boat: Coming Ashore" [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0345553/ Launch of the Worthing Life-Boat: Coming Ashore (1898) ] ] and "Worthing Life-Saving Station". [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0227839/ Worthing Life-Saving Station (1898) ] ]
* D'Oyly Carte Opera Company actress and singer, Jessie Bond moved to Worthing in the 1920s.
* In the 1930s, actor Peter Cushing began his career as Assistant Stage Manager at Worthing Repertory Theatre, based in the original Connaught Theatre. [http://www.filmreference.com/Actors-and-Actresses-Co-Da/Cushing-Peter.html] He also made his stage debut in Worthing in 1935 in the play "The Middle Watch". [http://www.filmreference.com/Actors-and-Actresses-Co-Da/Cushing-Peter.html]
* Actor Christopher Lee's acting career began in Worthing, where he starred in several plays including five plays in 1948. Lee was in "The Constant Nymph", "As You Like It", "Libel", "See Naples and Die" and "By Candlelight". Lee also worked in Worthing with actress Sheila Keith. [http://www.petercushing.co.uk/sheilakeith.htm]
* Actor Peter Tuddenham moved to Worthing in 1961 and lived in Portland Road in the town centre until his death in 2007. [ [http://www.littlehamptongazette.co.uk/worthing-news?articleid=3048425 Peter Tuddenham, the Worthing actor with all the answers - Littlehampton Today ] ] Tuddenham is best known for his roles in cult television dramas "Doctor Who" and "Blake's 7". [ [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/peter-tuddenham-460793.html Peter Tuddenham - Obituaries, News - The Independent ] ]
* Actress, Vivien Merchant lived in Ambrose Place in 1963-1964 with her then husband, playwright Harold Pinter. Merchant starred in various plays at the Art Deco Connaught Theatre, just 50 yards or so from her home.
* The 1968 film version of Harold Pinter's play "The Birthday Party" was filmed opposite Heene Terrace on the seafront in West Worthing. [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0062732/ The Birthday Party (1968) ] ]
* Television producer Britt Allcroft, best known for producing "Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends", grew up in Worthing.
* Actor Jonathan Cake was born in Worthing in 1967 and grew up in the town.
* The 1973 television play "Secrets" by Michael Palin and Terry Jones, starring Warren Mitchell, involves three men falling into a vat of chocolate, the produce of which is shipped off to Worthing.
* Richard Vobes podcasts to the world from his studios in Worthing. His 30-minute daily show features a mix of entertainment, comedy and news.
* Actor Tony Caunter, who played Roy Evans in "EastEnders" grew up in Worthing and went to Worthing High School.
* Screenwriter Talbot Rothwell, who wrote many of the Carry On films, moved to Worthing from Fulking in the late 1970s.
* Home to Dave Benson-Phillips, children's television presenter.
* An episode of UK sitcom "Men Behaving Badly" was partially filmed and set in Worthing.
* Actor Noah Huntley went to school at Our Lady of Sion School in Worthing and attended the West Sussex Theatre Studios in the town.
* "Hollyoaks" actress Roxanne McKee grew up in Worthing and went to school at Our Lady of Sion School.
* Actress Lucinda Kennard who played Amy Kerrigan in "Dream Team" is from Worthing.

Literature

* John Selden, jurist, legal antiquary and oriental scholar was born in Salvington in Worthing in 1584. The area around Farncombe Road in Worthing was once known as Seldenville, in his honour.
* Jane Austen's unfinished work, "Sanditon", based on the growth of a fictitious seaside resort between Eastbourne and Hastings is said to have been inspired by her visit to Worthing in 1805, when the resort of Worthing was in its infancy (just after the hamlet of Worthing had been declared a town in 1803).
* Percy Bysshe Shelley's first two works were printed in a building in Warwick Street. These were "Original Poetry by Victor and Cazire" (1810) which he wrote with his sister, Elizabeth Shelley, and "The Necessity of Atheism" (1811), which he wrote with his friend Thomas Jefferson Hogg. The latter was considered so shocking at the time that both Shelley and Hogg were expelled from University College, Oxford. All but a few copies of the work were burned. [http://books.google.com/books?id=CvwkFz_OV_AC&pg=PA3&lpg=PA3&dq=published+worthing&source=web&ots=QAkJjcbMvi&sig=L4PXkyR3c-wTEmz-0aaJ9Is_hLE] Had Shelley not died prematurely aged 29, it is likely he would have lived at Castle Goring in Worthing, which had been built for him by his grandfather. He would also have received the title 3rd Baronet of Castle Goring. Percy Bysshe Shelley's father, Sir Timothy Shelley, was leader of the Worthing Commissioners, effectively the town's first local authority. Sir Timothy Shelley served as Whig Member of Parliament for New Shoreham from 1802 to 1818 [http://www.leighrayment.com/commons/ncommons2.htm] , making him Worthing's local MP. Sir Timothy Shelley also owned much land in Worthing, including land that he donated for the site of Worthing's original town hall. [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Worthing&action=edit&section=41] Shelley Road in the town is named after the Shelley family.
* In the 1830s, Edward William Lane translated "The Thousand and One Nights" (Arabian Nights) from Arabic, whilst living at 4 Union Place in the town.
* Poet and adventurer Edward Trelawney was a frequent visitor to Worthing when in 1870 he moved to the neighbouring village of Sompting. Trelawney had been a close friend of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Trelawney had many notable guests to stay with him in Sompting including William Rossetti. [ [http://www.bn15.co.uk/history/e_j_trelawney.html Lancing & Sompting on the Web - Memories ] ]
* Antiquarian Anthony Rich, who lived at Chapel Croft in West Worthing, wrote "A Dictionary of Roman and Greek Antiquities" (1874). Rich had intended to leave his fortune to his friend, the great naturalist, Charles Darwin and his house (which included a library) to another friend, the biologist Thomas Henry Huxley. [http://books.google.com/books?id=TqZK3MRRGdEC&pg=PA164&lpg=PA164&dq=th+huxley+worthing&source=web&ots=OWcmXAfCVk&sig=Tcyc3HktIUeUKBy7vSeNQxkMacM#PPA164,M1] Darwin is known to have visited Rich several times, sometimes staying at the West Worthing Hotel [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=A27&viewtype=text&pageseq=1] (now the Burlington Hotel). As it turned out, Rich lived longer than Darwin, so he was unable to pass on his fortune to him, but he was able to bequeath his house to Huxley.
* Thomas James Serle (1798-1889), dramatist, novelist, actor and one-time manager of the Covent Garden Theatre (now the Royal Opera House) in London, lived at Novello Cottage in Worthing. Serle was also a friend of Charles Dickens. Serle is known for his play "The Merchant of London" (1832). Thomas James Serle lived at Novello Cottage with his wife, Sibella Novello, sister of singer Clara Novello and daughter of musician and music publisher Vincent Novello.
* Oscar Wilde wrote his masterpiece "The Importance of Being Earnest" while staying in Worthing with his family in the summer of 1884 and escaping his creditors in London. Wilde and his family stayed at a guest house on the Esplanade in the summers of 1883 and 1884, the site of which is today marked with a blue plaque. Wilde wrote the play in 1884, which he described as 'his best' in only three weeks. He was often seen walking along the town's promenade and gave the play the working title "Lady Lancing" after the village of Lancing that he would often walk to from Worthing along the coast. Wilde took his inspiration for the play from an article he read in the local newspaper at the time, the "Worthing Gazette", which described how a baby had been found in a hamper at London's King's Cross railway station. From another article in the "Worthing Gazette" about a Captain Bunbury of Slindon, Wilde took the name Bunbury, which he used in the play. Wilde named the play's hero, Jack Worthing, in honour of the town. Wilde also named Lord Goring, one of the characters in his play "An Ideal Husband" after Goring, which he would also walk to along the coast. In 1884, Goring was still a separate village but has been part of the borough of Worthing since 1929. Wilde was believed to have spent a lot of time walking along the town's seafront and presented the awards at the 1884 Worthing Regatta.
* Richard Jefferies, author and naturalist spent the last 10 months of his life living in Goring and was buried in Broadwater Cemetery in 1887.
* Author and naturalist William Henry Hudson lived in the town and is also buried in Broadwater cemetery.
* Poet William Ernest Henley lived in Chesswood Road between 1899 and 1901. He wrote "Hawthorn and Lavender" (1901) while living in Worthing.
* US-born playwright and author Edward Knoblock, author of "Kismet" (1911) bought and lived in Beach House from 1917. His visitors whilst living in Worthing included J. B. Priestley, Arnold Bennett and Sir Compton Mackenzie.
* Novelist, poet and journalist John Oxenham (real name William Arthur Dunkerley) lived in Farncombe Road in the town from 1922 until his death in 1941.
* Children's author Elsie J. Oxenham (real name Elsie J. Dunkerley), daughter of John Oxenham also lived at Farncombe Road when her family moved there in 1922. She later lived at The Glen in the town until her death in 1960.
* Children's author Vivien Alcock was born in Worthing in 1924, living in the town until she was ten years old. [ [http://www.peters-books.co.uk/VAlcock.htm Peters Bookselling Services ] ]
* Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, creator of detective Sherlock Holmes, opened Worthing Spiritualist Church in Grafton Road in 1926. He also delivered a lecture on spiritualism at the Connaught Hall (precursor to the town's modern-day Connaught Theatre) in 1919. [ [http://www.booksandwriters.co.uk/writer/C/sir-arthur-conan--doyle.asp Books and Writers - Sir Arthur Conan Doyle ] ]
* In the 1930s, Beatrice Hastings moved to Worthing from Paris, publishing two books in the town, "The Old New Age - Orage and Others" (1935) and "The Defence of Madame Blavatsky" (1937). [ [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/CRIMEhastings.htm Beatrice Hastings ] ] She lived in the town until her death in 1943.
* Poet, playwright and novelist Maureen Duffy was born in Worthing in 1933.
* Poet and novelist Laurie Lee travelled on foot to Worthing in 1934 on his way from Gloucestershire to London, and then on to Spain. His epic journey is retold in the autobiographical "As I Walked Out One Midsummer Morning" (1969).
* Playwright and poet Vera Arlett lived at Park Crescent in the town.
* From 1946 to her death in 1958, author Ruth Alexander (real name Ruth Rogers) lived in Farncombe Road. As Ruth Alexander she published a romance novel "What Thing Is Fairest" (1947) which sold 12,000 copies at the time. [ [http://bearalley.blogspot.com/2007/10/ruth-alexander.html Bear Alley: Ruth Alexander ] ]
* Mystery author Freeman Wills Crofts, one of the 'Big Four' of the 'Golden Age of Detective Fiction' moved to Worthing in 1953, where he lived until his death in 1957.
* While living in his Regency house in Ambrose Place, Nobel Prize-winning playwright and screenwriter Harold Pinter wrote the script for the film "The Pumpkin Eater" in 1963 as well as the play "The Homecoming" in six weeks in 1964. [ [http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/12/24/071224fa_fact_lahr?currentPage=4 Onward and Upward with the Arts: Demolition Man: Reporting & Essays: The New Yorker ] ] Pinter found the commute by car to London too long and moved back to the capital later in 1964. [ [http://www.parisreview.com/media/4351_PINTER.pdf ALGREN.qrk ] ]
* Novelist and one-time writer of the "New Musical Express", Mick Farren is from Worthing.
* Novelist and comic author Alan Martin, co-creator of the film and comic character Tank Girl, was born in Worthing in 1966. He studied at The West Sussex College of Art and Design where he met future comic partner Jamie Hewlett in the 1980s.
* The principal character in Welsh-Canadian novelist Mary Balogh's "The Thief of Dreams" is the Countess of Worthing. [ [http://www.theromancereader.com/balogh-thief.html THE ROMANCE READER reviews: Thief of Dreams by Mary Balogh ] ]

Music

* Worthing Symphony Orchestra, the first municipal orchestra in Britain, was formed in the town in 1926. [http://www.worthingtheatres.co.uk/worthingtheatres/Orchestra/]
* Renowned jazz drummer and actor Bruno Lawrence was born in Worthing in 1941 before his family emigrated to New Zealand when he was aged five.
* Worthing Philharmonic Orchestra was formed in the town in 1948. [ [http://www.worthingphilharmonic.org/ HomePage ] ]
* Alma Cogan, 1950s recording artist, lived with her parents above their shop in Warwick Street, then moved to a large house on the corner of Lansdowne Road and Downview Road.
* Keyboard virtuoso and rockstar Keith Emerson grew up in Worthing.
* Rock band Steamhammer were formed in the town in 1968.
* Venue for Phun City Festival in 1970.
* Manager of the record company Track Records, and former manager of Big Country, The Stranglers and The Cult, Ian Grant is from Worthing.
* Leo Sayer was part of the 'Worthing Workshop' scene of the 1960s and attended West Sussex College of Art & Design (known colloquially as Worthing Art College, and now part of Northbrook College).
* Billy Idol grew up on the Goring Hall estate housing area in Goring, near Falmer Avenue.
* In 1974, Egg recorded the album "The Civil Surface" at Saturn Studios in the town. Later in 1974 Thin Lizzy recorded their album "Nightlife" at the same studios.
* The 1975 album "The Rotters' Club" by Hatfield and the North was recorded at Saturn Studios in the town.
* In 1976, Motörhead recorded a single, "White Line Fever" at the Pebble Beach Studios in Warwick Street (now Ask restaurant).
* Charles Williams, composer lived in the Findon Valley area of Worthing until his death in 1978.
* In the early 1990s, Sterns Nightclub on the outskirts of Worthing, in Highdown House, was one of Europe's best known nightclubs for rave and techno music, drawing clubbers from across the UK and some of the best known rave and techno acts of the time.
* Britpop band Suede's track "The Next Life" - on their debut album "Suede" (1993) - is about provincial frustration and the dream of escaping to a new life of selling ice cream in Worthing. [ [http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/reviews/suede-ica-london-580912.html Suede, ICA, London - Reviews, Music - The Independent ] ]
* The Ordinary Boys were formed in the town in 2003 and attended the town's Sixth Form college.
* Luke Pritchard, lead singer and rhythm guitarist of indie band The Kooks was born in Coventry in 1983. His sister Emily Pritchard was born in Worthing.
* 2004 "BBC Young Choirgirl of the Year", Rose Setten was born in Worthing and went to school in the town.
* 2004 [http://www.musicatheene.org.uk music at heene] , was formed at [http://www.stbotolphsheene.org.uk St. Botolph's Church] in Worthing producing an annual season of classical concerts.
* DJ Krafty Kuts lived in Worthing and had a record shop in the town.
* Trance producer and DJ John Fleming (or John "00" Fleming) is from Worthing.
* Hardcore punk band Dead Swans (made up of former Turn Cold members) are from Worthing.

Visual art and fashion

* Watercolour painter Anthony Copley Fielding lived at Park Crescent from 1847 until he died in 1855.
* Seascape artist Frederick Aldridge (1850-1933) was from Worthing.
* John Flett (1963-1991), internationally-recognised fashion designer, [http://microsoftencarta.org/encyclopedia_762505652/John_Flett.html] lived in Worthing and studied Fashion at Northbrook College in the town. [http://www.answers.com/topic/john-flett]
* Jamie Hewlett, a British comic book artist and designer, lived in Worthing. [ [http://www.ihatedanthompson.com/article.php/20030826103939347 I Hate Dan Thompson - Tank Girl ] ] He is best known for being the co-creator of the comic strip Tank Girl and co-creator of the band Gorillaz. Philip Bond and Alan Martin, also well-known comic book artists, lived in the town. All three artists attended Northbrook College and came to prominence with the self-published fanzine "Atomtan" in the late 1980s.
* Husband and wife artists Delaine Le Bas and Damian Le Bas both live in the town.
* Perhaps the best-known painting in the town is "Bianca" (1869), which was painted by the Pre-Raphaelite painter William Holman Hunt in Florence shortly after the death of his first wife, Fanny Waugh. Hunt named the painting after the character Bianca in William Shakespeare's "The Taming of the Shrew". The painting is at the town's Museum & Art Gallery.
* Artist and photographer Nick Waplington studied art at Worthing Art College (later part of Northbrook College).
* "Desert Quartet" (1990) by Dame Elisabeth Frink is a bronze sculpture of four large heads in the style of the sculpted heads at Park Crescent in the town. The sculpture is at the Montague Centre in the town, opposite Liverpool Gardens.
* In 2001 Worthing hosted one of the world's first Stuckist art exhibitions. Another stuckist exhibition was held in the town in 2003.

Religion

Church of England

The Church of England is active in the 18 parishes that make up the [http://www.worthingdeanery.org.uk Rural Deanery of Worthing] . Worthing has a wide and full range of Anglican churches from the Anglo-Catholic through to the Evangelical traditions.
* George Baillie Duncan, a prominent Anglican and Church of Scotland minister, served as curate of Broadwater Parish Church in Worthing.

Roman Catholic

The [http://www.dabnet.org.uk Roman Catholic Church] is active in its parishes across Worthing.

Methodist

The [http://www.offingtonpark.com Methodist Church] is active across Worthing.

Free Churches

The [http://www.churchestogetherworthing.co.uk/worthing_churches_illustrated_free.htm Free Churches] are active across Worthing.

Islam

Worthing has a mosque [http://www.worthingmasjid.com/] and Islamic centre for a growing multi-ethnic Muslim community in the town. Many locals of English origin are now Muslims and make use of the Mosque. [ [http://www.raise-networks.org.uk/changeup/Docs/EGP/west%20sussex%20ASP%20report.pdf Microsoft Word - west sussex ASP report.doc ] ]

port

;FootballNicknamed the Rebels, Worthing F.C. is the town's main football club. They play in the Isthmian League Division One South, having been relegated from the Premier Division at the end of the 2006/07 season.

Worthing United F.C. play in the First Division of the Sussex County League.

Eric "The Rabbit" Parsons played for West Ham United, Chelsea and Brentford in the 1940s and 1950s. He was born in Worthing and continues to live in the town.

Mark "The Flower" Jewell played for Manchester United between the years of 1920s and 1930s. He was born in Broadwater and remains there to this day. In the 1980's he was finally joined with his life partner, David Taylor.

Chelsea and England goalkeeper Peter Bonetti grew up in the town, having moved to Worthing from London with his parents in 1948 and having played for Worthing Catholics in the 1950s.

Scott Harris, who used to play for Portsmouth F.C. was born in Worthing in 1985.

;Basketball
Worthing Thunder, formed after local team Worthing Bears moved to Brighton, play basketball in the British Basketball League, the United Kingdom's top basketball league. Until 2008 the club competed in the English Basketball League for several years, which they won in 2005/06 and 2006/07. As the Worthing Bears, Worthing won the British Basketball League in 1992/93.

;BowlingWomen's ten-pin bowling champion Lisa John lives in the town.

;BowlsWorthing is the home of the English Bowling Association (EBA). Beach House Park in Worthing is also one of the world's most famous bowls venues. Five international standard bowling greens play host to the annual EBA National Championships. These are held every summer (mid/late August) and are the highlight of the EBA calendar. Competitors come from all over England to compete in the various events which culminate in the inter-county Middleton Cup that takes place on the final day each year.

Various other representative and international Bowls fixtures take place at Beach House Park from time to time including British Isles Championships, Junior Internationals and indeed the World Bowls Championships in 1972 and 1992.

;CricketFormer Test cricketer Donald Smith was born in Broadwater in 1923.

Sussex cricketer Jason Lewry was born in the town in 1971 and was a member of Sussex's County Championship-winning sides of 2006 and 2007.

Former Sussex cricketer and England Under 19 captain Neil Lenham was born in Worthing in 1965.

Worthing's oldest cricket club is Broadwater Cricket Club, which was founded in 1771. In 1837 the club hosted a match on Broadwater Green between a Sussex XI and an England XI. As the town of Worthing grew separately from Broadwater in the 1800s, Worthing Cricket Club was formed in 1855.

Chippingdale Cricket Club is Worthing's oldest cricket club (if we disregard those with a geographical base). The club was founded in 1897 by Frank Sandell for the employees of his building firm.

;Golf
* Professional golfer Gary Evans is from Worthing and now lives in Dubai in the United Arab Emirates.
* Golf instructor David Leadbetter is originally from Worthing and now lives in Florida.

;Ice hockey
Byron Dafoe, goaltender for the Washington Capitals was born in the town in 1971.

;KitesurfingWorthing is home to Lewis Crathern, British Kitesurfing Champion and Neil Hilder, another top UK kitesurfer. [ [http://www.worthingherald.co.uk/ViewArticle.aspx?SectionID=473&articleid=3005039 GALLERY: Lewis Crathern - surfer of the skies - Worthing Today ] ] Kitesurfing takes place along the coast at Worthing and in particular at Goring Gap between the Goring area of the town and Ferring.

;RowingWorthing Rowing Club was formed in 1880 [ [http://www.worthingrowingclub.com/ Worthing Rowing Club ] ] and has held an annual rowing regatta since the 19th century.

;Rugby Union
Worthing RFC were formed at York House in the town in September, 1920 and play in the nearby village of Angmering. They are currently in National Division Three South and have been Sussex county champions every year from 2001-present.

;SwimmingWorthing Swimming Club was formed in 1890 in the YMCA Rooms in Warwick Street.

;TennisFormer Great Britain Davis Cup player Martin Lee is from Worthing and attended Worthing High School.

Twin towns

* Le Pays des Olonnes (in the Vendee, France)
* The Elztal region (in the Black Forest, Baden Württemberg, Germany)

External links

* [http://www.worthingherald.co.uk/ Worthing Herald]
* [http://www.worthing.gov.uk/ Worthing Borough Council]
* [http://www.worthingfirst.org.uk/ Worthing First - local business partnership]
* [http://www.northbrook.ac.uk/ Northbrook College Sussex]
* [http://www.worthing.co.uk/ Worthing Community Website]
* [http://www.worthingdeanery.org.uk/ Worthing Deanery (Church of England Churches in the Worthing area)]
* [http://www.worthing-scouts.org.uk Worthing District Scouts]
* [http://www.worthing-scouts.org.uk/gangshow/new/index.php Worthing Scout & Guide Gang Show]

References


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